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STANFOKDl'NIVEimTYLlBRARIkS 








,N ,? >0 . 



y v, 



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4*y 



CI 



u 



COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



Bureau of Statistics 



OF 



PENNSYLVANIA, 



FOR THE YEARS 1873-74. 



HARRISBURG: 

B. F. MKYKBS, STAT* PRINTER. 
1815. 



I . 



INDEX. 



A. 

Acadbmiks, seminaries and female colleges. 135 

Aggregate steam power of the world 416 

Agriculture and man u fact u res. , 49 

Almshouses 146 

American manufactures, as seen by an English diplomatist 54 

Analysis of coal and coke for blast furnaces 206 

Annual increase of newspapers 99 

Anthracite collieries ^ 210 

coal basins, area of 211 

Appendix 377 

Area of city of Philadelphia 373 

Assessments, triennial, 1874 3 

percentage of increase 1 

B. 

Bask, Dollar Savings, Pittsburg,- thirty-eighth semi-annual report 87 

Banks, National, in Pennsylvania 73 

condition of, comptroller's report 74, 387 

capital stock and circulation 75 

dividends, earnings, capital and surplus 81 

State, resources and liabilities 83 

Bankruptcies. 71 

Belvidere and Delaware railroad coal tonnage, 1873-57 234 

Bessemer steel rail mills 281 

Blacksmith's coal 215 

Blast furnaces, analysis of coal and coke i 206 

Allegheny county ■ 262 

Lehigh Valley and Schuylkill Valley anthracite 255 

Lower Susquehanna , 259 

Pennsylvania ' 254 

projected 257,250,260 

raw bituminous coal or coke 263 

Shenango Valley bituminous coal and coke 260 

State, charcoal 264 

Upper Susquehanna anthracite 257 

Bloomaries 285 

Blossburg, Towanda and Ralston coal trade, 1840-78 239 

Boot andshoe business, Philadelphia 188 



INDEX. 



Coal trade, Castle Shannon railroad 

Central railroad of New Jersey 

Cumberland 

lateral roads in Schuylkill county 

Lehigh Valley railroad, 1878 

canal 

and Susquehanna railroad, 1873 

Mahanoy railroad 

Lykens Valley 

Morris and Essex railroad 

Monongahela receipts. 

Northumberland county 

North Pennsylvania railroad 

Northern Central railroad 

Morris canal 

of line of Philadelphia and Reading railroad, 23 years 

Ohio river, 1873 

Pennsylvania railroad receipts 

1874 

canal, 1874 

Philadelphia and Reading railroad 

Schuylkill canal tonnage and distribution, 1873 

Wyoming and Lehigh, sent to market since 1860. 

United States, census 1870 

World 

Collenes 

Coke, coking of Broad Top coal, Fulton's report 

forwarded by Pennsylvania railroad, 1874 

receipts by slack water. 



308 
241 
405 
234 
232 
233 
233 
237 
235 
241 
305 
242 
238 
236 
235 
232 
305 
307 
397 
399 
231 
230 
228 
243 
244 

209 
401 
397 
305 

124 



Colleges 

Academies, seminaries and female 125 

Commerce, commodities free of duty 343 

subject to duty 343 

summary statement 327 

custom house duties received at Philadelphia 345 

domestic exports .- 322 

exports, breadstuff's 330 

benzine and petroleum 331 

recapitulation 329 

entrance and clearance of vessels. 346 

foreign, 1874 831 

imports 334 

summary 341 

recapitulation 344 

imports and exports, Erie 320 

Philadelphia 350 

United States 321,349 

nationality of vessels entered into port of Philadelphia, 1874 346 

Commonwealth, taxes paid by insurance companies 63 

Constitution, are our tax laws in conformity to the 150 

colonial and State 18 



INDEX. vii 

Exports of leather from Philadelphia 193 

and imports from Philadelphia 320 

and imports United States 849 

F. 

Failures in 1874 413 

Female colleges ami academies 125 

Financial 68 

difficulties. A remedy, by Geo. Rhey 391 

Foreign commerce of 1874 831 

imports 834 

summary 341 

countries, action of with reference to centennial 366 

goat skins in United States, imports, 1873. 192 

Philadelphia, im ports 1S73 192 

Forests of Pennsylvania 183 

Forms of insanity in 18,986 patients 149 

Fulton, John, mining engineer, on coking of Broad 'Pbp coal 401 

G. 

Gjso logical Survey, the new S3 

structure of third coal field 214 

G lass works. 394 

Goatskins, imports of foreign 192 

Governors, Colonial and State 13 

Dutch rule on the Delaware IS 

English rule on the Delaware 13 

Proprietary rule on the Delawar. . „ 13 

under the Constitution of 1790 f ....... . 17 

1838 17 

Grain receipts, Pittsburg .... .. 815 

•levator .. 819 

elevators of the International Navigation oompany at Gkwrd 

Point, Philadelphia 352 

Groat Britain, pig iron, 1854 to 1863 258 

Grave of William Penn 81 

H. 

Historical. 9 

History of inauguration of railroads in Pennsylvania 883 

Houses of refuge, penitentiaries, asylum, &c 136 

I. 

Imports in bond via Philadelphia 350 

and exports 890,384,841,344,849 

of foreign goatskins in United States and Philadelphia 192 

hides at New York 194 

Immigrants arrived at Philadelphia 847 

Indebtedness and taxes, oounty assessments 5 

Industrial education, by Chancellor Woods 11 

Institutions, reformatory, condition of 126 



vin INDEX. 

International exhibition 361 

navigation company, grain elevators S52 

statistical congress 198 

Insurance companies, condition of 63 

taxes paid and business done by ... , 68 

what Pennsylvania pays for 63 

Iron production 245 

American bar, railroad 291 

Allegheny Valley, Pittsburg and Connellaville and West Penn 313, 407 

l 'i tui ii i in ms coal and coke ISO 

charcoal 248 

Cleveland and Pittsburg 313 

cost of. 287,290 

American pig and bar 288 

Pittsburg market 292, 294 

pig, United States, 1872-3. 246 

production, Great Britain 253 

and bloom receipts Pennsylvania railroad 312 

Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago rail road . 313 

Carey's statistics. 252 

States 247 

Recapitulation 313 

Lake Superior district ,,..,, 410 

J. 

Juvenile Reformatories.. 129 

Reform school, Houses of Refuge 130 

L. 

Lackawanna coal region 214 

Lake Superior iron district, yield of mines 410 

Lands, list of, other than Proprietary Manors 24 

Laws, tax laws of the Constitution of 1873 150 

are our laws for assessment iu conformity to Constitution 150 

Leather and tanneries. 183 

Training school for tanners 183 

Boot and shoe business of Philadelphia 188 

where American sole leather is used in Europe 191 

imports of goatskins, bides, Ac 192 

h ides at New York 194 

Lehigh coal basins..... 1 213 

canal trade 233 

coal sent to market 228 

and Susquehanna rail road 233 

and MahanoT railroad 237 

Valley railroad 232 

Valley anthracite iron 254 

libraries 101 

Life statisti cs 368 

Lumber trade 158 

annual report 166, 176 



INDEX. ix 

Lumber, California trade 179 

Forests of Pennsylvania 183 

G. A. Lentz's report 178 

National association 161 

stocks on hand 176 

Susquehanna boom 170 

timber supply 162 

Willlamsport shipments '. 168 

Lykens Valley coal shipments 235 

M. 

Main Exhibition Building, Centennial 365 

Manors, the Penn 20 

laid out by Penn family '. 22 

proprietary, list of lands other than 24 

Manufactures and agriculture 49 

Manufacturing industry shown by census. : 56 

Marriages, births and deaths 368 

age of parties 369 

Memorial hall, Centennial 365 

Mercer county block coal 221, 397 

Mineral statistics 197 

products of Pennsylvania 201 

Miscellaneous statistics. 137 

Money value of ed u eat ion 102 

Monthly shipments of oil 357 

Morris canal '. 235 

and Essex railroad : 241 

Mortality 369 

in wards, Philadelphia 372 

Miscellaneous taxes 380 

N. 

National Banks, capital stock and circulation 75 

/ dividends, earnings, capital, surplus. 81 

liabilities and resources of 389 

lumber association 161 

Nationality of vessels 346 

Newspaper and periodical circulation 99 

North Pennsylvania railroad coal shipments. 288 

Northern Central railroad ooal shipments : 236 

Northumberland county ooal shipments. 242 

Number of oil wells drilling at various dates , 355 

0. 

OmcUL tabular Statements, coal shipments 226 

oil returns, 1874 302 

Ohio river ooal shipments, 1878 305 

Oil, crude 309 

Peter Wright A Sons, Philadelphia report 354 

Pittsburg report 308 



x INDEX. 

OUf refined, weekly price current 310 

return* 411 

Organization of counties 46 

Cmr financial difficulties, a remedy 391 

foreign commerce, 1874 331 

P. 

Pamexoeb railways, (city) 95 

Penitentiaries, homes of refuge, asylums, Ac 136 

Penn manors 20 

family, list of manors laid out by the 22 

William, the grave of . ; 31 

Pennsylvania, coal production In 896 

trade, 1873 225 

drainage area of. 181 

forests of 183 

glass works in 394 

mineral products of 201 

National banks, condition of 887 

railroad 88,307 

railroads in 383 

resources at Treasury 881 

sources of revenue, 1874 377 

State expenditures, 3 years 382 

taxation, 3 years 880 

taxation in 877 

steel works 282 

what she pays tor insurance 62 

Periodical and newspaper circulation 99 

Philadelphia and Reading railroad 90,232 

area of the eity of 873 

boot and shoe business 188 

commercial advantages of. 348 

custom house, duties received 845 

Delaware breakwater.: 367 

domestic exports 322 

exports 350 

breadstuff and petroleum 330 

benzine and naphtha 331 

hides and leather 192 

summary statement - 827 

grain elevators, International Navigation company 852 

International exhibition 361 

immigrants arrived at 847 

import* in bond by 350 

foreign goat Bkins 192 

recapitulation 344 

Peter Wright «& Sons, petroleum report 354 

port of 321 

clearance of vessels. 831 

vessels, nationality, entrance and clearance 346, 359 

vital statistics 368 



INDEX. xi 

Pig iron statistics 252 

Pipe line reports 301 

Pittsburgh, approximate estimate of industries. 317 

business of 303 

coal and coke 304 

scam 220 

Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad 313 

grain elevator 316 

receipts 315 

homes and houses 412 

oil trade 2» 

pig iron market 292 

produce receipts 316 

reporton petroleum 308 

weekly price current 310 

statistics of iron and coal trade 407 

steam boat tonnage 316 

Population of the world 36 

United States. 39 

State of Pennsylvania 41 

principal cities and towns 43 

distribution of. 44 

Prices of coal at certain periods 209 

pig iron and American bars in 290 

Progressive stages of coal production 202 

Proprietary rule on the Delaware 14 

Property, exempt from taxation 2 

true valuation of real and personal 3 

manors, list of land other than 24 

Provincial finances , . . . . 11 

Public grounds, the'capitols and 27 

works, cost of, and stocks of corporations 64 

R. 

Railroad, Belvidere and Delaware, coal tonnage 234 

Castle Shannon 308 

Central of New Jersey 241 

Lehigh and Mahanoy, 1873 237 

Valley, 1873 *232 

and Susquehanna, 1873 233 

Morris and Essex , . . . 241 

Northern Central 286 

North Pennsylvania coal tonnage 238 

Pennsylvania 88 

coal shipments 397 

receipts 307 

pig iron and bloom 312 

Philadelphia and Reading, coal shipments 231 

23 years, shipments 232 

Railroads In Pennsylvania, inauguration of. 383 

indebtedness of. , 








STANKIBDINIVRRSITYLIBRARIKS 



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REPORT. 




ASSESSMENT RETURNS FOR 1874 




.. PERCENTAfiE OK l.N'CRKAfE. 

Our first table, prepared from county commissioners' returnB, shows how 
largely the assessments of 1874 have increased over the same, for 1873. 
The aggregate increase for the State is 1598,796,438, or a fraction over fifty 
percent. One-third the counties have partaken of this spirit of incn-am-, 
but especially is this noticeable in Crawford, having increased hers tliree- 
Md ; Northampton, fourfold ; Warren, fivefold and Allegheny, sixfold, their 
firmer assessments. But these lour counties also demonstrate that bring- 
ing their valuation up to a cash etandard, need not add to their county 
taxes. 




Aanensed value. 


County tax. 


\ 


•44,313,087 
888,711,900 


Mis,4sa 21 

4"4.Kil3 flu 






8, ftfiT.-Ml 123,628 88 
23,102,218 116,61! Ofl 
13.tW3.960 | 114,408 M 

48, 23i». aw ' rr, ass 94 

2,158,080 21,065 5* 
10,421,662 23,206 07 




. isrs 


Warren, 1874 


In Allegheny, one and one-half mills was the rate of county tax in 1874, 
against ten mills in 1873, and so in like manner in all the twenty-two coun- 
ties in which this increase took place. In some of these an increase of 
comity tax took place, bvt so did it in other counties where no increase 
was made in thi> aescsiied valuation. Last year the aggregate valuation 
was, in my judgment, below one-third of the true value. This year the ag- 
gregate a little exceeds one-half the true value. 

RELATIVE VALUE OK REAL AND PERSONAL PROPERTY. 

I suppose that every one admits that in the 6cnse of past legislation and 
the requirements oi the new Constitution personal property should pay 
an equal percentage upon its value to real estate. It occupies much more 
1 Statistum. 



TRIENNIAL ASSESSMENTS, I8V4. 



of ili«> time ul' your civil and criminal courts in extending to H protect 

than ilnon the same value of real estate. Our offichil assessment will show 

thai not ten per cent, of our personal property can be found upon out 

assessors' books. The New Y ink State assessors, in their last report, say 
that not more Lhau fifteen per cent, of theirs is BO found. 1 annex the offi- 
cial assessments of «>ur two adjacent States and OQt mvn to demonstrate 
this: 



Personal. 



R«tio. 



Pennsylvania. 11,610, iS0,48S Not 10 per at. 

York 1,888,00,07] 437,102,218 



fttm 
Ohio 



1,-041,783,98] 635,510,707 



i> l>er ct. 

GO per ct. 



Now, 1 liave no doubt that if all the personal property of the .State 
was it |k hi the assessors' books, and fairly valued, it would reach tan times 
the amount or $1 ,500 ,000 ,000. New York allows hex citizens to deduct 
their indebtedness from their schedule of personal property, and gets, in 
the language of their assessors, not over fifteen percent. Ohio requires 
bee returns to be made under oath, and hence she is twenty-live per ccut. 
ahead of New York and forty fc*l cent, ahead of Pennsylvania, The only 
redeeming feature is that onjr State collects bet entire State tea from per- 
sonal property, Of this would be 00 enormous un evil that it would not be 
tolerated for a single year. If our personal estate was upon our assessors' 
books, even as fully as Ohio has hers, it would add to our taxable property 
$654,000 000, which at two per cent, would yield $13,000,000 annual 
revenue, just about double the amount of the State tax. 1 do not beUerrfl 
it is possible) with mankind as they are, to reach an exactly equitable sys- 
tem rjf taxationj but tf you could throw the whole real, personal and cor- 
porate wealth of our State into what the English law stylet "hotchpotch,' 3 
and have our entire Slate, county, city, borough and township taxation, 
as it exists to-day, paid from B common fund, real estate would I"- relieved 
(I live millions annually, which would be transferred to personal and cor- 

ate wealth, I go nut of my province somewhat to put upon record my 

convictions on this point, because 1 have had the opposite opinion thrust 
in niv face a thousand times. 

OF PROPERTY EXEMPT KHOll TAXATION, 

I (rat • 1 krj ai acl of the last Legislature to report the probable 

amount of property exempted from the payment of taxes. Every county 

.made return, bttt only fourteen out-of the sixty-six counties i that 

tbei aesomors' returns shows anything about exempted property; and 
most of those say (ha' only a few districts returned the value of such ex- 
empted .property. Tie returns of at most half a dozen of counties can be 



TRIENNIAL ASSESSMENTS, 1*74 



8 



i-ii. - approximations to accuracy in this respect. Dauphin county 

.- the hi aviee! pere< stage, sixteen pei cent., i I exempted real i state 
Take off, however one million f«>i tli •■ State Capital ami public grounds, 
■ M.i the State bospital, and that will leave l.erc.vmptione al I lea pet 

. on her a ments. 

'L'h.- if ::•■.!! iy ill-' -mi,.' in Philadelphia, un.i I presume if accurate re- 

- were i > : a l l from the whole State Ihey would show thai about t ^-n per 
cent, ><■■- r,.i-i !:• been exempt Atom all taxation, What li to be the 
policy in tli*- future, under the i -nt- of the as* C institution, is for 

the Legislature to decide, FuTther returns i could »>« ■ t pp.cme, because. 

viixte of the exempted property 1ms not heretofore been reported to the 
county commissioners. 

TRIE 7ALCAT10N OK HEAL AMI rKK.su.N.AL fKOPKKTY. 

1 have added a second tabic wherein is contained my estimate of the 
true Value of real and persona) property of the State. Ron they are to 
-li value, the legal standard in assessing property, is a knotty 
question for assessors and county commissioners, In ordinarily prosper- 
ous tunc... I suppose, i ■ - :» 1 estate ran he sold ut twenty per cent, higher 
prices, payable in installments, say one-fifth each year; than it can for all 
cash, payable at the time of sale. If 1 am right then twenty per cent, be- 
tlme Bales would be the true valuation fur asssssoM and county com- 
missioners, in the past history of our state we save probably all known of 
actual sales of peal estate at five and ten times the assessed raluatSon. No- 
intelltgenl man at all familiar with the different counties, tan doubt that 
even our present assessments in many counties are largely below the sett- 
ing prices. Three of these counties, to wit: Allegheny, Northampton and 
Warren have, by this Last triennial BBsesauient, been brought up to then 
true value Some twelve others in my table are only a small faction below 
their true value, The multiple 1 have mad la bring the others up to this 
\ nine includes every figure I rem 2 to 'J. and in one county only, Wayne, 8 is 
my multiplier. This is a matter upon which men differ so much, that till I 
ask you to believe is that I endeavored to be impartial. 

table l have i«" columns, one testing the present assesa- 

i my own estimate by the population of each county. I 

u'liuit this - only an approximate mode, 1 have not attempted to equalize, 

nise 1 know that the cities and old settled counties contain more wealth 

'ijji'a than the younger counties, But Wayne county giving gnjy $54 

fa, 1 Biinot be up to iter true value compared with others that give 
$l,<H"i. The elements in the tabic are common sense emraeote, and every 

make up his own .judgment for himself. The law ol the State and 
the oath of office clearly demands property to be assessed at its true cash. 



4 TR1LNN1AL ASSESSMENTS, 1874. 

valu**. Fully uuc-half the State in value baa come up to 01 within a frac- 
of this cash value, and the balance can DO longer Fin % t- any • ■xcuso f<u 

the "M piiii.-tice, which disrogarde the Ian and violates the 
oath of office. 

In regard to personal property) there is not a county in the State that 
comes anywhere Dear conforming to the lav. Our taw ^ in regard to the 
subjet te ■ f taxation are not essentially different from the tawa "i Ohio, 
Tli- new Constitution emphasises the obligation of former laws in this ra- 
sport. It oar laws were executed as the Ohio laws are, instead of $ 150,- 
000,(100, we would have over $800,000,000 of personal property upon the 
aaseasore' Uioks, aud this too of the active capital which pays ita ownera 
BUCj eightj I'll and twelve per cent, annually upon Ita QBe. Our Legisla- 
ture, satisfied firons past experience of the impossibility of reaching corpo* 
nil- wealth through the ordinary assessors' hooks, have taxed this apt i 
of property in another form and hold the corporation officers responsible 
for paying its taxes into the State treasury. In this respect we are ahead 
•f moat of the Other States. But the requirements of the new Constitu- 
tion hare come into play, and a prolonged contest is likely to ensue about 
the right to tax in thiB mode. Then we have live hundred millions of actual 
capital, such as money at interest, the capital employed by our merchants] 
manufacturers, mining operators and business men that now neail\ escapes 
taxation. There will be a desperate effort to throw nearly alt taxation upon 
real estate; corporate wealth and active capital will unite to invoke the 
provisions of the DOW Constitution to set aside existing laws and the re- 
sult if successful mu6t be to throw the entire burden upon the real estate 
of the Commonwealth. 

1 estimate the taxation of Pennsylvania D9 1874, as follows : 
County tax, as per returns $16' ,804 ,880 98 

School tax, Philadelphia omitted 7,600,00000 

ftoadtas do 6,500,0()ii 00 

Poor tax do 3,000,000 00 

City and borough, extra . .do 3 ,000 .000 00 

(Philadelphia return includes all kind eftaxctf 

{State tax 6 ,600 ,000 no 

£8,804 ,880 98 
Share of this paid by personal property, $8,804,880 98 

State tax 6 ,500 .000 00 

9,804,880 08 

Real estate pays 88,600,000 00 

THOMA8 J. B1G11AM, 
October u, 1874. Commuirioner of Statistic*, Pa. 




TRIES M.U. ASSBSSMBNTS, 1874. 






8888883888888888833383388833888888 



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produce ihe 

. olui .. 

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ue ti i each 
penan 



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ii5 ^7. ^1 /_.-,——. — --- r- r: — r .- t ; 1 : 1 ; eg / ■ 5 — - 1 - c 1 f. ■- ; 



HISTORICAL. 



HISTORICAL 



GreW Britain always claimed what is now r'eini-ylvanij h.-ni her die- 
bo \ i riee along 1 the Atlantic coast; bal then aan be do doubt that the first 
actual exploration of the Delaware Bay was under the a of the 

Dutch Ea-u Lndia company bearing the flag of the 1'n.ited Netherlands. 
The visit of Lord Delaware, (from whom it Wbb named,) Governor ..('the 
■ ■("Virginia, was not until the following year, 1610. Vessels under 
tfia anspicee «>l ill.- Mutch i« casiouaFly visited the Delaware, ami one 
them, tin Restless, ascending to the present site of Philadelphia, until La 
1624 a suit of temporary military government was organized. These ex- 
plorations and this military occupancy were by the Dutch, subordinate to 
the government at New Amsterdam, now New Toxk, tie' principal seat of 
llie Dutch Empire on this Continent. The English ambassador atthe Hague 
eutered repeated protests against these settlements as encroachments upon 
th-- rights of tlie English crown. The Dutch East India company, bow- 
. in the face of these repeated protests, treat on to erect forts and 
trading posts on both sides of the bay, but never conducted them upon 
tl.< principles -it' legitimate colonization. Like all money-making corpora- 
tions, their primary object was to aolleoi revenue from the trade of the 
K' Indians, and any cultivation ot the soil was a secondary cousidera- 

Tin- great Swedish monarch, GtratAvas Adolphns, on th- eve uf the battle 
Of Leutaei , in which he was killed, bad leftnn unsigned proclamation cub- 
InnplatfBf colonisation oftfeeSwsdea upon the Delaware in the legitimate 
sense. This was not actually put in operation until twelve years after his 
death, to wit : Hi:>H ; and then without the vigor that he designed to have 
infused into his grand scheme of colonization. The Swedes, however, set- 
tied upon the w-st hank of the Delaware over forty years before the Royal 
Chart* i to William Petiu, and earnestly set to work to cultivate th'- soil, 
and in all their latereonrse with the Indiana acted upon essentially the 

same pacific principles which became world-rem-wie-d under the (bander of 
Pennsylvania. This peaceful policy 0i the Swede* did not protect tbe» 
from the more warlike Dutch in 1655, and theBe latter had to surrender to 

the more powerful representatives of the English crown in it-;64. 

Seventeen vvars lat-r (Jliarfes 11, in liquidation of a debt of £16,000 dae 
the estate of Admiral Peru;, convoyed to his 000 William the Province *»f 
Peiie The name was given to it by the king, ia honor of the ad- 

miral and against the i onst oi of the grantee, then only known US Qanker 



10 



I'OKICAL, 



pp-acher. William Penn made two visits fey this country of about two 
years each, and was then the actual Governor <>( tlie provinc. He un- 
doubtedly intended to have permanently settled here, and in bin will en- 
joined hie heirs to do so. The remaining portion of the thirty-eeven years 
that intervened between the granting of hia patent ami his death was spent 
in England. The province was generally ruled by Deputy QovemotBi ap- 
pointed by him and subject to removal at hie will. 

William Penn found the proprietorship of Pennsylvania nothy an \ means 
a lied of roBea. On the death of Charles and the accession of that great 
friend of his father and of his own, the Duke of, York, to the cmwn, his 
intimacy with that subsequently deposed monarch had nearly cost him the 
forfeiture of his province. Quaker preacher as he was, the zealous Ptol 
autism ol that age saw in hie devoted attachment to the deposed RoBUW 
Catholic monarch, disloyalty to William and Mary and the Protestant suc- 
cession. His province was seized upon by the drown, and for nearly two 
years he had to vindicate hia loyalty before it was restored to him. 

The expenses forced upon him by these contests at home and the admin 
istration here caused him to declare in one of his letters that Pennsylvania 
had cost him .£30,000 beyond what he ever received in return. In fact, in 
a despondent mood, on the eve of an apoplectic attack, from which he 
never recovered, he contracted for £12,000 to convey to the crown the pi - 
vince, for which thirty-one years before he had paid £ 16,000. Themagna- 
aimity of the sovereign refused to enforce the contract against the widow 
and heirs of William Penn. Judged simply from a financial stand-point, 
the Pennsylvania Legislature and British Parliament did better for the IVim 
heirs than the retention of their proprietary rights would have secured them. 
Pennsylvania granted them £130,000 or about $650,000, and allowed them 
to retain their manors, forty-four in number, in consideration of the relin- 
quishment of their proprietary rights. And the British Parliament granted 
them an annuity of £4,000 or some $20,000, which is even to this time 
regularly paid them. 1 doubt if an account current of our land department 
would show a much better exhibit for the Penn heirs. 

One other iiict connected with the Penn family deserves a passing notice, 
ha wit : That Pennsylvania, during a period of some eight years had a de. 
jure female Governor. William Penn, by his will, vested all his proprietary 
rights in hia wife Hannah, who became hie sole executrix. Had she n- 
rnoved to Philadelphia she would have been de faclu Governor of the pro- 
vince. Remaining abroad she exercised her proprietary rights through her 
deputy. QoWrnot Keith. Several of her letters on public affairs show her 
to have been a woman of the type of Queen Elizabeth. If she did not box 
his ears she at least used the sharpest of language tu Communicate her 
commands. 




HISTORICAL 



Tin; Brat ami most serious controversy in regard to the boundaries of the 
province was with Lord Baltimore. Thin iaaluded un entire dogree of lati- 
tude — should the southern line commence at the commencement or end of 
Qko fortieth degrei el north latitude? Ilml Lord Baltimore's claim '• 

earful, tii.n the city of Philadelphia and a corresponding strip would 
have beet cat off the southern counties of the Stale Had William Pemt'e 
claims been allowed, the city of Battfmem and shoal hull' of Maryland 
would have been in Pennsylvania. The result of this was the conpsonuM 
Ifasoo and Dixon's, lor many yearn the boundary 
between the Er< •• ati l - 
At a latef period the authorities oi Virginia claimed a large portion of 
b in Pennsylvania, including the site of the present i n.\ oi PitUbnrg. 
Tins claim was not ended until after the revolution, ami resulted in the ax- 
on of Ms Dixon's line as out Southern boundary. About the 
■ame tium Connecticut claimed the extension ofhei ohaMered limila that 
Id have enf off R1U3 one-thud the territory of the .State. If loo J was 
I in the valley of Wyoming in asserting and defending these conflict- 
ing claims <■•■ Stale jurisdiction. This, too, shortly alter the elose of the 
ilutionj was settled in favoi of ania. No accurate census was 
taken ol the province of r\nnaylvauia. The number of imhubiiuni 
the date of the charter to Penn was about twenty-five hundred, mostly 
Swedes. At the time of William Peuu'e death, thirty-Beven years th 

after, then were probablj one hundred thousand in the province, and at 

the Declaration oflndep* odenee about three hundred and twenty-five thou- 
sand, and at the date of the first census, ilQO, foui hun, I twenty- 
four thousand. 

pBOvneux ntuxam. 

Tlu- earlj bietur] "I the oolouy shows a government conducted on the 
simplest ami meat economical principles, Othei oolonii by royal 

Qovernore paid large aalariea from the royal exchequci inducted 

with considerable pomp. William Pauu'fl Quaker proclivities iguored alt 
worldly pomp, and then he had no means to encourage extravagance. lie 
was forced to be a frequent attendant at court at home, to protect from 
persecution his co-rellgioniste and also the interests of his colony. This 
mure than exhausted the income of his English estates, and, if his own 
letters an' truthful, the receipta from the sale of lands in the colony were 
largely more than absorbed by the annual expenditures. Like many Other 
very good men, I believe him to have been an indifferent financier. His 
letters show him to have been . -i instantly in need of money, and that his 
estates were heavily mortgaged. Thus situated he was forced to selecl 
cheap (Jovei 11 ; ml ill ther officers to administer his provincial all, 



i'J 



HISTORICAL. 



His Governors are Baid to have received less than a thousand dollars a year 
iViuii him, and had to rely upon the liberality — or frequently illiberal ity — 
of the provincial assembly. If the Governors were kept on starving sala- 
ries, of course all below them could not be expected to fare any better. 

Things were in this condition during the thirty-seven years thai William 
Pern administered the colony. His mortgaged estates descended to his 
liiuiity thus ln'uvily ''iniiinliered. The income derived from the quit cents 
ind sales nf land had t" \'<- - nt to England to extinguish this indebted- 
ness. The result oJ tins condition forced upon all officials rigid economy. 
In private life Quaker simplicity and Quaker thrill accorded with these 
public examples. The rapid growth and wonderful prosperity of the colony 
were- largely owing to the good • wimples set in public aud private by its 
early founders. And, if their descendants of the present day should more 
C I "sely imitate these virtues- of their ancestors, public morality would be 
largely promoted and private happiness not be materially lessened. 

The royal charter to William I'eun, which nought to revive is the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries the rights and traditions of the feudal law 
in the time of the Norman conquest, was a sad mistake ; and scarcely a day 
passed in the legislative assembly, when its ill effects did nut .■!•.. |. ..ut in 
- I.,.- form or Other. About the middle of the last century. commenced that 
series of diBtorhancea, known m the French and Indian wars, which con- 
tinued for u period i-d nearly fifteen years to embroil the peaceful inhabi- 
tants of Pennsylvania. 

The debt incurred in defending the province during that long period, in- 
proportion to the*wealth of the inhabitants, was quite equal to the national 
debt incurred in suppressing the rebellion to the wealth of the present day. 
To enable the colony to meet these enormous expenditures, Franklin de- 
vised the expedient of a paper currency. Several sessions of the Assembly 
passed before even this could secure executive approval. But still a tax 
must be raised to pay the interest and sink the debt. The entire taxable 
value of the property of the citizens was some six millions of dollars. The 
Penn family held in their manors, their farms, their houses and lots re- 
served from sale, the value ol rally another million. The great body of 
uiiMii \ eyed wild land it was never proposed to tax. But the serfs and re- 
tainers of a feudal Lord had never dared to talk of taxing his estates. A 
fearful struggle often years arose between the provincial Assembly on the 
one Bide and the Pemn family on the other. Two full volumes of Frank- 
lin's works are filled with his writings on behalf of the people. All his 
tact, bil skill and his diplomacy were tasked to their utmost. The contest 
i nd. >1, as all Bach contests must end in this age, when two hundred th>.ti- 

IM side, and ong family on the other 



HISTORICAL. 13 

The balance of the French and Indian war debt, and the expenditures of 
the State daring the revolution of course tasked the utmost capacity of its 
financiers of that day. The thrift of Franklin and the skill of Morris car- 
ried the infant Commonwealth through the fiery ordeal. The Common- 
wealth, when fully organized under the Constitution of 1790, still adhered 
to the frugal habits of its early founders. The following were the annual 
expenditures of the State, as appears by official reports: 1802, $341,446 12; 
1809, $547,950 49; 1820, $440,801 55; 1829, $799,099 10; 1839, $1,621,- 
119 84; 1850, $4,566,300, and since that time something over $5,800,000 
per annum, of which nearly $2,000,000 has been interest to pay the public 
debt. This public debt has been reduced for some years more rapidly than 
in my judgment wise statesmanship requires it to be. It is largely held by 
persons and estates that do not desire its principal to be paid. The assets 
in the sinking fund amounting to $9,500,000 will not be due until 1891. If 
the present debt was paid off at the rate of one million a year until these 
sinking fund assets become due, the whole could then be extinguished. A 
reduction of taxation so as to meet necessary expenditures and one million 
of reduction is what wise statesmanship requires. 



GOVERNORS— COLONIAL AND STATE. 

List of Governors of colonies on the Delaware and of the Province and 
-State of Pennsylvania, for 264 years. 

DUTCH BCUE ON THE DELAWARE. 

The Dutch claim to have had possession of both banks of Delaware Bay 
and river, from Hudson's first visit in 1609, to their surrender to the 
English in 1664, and again from August, 1673, to November, 1674, when 
'they regained possession. Their chief magistrates were : 

'Cornelius Jacobson Mey from 1624 to 1625 

William Van Hulst do 1625 to 1626 

Peter Minuet do 1626 to 1632 

David Pieteraen De Vries do 1632 to 1633 

Vouter Van Twiller do 1633 to 1638 

Sir William Kieft do 1638 to 1647 

Peter Stuyvesant do 1647 to 1664 

During this last administration there were six deputies under Stuyvesant 
— part of the time sub-divided into city and company directors. The Dutch 
surrendered to the English September, 1664. 



14 



HISTORICAL. 



to 


1041 


to 


1843 


to 


1653 


to 


1854 


to 


1655 



SWEDES OS VEST bank "i |HI DEIAW 

Petei tfinuei . .... .Goveraoi from lH'iS 

Peter Hollander do '1- 1641 

John Prints. >1" '1" 16 '•> 

John Pappegoya do da 1653 

John Claude Bysingb do. . . do ...... 1(564 

Swedes surreridor.d to Dutch, September, 1655. 

ISA lU'l.E OX THE rvEI.AYVARE. 

Col. Richard Nichols, Governor at New York, and Robert Needham, 
Deputy on the Delaware, from 1664 to 1661 

Ci'l. Francis Lovelace, Governor at New York, and dipt. John Carr, 
Deputy on the Delaware, from 1(567 to 1673. 

Re-captured by the Dutch, August, 1673, and held to November, 1674, 
when the English again regained possession. 

Anthony Clove, Governor, and Peter Alricks, Deputy, to November, 
1S74, under the Dutch. 

Sir Ivlmiiiid AndroBB, Governor at New York, and his Deputies, 

Edmund Cantwell, Commander on the Delaware from 1674 to 1676, 

J >lin Dottier, Commander on the Delaware from 1676 to 1677. 

Christopher Billnp, Commander en the Delaware from 1677 to 1681. 

liiol'RIETARV I07LE ON THE DELAWARE. 

William Markham, I'eputy from June, I US I, to October 24, 1682. 

William Penu, Governor from October 84, 1882, to August 12, 1684. 

Thomas Loyd, Preai lent of Oouncil, from June, 1684, to December, 1686. 

Five Commissioners appointed by 1'eun, from 1686 to 16S8. 

Jnhii Blackwett, Depnt\ '."v-moi- from 1688 to 1688. 

Thomas Loyd, President of Oouncil, from 1680 to 1691. 

Thomaa Loyd, Deputy Governor, from hi'Ji to l «_->;► : j . 

William Pena'a "suspected intimacy with the deposed King James" 

oaused William and Mary to forfeit bifi patent, and ordered Benjamin 

Fletcher, Governor of Sew York, to assume for the Crown the Province of 

Pennsylvania. In August, 16'J4, however; being satisfied ol' the injustice 

him, William Penn was reinstated in all his rights. 

William Slarkham, Deputy Governor from 16*85 to 1099. • 

William Penn, Governor from November, 1688, to November, 1761. 

Andrew Hamilton, Deputy, from November, 1701, to April, 1703. 

Edward Shippen, President of Council, from April, 1703, to February, 
1704. 

John Evans, Deputy, from February, 1704, to February, 1709. 

Charles Gookln, Deputy, from February, 1709, to May, 1717. 



HISTORICAL. 



15- 



William Kieth, Deputy, from May, 171", (a July, 11 
William Penn died July 30, 1718. ami his wife Ilnniia as sole executive 
for ill-' heirs, became vested with nil pi j rights, and ruled by her 

I years. 

.. RJCHABD AM) THOMAS PEKN, PROPRIETORS FROM 1727 TO 1746. 

Patrick Gorden, Deputy Governor, from July. 1126, to August, 1736. 
James Logan, Preaidqnt of the Council, from August, 1736, to August 

George Thomas, Deputy Governor, from August. 1738, to May, 1747. 

RICHARD AND THOMAS PES'".', PROPRIETORS FROM 1746 TO 1771. 

Anthony Palmer, President of Council, from 1746, to November, 174s. 
James Hamilton, Deputy Governor, from November, 1748. to October, 
1764. 

Robert llunter Morris, Deputy Governor, from October, 1754, to August, 

it,-,.; 

William Denny, Deputy Governor, from August, 1756, to October, 1759. 
James Hamilton, again Deputy Governor, from October, 1759, to No- 
vember, 1768, 

John Penn, Deputy Governor, from November, 1763 to 1771. 
James Hamilton, President of Council, 1771. 

THOMAS ANI> JOHN" PENN, PROPRIETORS PROM 1771 TO 1776. 

Richard Penn, Lieutenant Governor, from October, 1771, to August, 
1773. 

John Penn, Depoty Governor, from August, 1773, to July, 1776. 

mmittee of public safety, Benjamin Franklin, Chairman, voluntarily 
chosen in 177. r >, were de fuvlu the government until the Constitution of 
1776 vvhh adopted,, and an organizatinn completed under it. John Conn con- 
tinued to live here during the Revolution and until his death in 1795 ; his 
remains were interred in Christ churoh-yard, In Philadelphia, but wore re- 
noved by his til 111 i I \ aiterward to England. 

On November 27, 1779, the Legislature vested the Penn proprietary is* 
este in the Commonwealth, paying the family however, £130,000 or 
nt $650,000, and allowing them to retain their manors, forty-four in 
number, worth probably as much more, also their private estates. 

The English Parliament in 1190, granted to the Penn family an annuity 
of £4,000 or $2n,0iiU, in consideration of the services of William Penn and 
losses by his family, ami this annuity is regularly paid up to this time, 1878, 
The Chancellor last year, on being interrogated, saying that t ho government 
had no intention of suspending this payment. 



10 



HISTORICAL. 



i T'SSTm tion vr 1776. 

By thin Constitution the Presidents of the Executive Council were 

■mors — 
Thomas Wharton, President, March &, 1777, to bit death, May 28, LMt. 
QeOIfe Bryan, Acting I'n sident, May 23, 1778, to December 1, 1778. 
Joseph Reed, President, December I, lT7Sj ba October 8, 1781. 
WflliMO Moore, President, November 14, 1781, to October 8, 1*82. 
John Dickinson, President, November 7, 1782, to October 18, L785. 
Benjamin Franklin, President, October 18, 1785, to October 14, 1788. 
ThomaB Mifflin, President, November 5, L788, to December 20. 1790. 

GOVERNORS LNIIKR THE COXSTITI T! i ► S" 01 1790. 

Thomw Mifflin, three terms, from December 20, 1790, to December 17, 

1799. 

1700. First election, Thomas Mifflin, 27,725; Arthur St. Clair, 2,802. 
1793. Second election, Thomas Mifflin, 18,590; F. A. Muhlenberg, 10,706. 
1796. Third election, Thomas Mifflin, 30,029 ; F. A Muhlenberg, 10,011. 
Thomas M'K.can, three terms, December 17, 1799, to December 20, 1808. 
1799. Fir*t election, Thomas M'Kean, Democrat, 38,036 ; James Ross, 

Federal, 82,641, 

1802, Second election, Thomas M'Koan, Democrat, 47,879; Junes Roes, 
Federal, 17,037. 

1805, Third election, Thomas M'Kean, Independent Democrat, 43,644; 
Simon Snyder. Democrat, 38,878. 

Simon Snyder, three terms, December 20, 1808, to December 11, 1817. 
1808. Simon Snyder, Democrat, 67,975 ; James Ross, Federal, 39,575 ; 
John Spayd. 4,006. 

1811. Simon Snyder, Democrat, 52,319; Win. Tilghmau, Federal, 5,448, 
1814. Simon Snyder. Democrat, 51,099; Isaac Wayne, Federal. 29,566; 
•O. Littimore, 910. 

Wm. Findlay, one term, December 17, 1817, to December 19, 1820. 
1817. Wm. Findley, Democrat, 66,331 ; Joseph Hiester, 59,272. 

Joseph Keister, one term, December 19, 1820, to December 16, 1823. 
1820. Joseph HeSeter, Federal, 67.905; Wm. Findley, Democrat, 66,300. 

John Andrew Shulze, two terms, December 16, 1823, to December 16, 
182V. 

1828. John Andrew Stuilze, Democrat, 89, 928; Andrew lirogg, Federal, 
84,211. 

1826, John Andrew Shojee, Democrat, T'J.TIO; John Sergeant. Federal, 
2,849. 

George Wolf, two terms, December 16, 1829, to December 15, 1*35. 



HISTORICAL 



II 



18- £•'. Wolf, [>»• in. 1 1- i-a t . 18,219 j Josepti Ritn-.-r, Anti-Mason, 

61,166. 
183:: Geo. Wolf, Democrat, 91,386 ; Joseph K im.-r. Aa&Maaoo, 88,165. 

Joseph RitinT, one term, December 15! 1836, ti January 15, 1839. 
1835. Joseph Rituei, Anti-Mason, 84,023; George Wall', Democrat, 
14 : Eenry A. Muhlenberg, 4u,5S6. 

sov, 

David BMttenkouee Porter, twu terms, January 15. (836} ho January SI, 
1845. 

David Bittenhouse Porter, Democrat, 127. -^l ; Joaepb Ritner, An- 
leon, 122,325. 

i I 1 Livid Rittenhouae Porter, Democrat, 130,504 ; John Banks, Whig, 
1 1 3 , 4 7 :> : and P. J. Leinoyne, Abolitionist, 763. 

Francis Rabn Shunk, twice elected, January 21, 1845. to July 9, 1848. 
Governor Shunk resigned July 9, 1848, and died shortly thereaft< i ■. 

1844. V. II. Shunk, Democrat, 160,322; Joseph Markle, Whig, 15u,"t", 
and F J. bemoyne, Abolitionist, 2,566. 

F. R. Shank, Democrat, 146,081 ; James Irwin, Whig. 128.148 ; E. 
0. Beigart, Native American, 11,24". and F. J. bemoyne, Abolition 
1,861, 

William Frrarae Johnston, July 9, 1848, to January 20, 1863. 

1818. William F. Johnston. Whig-, 168,522] Morris Longstretli, Demo- 
unt, 168,225. 

William Bigler, one term, January 20, 1852, to January IS, 1855. 

1851. William Bigler, Democrat, 186,189; W. F. Johnston, Whig, 178,- 
034, and Kimber Cleaver, Native American, 1,859. 

Jamas Pollock, one term, January 16, 1355 to January 19, 1858. 

1854. James Pollock, Whig, 266,822 j William Bigler, Democrat, 166,191, 
and B. Rush Bradford, Native Americau, 2,L94. 

William Fislin Pucker, January 19. 1858. to January 15, 1861. 

1857. William F. Packer, Democrat, 188,846; David Wilinot, Free Soil, 
146,14'.*; Isaac [lazelhoflrt, .Votive American, 88,168. 

Andrew Gregg Curtin, two terms, January 15, l - **; 1 to January 16, 1867. 

1861. A. U Curtin, Republican, 262,346 ; Henry D. Foster, Democrat, 
230,289, 

1863. A. G. Curtin, Republican, 269,506; G. W. Woodward, Democrat, 
254,171. 

John White Geary, two terms, January 15, 1867, to January 21, 1873. 

1866. J. W. Geary, Republican, 30T,2?4 ; Heister Clvmer, Democrat, 
290,086. 

2 Statist 



18 



HISTORICAL. 



L8flfi. J. W. Geary. Bepablii-iin. 290,552; Asa Pucker. Democrat, SS&jMft 

John P. Hartranft, January 21, 1873, to January, 1876. 
1873. J. F, Hartranft, Republican, 353.3*7 j Charles R. Buckalew, Dem- 
ocrat, 317,760. 



CONSTITUTIONS-COLONIAL AND STATE. 

Charles II, of England, in March 1681, by bis charter t" William Penn, 
vested in him, in accordance with I lie doctrine* of the feudal law, all the 
rights, powers and so forth which we new recogBfee as inherent in the citi- 
zen. In exact accordance with this theory was William Perm's first grant 
called "concessions to purchasers of lands-" in twenty soetii.ns, dated July 
11, 1681. This was followed, April 11, lo8U, by his frame "I government 
in tweuty-fonr sections, in the preamble to which he expressly disavows all 
authority overhiB colonists, except such as cuuld be proved by the Christian 
Scriptures. His laws in forty sections followed while still in England, and 
upon his arrival upon the Delaware, at the first Assembly at Old Chester, 
all these were ratified, and in addition thereto his great law in sixty-nine 
sections was enacted. These constituted not in form, but in substatioe the 
Colonial Constitution under which the province grew and nourished until 
the date of the American revolution. We presume that the members of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1S72-3 had carefully studied this Pe tin's Con- 
stitution, as both documents contain about in equal proportions constitu- 
tional principles and legislative enactments, This Constitution was modi- 
fied in some of its details by William Penn in 1683-1696, and most of all 
on his second visit to the province in 1701, and by still mors important un- 
written amendments, alter the manner of the English Constitution, wrested 
from the Penn family by the persistent demands of the Colonial legislative 
assemblies. The most important o/ these unwritten concessions was the 
right to pass laws organizing the judicial branch of government; to issue 
paper money, and above all the right to tax the proprietary estates to de- 
fray the public expense. This aggregate of constitutional law, written and 
unwritten, was the inheritance of our ancestors for nearly ■ century ; about 
equal in time to the four Constitutions of the Commonwealth. 

The firet Convention to form a Constitution in our modern sense of that 
term met in Philadelphia July 15, 1776. Of that Convention Benjamin 
Franklin, then in the seventy-first year of his age, but in the fullest enjoy- 
ment of his intellectual faculties, was the president, and tradition has al- 
ways assigned to him the cliiefagcncy in its preparation. The classification 
since adopted itf the national Constitution of 17b7 into articles, these sub- 
divided into sections, now almost universally followed, had not then been 



HISTORICAL. 



19 



Bed. This Franklin '.''institution wan about on<_ -third shorter than that 

of 1790, one-hall Bhorter than dial of 1837, s , and about one-fifth the length 

"i 1872-8. I very much doubt if the political wisdom of these latter days 

has kept Bqaal pace with the number of sections of these later charters of 

our liberties. The peculiarities of this I-'rankl in Constitution were: Instead 

Governor, all executive powera were tested in a council of twelve; no 

ate; all legislative powers were in ■ single Assembly, and a council of 

ion, elected every aeven years, to aee that all Other departments cor* 

fined themselves to then proper spheres. 

The second Constitutional Convention assembled November 24, 1789, 
continued in session until the 261m of Pebraary, 17t>0. and then adjourned 
until August B, and finally proclaimed its Constitution adopted September 
'_'. 179(1. This Constitution was modeled in its arrangement and grant of 
powers after the national one, then recently adopted, and undoubtedly gave 
more satis faction than any other our State has ever had. It was our funda- 
mental law for forty-eight years, and an attempt made in l«25tocall anew 
Convention was largely defeated. 

The Convention of 1*37-3* only attempted to amend the Constitution of 

1790. It took from the Governor the appointment of county officers, and 
made all these elective by the people, inserted the word white to limit the 
elective franchise, and made the judicial department to hold office for ten 
ami fifteen years, instead of for life, as under the Constitution of 1790. 
these moderate ohanges vary secured thedi adoption by tha people by a 
:itv of b few votes over twelve hundred. This Constitution also pro- 
vided a mode of amendment by the action of two raceeeding Legislatures 

and adoption by b »dke of the | pie. This, it was then supposed, woidd 

render all future aonventkms unnecessary', By this agency the judiciary 
was made elective by the people in I860; the State, county, and munici- 
pal authorities were Forbidden to subscribe to the construction of internal 

improvements in I s "i7 ; and the soldiers in the tield, ill time of war, were 
guaranteed the right ol sull'rage in I8fl4. The people, not satisfied with 
this slow, piece-meal mode of amendment, provided for a new convention 
to amend the old, or to create a new Constitution for the State. Hence 
to existence the Convention of 1872-73, which sat for nearly a year, 
and has produced a new Constitution more than equal ill length to all the 
Colonial and State Constitutions which preceded it. The people of the 
Stat have just adopted this new Constitution by a vote unprecedented in 
her history, and 1 hope its administration may demonstrate it to be an in» 
Btrument as much superior in its political guarantees as in length it sur- 
es its predecessors. The historian should rarely attempt to write of 
passing; events ; hence I shall not risk my reputation as prophet by attempt- 
ing tu tell you of its wjse and multifarious provisions. 



20 



HISTORICAL. 



THE PENS M \M)R3. 

The iioyal Charter vested in William Penn ami his beta the absolute 
.ownership of the soil of Pennsylvania. From 1681, the date of the char- 
ter, to July I, 177(5, the date of the Declaration of Independence, nil title* 
had to bo derived from the Penn family j md within tlir p'si-r\i-'i| hmh-is 
sjnes nil titles have still to be traced to them. 

The Surveyor General, tinder the Perms, had selected and surveyed off 
some foity*foar manors for the more exclusive use of the proprietors, A 
list ■■'' these, as accurate as the Land Office can furnish, with their con- 
tent.-., compose the first table. Large- portions of these manors bed been 

disposed Of before the Revolution, especially in Eastern Pennsylvania. 
How much remained unsold in 1776 1 have no means of learning, 

William Penn, by his will, had left to each of hie children ten thousand 
seres of land in Pennsylvania, and at various times some of the family had 
assigned to them portions of land. These are the " private estates'' re- 
ferred to in the act of 1779, and are, as far as the Land Office is informed, 
rovered by the second table. 

The Legislature passed an act on the twenty-seventh of November, 1779, 
in consideration of one hundred and thirty thousand pounds sterling, (or 
«ix hundred and fifty thousand dollars,) vesting in the Commonwealth all 
the proprietary rights, under tin Boyfcl Charter; reserving, however, to 
the Penn heirs, their manors surveyed rind returned prior to July 4, 1776, 
and their private estates — meaning. 1 presume, all property which had be#l 
severed from the general proprietary estate, and vested in any one or more 
taembenti of lh<~ Penn family. The eighth and thirteenth sections sue 

follow,- ; 

" VI 11. Provided aho, and be ii mooted, That all and every the private 

estates, lands and hereditaments, of any of the said proprietaries, whereof 

they ;in now possessed, or Eo which they are now entitled, in their private 

Keventl right or capacity, by devise, purchase Ot descent ; and likewise all 

lie lands called Slid known by the name of the proprietary tenth! 

manors, which were duly surveyed and returned into the Land Office, on 

or before the fourth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand 

n hundred and seventy-six, together with the quit or other rents and 

arrearages of rents, reserved out of the said proprietary tenths or manors, 

loj pan Or parts thereof, which have been sold, be confirmed, ratified 

and established forever, according to such estate or estates therein, and 

under such limitations, uses and trust, as in and by the several and icspec- 

ti. e reservations, grants and conveyances thereof, arc directed and ap- 

p-'nted. 



HISTORICAL. 21 

" XIII. Be it further enacted, That the sum of one hundred and thirty 
thousand pounds, sterling money of Great Britian, be paid out of the Trea- 
sury of this State, to the devisees and legatees of Thomas Penn and Richard 
Perm, late proprietaries of Pennsylvania, respectively, and to the widow 
and relict of the said Thomas Penn, in such proportions as shall hereafter 
by the Legislature be deemed equitable aud just, upon a full investigation 
of their respective claims." 

So far as our information goes, we give such a designation of the county 
and neighborhood in which these manors lie as will enable our readers to> 
form some idea of the location and value of these Penn estates : 



HISTORICAL. 



as 




invn.uii'Ai.. 



. 



The passage of this act was undoubtedly the highest act o 

d by bdj State Legislature. Qu itON of 1778 v 

timid men. During the revolution, our State Legislature passed numerous 

acts forfeiting 1 «l ■•- ''states of those wi thay called toriea or traitore. In 

all remember what a howl vaa raised when Thaddew? Stevens 
and other earnest men asked Congress to confiscate the estatea i axj 
rebels. But the tories had a far better excuse than our modern rebels, 
They said they only wanted to continue the old order of (binge But our 
[em rebels overturned the existing order of things; rebelled against 
the mildest Form of government ever known, and ;,, t up Mother in opj 
tion thereto. Had Congress ordered then to be hanged and their estatea 
confiscated, s thousand precedents would have justified it, and an 
others, Pennsylvania in oux revolutionary lays, 
[n case of the Penn estates, the act was a generous one. John and) 
Penn had remained here during the Revolution, their pympath'ee 
being known to be with the mother country. They knew that plenty of 
precedents existed to warranl the confiscation of all their propi 

Iloiiio they and the other members of tlio I'i ly gladly 

pted this tender by the Legislature. In fact we do nol beliei e thai 
utice was done the Penn heirs by this scl oi confiscation 1- 1 some have 
called it. Each one can form his own idea of the value ol the manors and 
landa reserved them in the foregoing schedules, If wisely managed they 
ought to have realised a million oi dollars from them, and thea they were 
paid in cash $65Q,00Q. And the British Parliament by an act in I79v. m 

jideration of their losses in Peunsylvania and the eminent oi 

theii ire, granted them an annuity of £4,000 .sidling or (20,000 vf 

money Thin has been regularly paid then) eighty-three year- and 
amounts to (1,660.000. Now, if Win. Pcna's letters were true, oomplajn- 
ing that during his life-time the care of his Province had coat him n 
than he had ever realised from it, thou certainly his heirs made a capital 

lin with our Commonwealth and the British Parliament. 

William Penn originally received tbfl grant Of this province in 

tion of £16,000 owed his father, Admiral Penn, for services and advances. 
And yet, thirty-one years thereafter, on the eve of hia apoplectic an 
from which he never recovered, he contracted to release all I 
consideration of £12,000 to be paid him by the crown. This eontracl 

enforced against his heirs, and certainly they fared live hundred times 
better by the Pennsylvania Legislature and the British Parliament [Phase 
Penn manors were intended to be, and ] have no doubt were, the choft 
landa in the province at that early day, W~h.it the improvements of a 
tarry, the growth of cities and towns, the opening of mines, the en 
aaasrafnctoriitg establtt , the location of canals and rail • ...> 



26 



HISTORICAL. 



have since done, ia another question. When made, these Penn lands were 
believed to he the garden spots of the then province, now State of I' 

sylvan i: i. 

The Penn family have always had — prohably still have — au agent sj in 
Philadelphia for the management and sale of their lands. Your Harris- 
burg Lund Office has only the outside Hues of these manors. The sub- 
division of them into lots or farms can alone he ascertained by referring to 
the Penn surveys. 1 suggest, that the Surveyor General be authorized by 
ih' % Legislature to see if tha records now in the possession of the Penn 
agents cannot be transferred to your Laud Department for reference in all 
questions of title. These records will soon become an encumbrance to the 
PenilB, and txight to be deposited where they might be accessible in all 
controversies to regard bo titles within these manors. In one form or other 
probably one-tenth the titles to real estate in I lie Commonwealth g» back 
to the Penn records for their origin. 



THE CAPITALS AND PUBLIC GROUNDS. 

Old Chester, below Philadelphia, was undoubtedly the first capital of OUT 
State. There William Penn, in December l(iH2, presided in the first Legis- 
lative Assembly of the Province, adopted the first Constitution and his 
great law in sixty-nine sections. The house in which they met, occupied 
as a cooper-shop, and the " Old Oaken Chair," in which William Penn sat 
as Speaker, were still to be seen a few years since. With this solitary ex- 
ception, however, Philadelphia was the capital of the State during the 
entire period o! the proprietary government. The legislative assembly was 
accustomed to meet most frequently at " The Great Meeting House" of the 
Friends, until in 1707 a court house was built. This continued the Capi- 
tal until the modern State House, containing Independence Hall, was built 
in 17\!4. The legislative assembly occupied what is known as Indepen- 
dence Hall. The sittings of the proprietary council were in the second 
story. The BBS of the Legislative Chamber was granted to the Colonial 
Congress, and sine'' lie- fourth of July, 1776, is known as the Hall of Inde- 
pendence. The approach of the British army in 1777, warned the Execu- 
tive Department! to remove elsewhere, and Lancaster was the seat of State 
government until the withdrawal of the British army in June, 1778. per- 
mitted the Executive and Legislative Departments again to return to Phila- 
delphia. That City is the place in which all four of our Slate Constitutions 



HISTORICAL. 



21 



lure bees agreed upou. Tin; entire sessions of tin; Constitutional I 

of 177'j 'JU wit.' li<.ld tli'Ti-, I lie curlier session.- Constitu- 

tional Conventions of 18J7- S , and lsT^-o wort held in Harrisbtug but 
adjourned tu Philadelphia, end both Qooetitati ids »e« Snail* agreed upon 

The public sentiment of this country appears to have fixed thai the State 
Capitols should no I be locatpd in large commercial cities With the ex- 
ception of Massachusetts and Virginia, subordinate towns, located in the 
interior of the States and at some considerable diataQceJrora the greal i 
merciai centres have been selected. I suppose that it was this feeling which 
prompted om Legislature in ItM, to ord « the removal of all departments 
to Lancaster where I lie Legialatnre in December of thai year mpt. The 

local r the Sine Capital, at Lancaster, does nol appear to have i 

regarded at anytime as a permanent one ATmOst every session of the 

islaturc was agitated with this question. The chief points inrj 
were Philadelphia, Carlisle. Harrisbnrg and Northumberland. Finally in 
February. 1810, Harrisbnrg waa fixed upon as the place and Oetohor, ispj. 
as the time when the Executive Departments should be removed there. 
John Harris, the founder >■( Barrisburg, on the ,; th of July. ITSfi, had con* 
reyed to trustees four acres and twenty-one perches oi land in trust for a 
state Capitol. Thin ground constitutes the eastern end of the public 
square upon which the arsenal has heretofore Blood. The ten acres of the 
western end of the public square was purchased fron William M'Clay by 
de«*d dated 17th May, ism. in consideration of one hundred dollars per 
aire. This one thousand dollars waa understood to be for the "««* of the 
sisters of Mi. M'Clay for interests held by them. Mr. M'Clay being: a 
large land hotder, of what was known at that day as M't.'l yvshurgh, made 
a donation of his interest to secure the location of the capitol. An inter- 

ing strip of ground between the M'Claj and Harris property was pur- 
chased for eh-ven hundred dollar*, Within the last year (1873,) a trian- 
gular block, bounded by Walnut and Fourth streets, adjacent to the old 
arsenal, has been vested in the State by proceedings in the Dauphin county 
court. The amount of ground thus acquired is a little less than one 
acre; but a brewery and a number of dwelling houses situated npon it, 
caused the viewers to assess its value at. forty-nine thousand seven hundred 
dollars, and the costs added thereto increased the amount to fifty thousand 
dollars. The public square contains nearly Sfteen acres ; and the original 
COSl to the Commonwealth was something over Bfty-two thousand dollars. 
The two wings of the capitol designed for the accommodation of the public 
officers were first built. The appropriations for these were as follows : 



B3STOB30AL, 

By act 2 1st February, 1810. $30 ,000 00 

• 28tb March, 1811 SO ,000 00 

lull, Manli, 1S12 13,000 00 

By resolution 2. r >th June. 1889 .. .... 10,00000 

21st April, 1840.. 2,300 00 

s.,,300 00 

Tin"' records of the accounting department, including no doubt, some 
is and the re-fitting anil furnishing, add a few thousand dollars to the 
above. An act of°2d March, LSI 3, appropriates thirteen thousand dollars 
for lire proof departments. 

STATS 0APITOL FROrBR. 

By an act of 18th March, 1816 86Q ,000 DO 

By an act of 27th February, 1819 10,000 00 

120,000 00 

With a proviso thai the entire Capitol should not cost more 

than $ 1 20 ,000 I H I 

The act of 18tb March, 1820, appropriated 15,000 ou 

Tin- .hi ir.- oosi nl Capitol proper 135 .000 00 

The architect and contractor for the. building of the Capitol, was Stephen 
Hill. The work was executed ill B substantial style, with very little orna- 
ment, probably in axact accordance vrith the taste of thai i*y. The public 
i s, I believe, were > ■ » i ■ ■ | • 1 « - 1 . . 1 I'm' oecupaUCJ W the first of October, 
1812. The corner stone of i In Capitol proper was laid by Gov. Fiudlay 
on 3 1 st May., ISltf. The legislative halls were first occupied by the Senate 
and Souse on January 2, 1822. I Live before me a programme of the pro- 
ceedings Of that day, showing a grand procession, in which the architect 
hie workmen, the el.-rjry, the Governor and heads of departments, the 
Speakers, members and officers of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, jud^e.-, 1'ivil authorities and citizens of Harrisburg generally, took 

part in the proceedings, 

I!y un u. I <il 30th March, 1821, §15,000 was appropriated for (uniisliiiig. 
•II Arsenal, about being removed, cost $12,000. The Executive De- 
partment for some twenty years, occupied the room now uBed by the Adju- 
tant General, The State Library, until about eight years •since, occupied 
the rooms now used by the School Department, The grounds originally 
inclosed) won about the M'< 'lay purchase. The whole of the public square 
was net inelusfd with the iron four.-, until about 1864 or 1*^5. It is diffi- 
cult to separate, 'waetlv, the permanent improvements from those of a mere 

aharacter. The foil flgurei are act intended to include th 



HISTORICAL. 29 

salaries paid to the Superintendent and watchmen of the public grounds. 
or thr' Karrisbnrg gss ami wafer companies for supply of water mid gi 
The amount expended on what I regard as permanent improvements, is 

as follows : 

Prom 1828 to 1848 $25 , SOT 73 

Proro 1848 to 1853 16.250 80 

Prom 1858 to 18*8 ■ i wo 

Prom [868 to 18T8. 48 ,WS 06 



l'jr.,017 :J3 



Dntil aboul 185T the State owned no Executive mansion. At that time 
ii house wae purchased for the Executive at a cost of about $lO,oon, About 
- thereafter this was exchanged for the present Executive mansion* 
the State paying ten thousand and tin- city or citizens of Harrisburg pay- 
ing twenty thousand dollars. The building hue since beeji about doubled 
in its capacity at a cost to the Stair, m Dear aa 1 can ascertain, of about 
$4-1,000. The extension of the Capitol for the Library ami committee 
rooms was authorised bj act of 1884. The expenditure as hear ti I can 
rtafn for the extension, was $88,880, and for furnishing the name about 
$25,000. 'I'll- extension of lie- western winy and the improvements in the 
E\> < uiivc ,ui'l Treasury Departments, during lti"3 — I. 1 have not been able 
to ascertain, probably about $20,000. The' last Legislature ordered the 
removal of thr old arm >al and the purchase til' ground and the erection of 
a new one foT which $35,000 was appropriated. It alsu ordered the en- 
largement or the Capitol tn accommodate the Legislature as fixed by the 
new Constitution. In the progress ol that work it was found tlmt portions 
of the old timbers were decayed ; and hence an over-hauling of the Capitol 
building is in progress. By the time the Whole is closed, 1 should think 
$40,Oou would be a reasonable estimate of the expense. An account cor* 

rent by the Con in wealth uf its whole expenditure would, if 1 am right, 

stand as follows : 

■Fifteen acres of ground $52 ,880 00 

The eastern and western wings "i 1 Capitol US ,880 00 

The Capitol proper and furnishing ISO ,080 00 

The Old and new arsenals .„. !7 .ohm 00 

The Elective mansion 64 ,000 00 

The Library extension and furniture Hi) ,881 

The present enlargement (estimated,) 46 

•Grading, fencing, improvements oi different kinds for fifty- 

•two years 125,011 ' 

709,317 00 




30 



HISTORICAL 



THE GBAVJS OF WILLIAM PENN. 

I novo jus) read Col. Forney's letter in which he tells of the adventures 
of ;i petty of Pennsylvonians in search of the (grave of our great foam 
It is net creditable to the intelligence oi the English nmsts living 

in sight ui' ill- door graveyard that contains the remains of out great 

founder, and more especially of an Englishman bo renowned in his gonera- 
tiiui thai their own Government has for nearly a century been paying liis 
descendants an annuity of four thousand pounds sterling annually, that 
they should be unable t" point out bis last resting place. My younger 

renders may perhaps be benefited by B brief sketch of uiir great founder. 
His father, Admiral Perm, was one of the nmsi famous of old England's 
naval hemes. To liquidate i debt of £16,000 due the Admiral for servicee 
and advances to his country, the English monarch, Charles II, granted in 
1081 to liis son the charter (01 28,000,000 ol seres, constituting the State 

nl Pennsylvania. 

William E'enti had adopted the religious principles of the Quakers, and 
primarily sought a home for his persecuted brethren. Such a grant was an 
easy mode for an English monarch, like Charles, to pay an old debt, to a re- 
nowned naval hero, and the motive for seeking and accepting it on part of 
William Perm was worthy of the highest commendation. Hut the transac- 
tion itself was, in itH very essence, inconsistent with everj principle of 
English liberty, even as understood two hundred years ago. Nothing but 
the unprecedented moderation and wisdom of William Penn ever kept it 
from being an untold calamity to pur good old Commonwealth. Ninety- 
nine hundredths of the enormous powers vested in him by this feudal char- 
ter were in liis frame of government, ami by his Colonial Constitution re- 
nounced end recognized by him as belonging to the people as their iubureni 
rights; and even the remnant not abandoned only kept him and his chil- 
dren alter him iii u i constant contest with the representatives of the 
I pie, until the revolution of lTTti ended the whole. 

William Penn, BB the founder "1 Pennsylvania, certainly acted magnani- 
mously in all bis transactions with the colonists, ami displayed an amount 
Of lar-seeing sagacity ami Statesmanship hilly one hundred years ill advance 
of the age iii which he lived. History has ahiefly noticed him as a religious 
reformer, in an age fruitful of such, many of whom were more successful in 
that respect than himself. I maintain that bis greatest achievement was iu 
dm founding of Civil institutions for his infant colony, so wise, so liberal, so 
far iii advance of the age in which he lived that after nearly two hundred 
years we find so little to reject. 

Be was human, and of course he erred. Whenever he referred to Iub 
charter and the enormous feudal rights which it conveyed he was led 



I1I.ST0KK \L 



31 



. but when distrusting all these he turned to his iv'bU-, in which he 
alone was deep); learned, | his almost unerring instincts brought him to the 
conclusions embodied in his frame of government and Constitution- Ami 

iliis useful life was smlly clouded ;it its close Few iif" ill'- - cherished 
ma of his manhood were realised. To the great misfortune of him- 
self and bis colony hie cherished purpose of making Pennsylvania his per- 
manent home was never accomplished. Its legislative Assembly, three* 

f.niiilis of the time, acted in opposition in his wishes. 1 1 in revenues t'roiu 

colony came in slowly; Ida expenditures at In • were heavy; his 

lish steward proved I'alxe ; hi.-* creditors became impatient, and he was 

confi i fbr months in a debtor's apartment. The generosity of bis friends 

iii'il his discharge, only to find that these ii ecu mutated misfortunes had 

brought on an attack nf apoplexy, from which he never recovered- Fur 
ii years lie lived hist bo the world, and only deriving enjoyment from 

religious exercises. And now it seems that his anal resting place can only 

be found after hours of diligent search. Col. Forney thus records his atr 

its: 

"And yet there was not a trace in all this splendor of William I'cnn 1 
Hi a name had been confounded with his Church of England kindred; but 
I saw that he was- regarded as the founder ol the chief mansion, and even 
as the man who had erected the monument to Gray! At length I ventured 
to ask: "Can you teD me of a place called Jordansf" Nobody knew. 
Finally Mr. Simpson, the Intelligent manager of the estate, thought, we 
conld Mini it by driving over te Beaconsfield, about eight miles off, and so 
directed, we drove through the odorous lanes Of beeches to the village ta- 
nnins as the countrj residence of Mr. Disraeli, the present Prime Minister 
if England, originally his late wife's property, andnowhisown. It seems 

ijiiiti.' extensive, and the house is evidently one n| the oldest and best. But 
what a -l.'i |,_\ \ ilhigi.i ! L'road, clean streets, yet no signs o| thrift or work ; 
.ill dull and cheerless. Hire we stopped to havt r horse shod; hut no- 
body could tell us about "Ji>rdiiiLs :" nobody bad hear. I of William Penn ; 
driver, after going a mile further, confessed that be had no clue 
:. Conld we have passed St 1 "What is that P" I said to Colonel Ma- 
pointing to B small field Or lot, with a lew tombstones shining white 
through the beeches. "That is evidently a family graveyard," said rny 
friend, leaping out to prove it, and running down a narrow lane to the gate, 
he exclaimed : "Here it is !" We followed to find '•Jorduna," and a more 

secluded and desolate spot ymi could not cum-civo. The brick Quaker 
meeting-house was shut, and as we looked in through the dirty windows 
we found a dreary silence, hardly relieved by vacant benches. The old wo- 
man who lived in the front rooms was out, and there was nobody to talk 



il 



HISTORICAL 






tu ii- bul i'u<- few white bsadeti sin the adjjacenl Lot; and this is what 

/"■<■ fiots. — F '■■ atones over iiw' -ruvo : (.in iii. Brat was "William 
i, 1718, and Hannah I'cun, IT'Jii;"' mi i in- Mound, " Gulieluu Maria 
a, 1689; on the third, "Mary Pennington, 1682;" on the fourth, "Im • 
Pennington, 1679 j" on the fifth, "Isaac Rale, 1786," and directly screes 

the pa Ui, Opposite tO "Willium l'eiin and Hannah I''-i«n. WSfl a ntoiiu 

marked " Five children of William Fenn," placed at tin.- head of the firal 
Of five small gravve. On tliu row behind William Pens and hie first and 
second wives, Hannah and Guli, wen- five otbsr headstones, marked - ■ 

COasis-cly ; "Letitt* l'riin." (no date;) "Springett Ponn, 1690}" "Mi 

Prarue." | D i dale;) "John PenOtngtOtt, 17 10 ;'" - Mary Flw.M.d, 1708 ;" 
"Thomas, 1713;" "William Usateiinan, 18-18. Lydia Masterinan." It was 
evident that theee stones had been put there recently, and that the gt I 
had all been raised. From the local history 1 extract the following a< 
which partially sustains this view. The pfakUfl is far from being as pic- 
turesque a*» the writer paints it", indeed il would be sltogethei depressing 
but for Us grove id beautiful beeches : 

"The hamlet of Jordaus, noted as the burial places of William Prim and 
several of the earlier members of the Society of Friends, forms a triangle 
with the two villages of Chalfotit St. Giles and Chall'out St. Peter, and is 

distant about two miles from each, Here, in a spot remarkable foi the 

beauty of its situation, is a little meeting-house belonging to the Society 
of Friends, surrounded by a verdant graveyard. In 1671 the land wan pur- 
chased and appropriated for a burial ground, aud the meeting-hunsc ap- 
pears to have been built in 1G87-8, lor, according to a deed beloiigin 
the estate, the laud and meeting-house were conveyed to certain trustei a 
in 1688, when it was described as the new built house and tenements called 
"New Jordaus." From another deed we learn that in 1748 there was a 
little more land added to the upper end ol the grave laud, given by Samuel 
Vandervaal for a burial place; for himself and family. Thia remains to the 
present day separated from the reBt uf the ground. The monthly meetings 
of the Society were held at Hunger Hill from 1670 to 17—7 , that house dur- 
ing the greater portion of the time being in the OCCUpatiuu of Thomas El- 
wood." 

Jordane Friend.-' Meeting-house is a plain brick building, with a tiled 
root and latticed windows, hi the interior it is panelled with oak. There 
is a good sized cottage adjoining it, the principal • -I i.i rn I ». i • ..r' which was 
evidently used in former times an a gallery in times of over-crowded meet- 
ings, ^ mnicates with the meetiag-bouae by means of shutter-. 
Attached to the back is a stable for twenty horses. The situation is pecu- 
liarly picturesque, aud Sequ e stered in a dell surrounded by beech wi.od>. 



HISTOEICAL. 



33 



The burial-ground is nearly Bill, bat wily b few of the graves can be idcnti- 
Bed. These are tenanted by William Peon, and five of bia children, who 

died young, Isaac, Mary, ami John Pennington, Thomas and Mary Ell- 
wood, Mary Frame and Joseph Rule. In the pieofl of ground Above blinded 
U there ia a vault wherein Samuel Vandexvaal and bis wife are interred. 

There is do notice to be P d as to when the meeting! tor worship were 

continued at Jordane, bat the last time the place was mentioned as send* 
ing representatives to the Monthly Meetings i.s in 178T;'so in all proba- 
bility it was at that date. The author of the " Shrines of Backs," writing 
of his visit to the grave of Penn, says ; " Entering the grave-yard we found 
a spot where a number of little mounds marked the resting-places of Peun 
and his family. Here no monumental marble, m even a simple headstone, 
marks the spot where the founder o£ Pennsylvania found at last that rest 
and freedom from the persecution he had experienced in his Lifetime. The 
fifth mound from the doorway of the little chapel was the one beneath 
which, and between his two wives, he was lowly laid. Jordans has not 
been inaptly styled the ' Westminster Abbey of the Friends.' " 

As we walked among these solitary mounds,, I noticed two men in an ad- 
joining orchard picking apples. "Do you know anything about this place I 
"No, except that it is a Quaker grave-yard, and that the Quakers hold 
uitftingB in the brick building twice a year." 

I never supposed that my experience would be so full of interest; nor, 
indeed, that the grave of William Penn would be found in a spot bo ob- 
scure, or that his name would be forgotten in the very neighborhood where 
he lived and died. I am not without hope that the friends of Philadelphia 
will take steps to remove the remains of their greatest leader, to the State 
that bears his name, and to the city that he founded in 168*2. There is uo 
place in the world so fitting as Falrmount Park, ami no time more appro 
priate for the ceremony than the Centennial year. In any case, what I 
have written may quicken discussion and inquiry. The whole story of 
William Penn is the romance of truth, and there is nota region in the globe 
in which it is so welt illustrated, as in tin- forty miles around Philadelphia, 
including part of Sew Jersey and Delaware. 




THE NEW GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

The last Legislature, by act of 14th of May, 1874, authorized the appoint- 
ment of commissioners to organize and superintend a geological survey of 
Pennsylrania. This commission consists of the Governor, ex officio presi- 
dent ; James M'Farlane, Bradford county ; Daniel J. Muriel!, Johnstown; 
3 Statistic-. 



34 



HISTORICAL. 



Henry W, Oliver, I'iitsburg ; Samuel Q. Brown, Venango; Homy M'Cor- 
mii-k, Harrisbarg j Henry S. Eckert, Beading; Arte Pardee, Carbon ; Robert 
U. Wils.i ■ , Ctearfietd ; William A. foghorn ;ind J. P. 1'carse, Philadelphia. 
J. r. Lesley, an assistant ol Rogers in the Former Bxtrrey, was appointed 
Chief geologist. Some ol the members of this Commission have requested 
me to prepares sketch of the doing id tin- funnel- survey for my repurt. 

Pennsylvania, although her mineral wealth in nearly equal to that of all the 
other State", was not the first to organize a geological survey. Massachu- 
setts lead off by bei report published about 1841 \n two large volumea, and 
followed shortly thereafter vrifli three other volumes upon the reptiles, fishes, 
birds, quadruped?, &c, &c, of thai State. New York followed with bei 
exhaustive survey, including, in all, nineteen volumes published from 1841 
to 1^52. These included, geology, Tour volumes; /.oology, live volumes} 
paleutolugy, two volumes; botany, two volumes; mineralogy, one vol- 
ume ; and agriculture, five volumes. That State has also erected a large 
building designed to preserve the specimens collected by her survey and 
any others that subsequently may be procured from any section, thus to 
illustrate fully all departments of physical science. Our own Legislature 
followed the example sether by Massachusetts and New York, and by act 
of 29th March, 1886, authorized a geological survey of onr State The 
magnitude of the undertaking was not realized, as that act only contem- 
plated the labor of one chief and two assistant geologists and a chemist. 
The appropriation was only $6,400 a year for live years. Some additional 
aid was give:', and the expenditure for field exploration was as follows : 

First held exploration and Salaries inclined in preparing materials for re- 
port— 1836, $•-', 700 00; 1837, *r.,Mm 00; 1888, $18,000 OOj l«3i>, $15,991 27 ; 
1840, $17,8uil U0; 1841. $12,674 03 i 1812, f 5,641 « \ 1843, $1,250 00. 
Total, S-71.I-M 87. 

The euiiMMpieiiees of the panic of 1887 were severely felt in our State, 
resulting in I $4 | 2 '■', in B failure to pay the semi-annual interest upon our 
public debt, The result was that appropriations, Unless indispensably 
necessary, vera cut off. No appropriation for continuing this geological 
survey was made for some years, and the material on hand remained un- 
published. 

It was not until at inv mi h motion as a member of the HoiiBe at the bcb- 
sion of 1861, a joint committee of both Houses was appointed to examine 
and report upon this matter. That report was a very elaborate one, cover- 
ing fourteen pages Ol the Journal Of the House of Representatives. (See 
toI. 2, page 131 to 111 inclusive.) The committee also reported a bill, 
which finally pasBed, (8ee acl 14th April, 1851.) This act contemplated 
a further ie\ hfrufof the work I me and the preparation of the final report 



IIIj-TORI' 



86 



by Prof. RogOtS, and to i-arvv -ait tin 1 same appropriated tliirty-tv. 

sttml >!•> II. us it) four annual payments. 

A contract wae made with ■ Philadelphia publishing house unfortunately 
embarrassed at the time, resulting shortly thereafter in insolvency, The 
com i'l.iily ;m unfortunate one for the souse, certainly the 

wealth lost four thousand dollars paid on account. 

Tii.- iii»:il arrangements for the publication wen not made antll bj llw 
authority oftbeactof -May 8, 1866, In the meantime Prof, Rogers bad 
been appointed professor of, g 1 1 1 * - University of K. l i ■ tmrg, Scot- 

land. Qe represented thai nan of the worik was indiapenealricj 

I iii.ii the work could be more cheaply prinu-il in Emv>p<> than in this 

intry, The Legislature therefore permitted hun, on giving Becurfty, to 

have the e itire control of its publication. JI", in turn, furnished one thou* 

i copies Us the Legislature forcin-ulation. Tin- appinpriatnui made Ijy 

tin' a.i .i i y ."..y in (MiniiTti.iii with tin" former one of 1861, amounted to 

142,750, as follows! 1852, $«,<•«»•» ; 1853, $8,0lM»; 1854, 17,750; 1869, 

110,000 j t..tai, $42,750. The entir si to the Commonwealth was th< 

fore fll7, 207 87; of this, hewewen . s i.unn was tost by the failure of the 
Philadelphia publishing house, and the actual expenditure fo* the survey 

wae$H3,207 8". The wdrk is in two very large volumes, the printed 
matter tilling l$31 pages, and a third volume of mapa, sections, &o. The 
whole publication «us 'Uth; au.u-i * i .« - immediate supervision oi Professor 
Sogers, ,>i>. i (in- mechanical •■xeciiti.-n is .•!■<■. liiai.i.- to the publishers, I 
believe a or three hundred copies of this edition (tin by of 

the widow of Profoaaoi Ro{ -^t ill an hand and can be procured from 

her agents, J. 13. Lippincott ft Co., Philadelphia. The survey wae ably 

iuctcd. Tii.- vi.ii s, w pnbliebed, are much betb ( adapted to the 

n n| the scientific than >>l t 1j« - ponulai readi-r, Thia is a iliffi- 

culty, however, which Few authors have overcome, to meat the trxpeota- 

Hone of the scientific end to be tM|iially comprehensible by tin mass in,t 
familial- v. ith .! terms. 




36 POPULATION'. 

POPULATION OP Ol'R WORLD. 


fcrtiV' 
\\ col 
mdrod 

i'a 8UI- 
ibee "f 

To - 1. 

mill?. 


The iollowingabstractp arc chiefly taken f'rnm "Population of the I 
b\ Bchm and Wagner Gotha, 1874. These latest and moH cawfia 
tested returns shew that the i^grcgate of mankind in nearly three li 
millions in exoeaa of what has usually been accredited to "iireartl 
face. v\ therefore' iosertod these latest returns of tin' nui 
Hi' hum for future reference and comparison with our own o 




A 1 Population. 




ii.ooo 801,814, aod 

. [6,668,1100 704,004,800 
11,880. H«" 192.520,200 
3, 42*. 300 4,885,300 
18,870,400 84,640,700 


80 

U 
L8 

l 
6 










Total 


51,892,000 1,877,145,200 


87 


The details for the Continent of Europe and the islands adjacent to it, 
with the year in which the census was taken, are given in the following 
statement:— 


f 


"ensus. 


t 
Area. Population. 


mile. 




1871 
1860 
18ii7 
1870 

wro 

[870 

1370 

lm 

1870 
1871 
I860 


■ 
840,276 85,004,435 
82 8,320 

15,987 ' 2,6fiP, 147 

H,74'.i 1,7-4,741 

10,884 79,755 

170,541 4.168,525 

122,243 1.753,000 

12,676 3,688,377 

998 197, :.»1 

11.370 5.021. :ttii 


137 

140 

184 

147 

121 

2 

24 

14 

am 

90 

Ma 

80S 

[,087 

177 

08 
11-: 
879 

BO 
884 

78 

08 

r« 

80 

88 
t8 

70 


















1871 U1.078 81,817,108 
1871 148 (60,860 

1S72 204,031 *i. 102, (521 
18OT 102.003 lfi.377.S41 






\--.7 
1888 
[888 
1888 
[871 
1X71 
11*71 


2,807 876,086 

34,491 3,006,153 

1.311 886,821 

140 12,000 

[14,981 26,706,258 

188,055 10,610,000 

46.090. 4.5O0.0O0 














1871 16,812 1,310,283 
1871 1,700 10d.iN«i 
1867 1, 023,820 ii!>. 3rt4. 54 1 
1867 188,788 1,648,253 
1870 19,847 1,487,8m 










80 

■ those 
Malta, 


The Britieli dependencies included in the above statement art 
within the limits of Europe only— the Islands of Heligoland and 
and Gibraltor. 



POPULATION. 



3T 



The folio-wing gives the- areue «,ud population of the Leading Asiatic na- 

lione : — 



<'eusus. 


AM*. Population. J""* 




6,913,806 10.6S7,SU 2 

ii72, 315 16,4(13,000 at 
1,035,743 4.000.000 4 

035,70!' 5, (KK>,000 8 
3,740,736 440,500,000 119 

149,364 34,785,831 333 
1,558, a*) 2013.225,58(1 189 


Turkev 1S71 








790, 1 18 


41 

ing:— 


The principal islands of the Pacific Ocean are given in the follow 




Area. Populiuinn. 


To •$ 

mile. 




2,944,341 1,585,894 

36,21)7 1*9,338 

109,327 -14,028 

274,480 1,000.000 

7,630 63,!>09 


5 




4 




3.0 

Ml 




8.0 



There are so few well defined geographical divisions in Africa, that the 
tallowing embrace all of interest; the population of Algeria being accord- 
ing to French census of 1872, and that of the other countries named being 
estimated i — 



Morocco 

Algeria , ... 

Tunis. 

Tripoli, etc.. 

Egypt 

Cape Colony. 
Madagascar" 



Area. 



369, m 

258,234 
45,703 
844 813 
658,902 
330. 451 
227,885 



Population. 



To ao- 

mile. 



2.750,««-> 

8,921,140 

a, ooo, ooo 

760,000 

8,000,000 

882,600 

5,000.IMMJ 



The figures fur the different divisions of North America and the neigh- 
boring islands, are as follows, the population uf the United States being 
given according to the census of 1870, and that of Mexico according to the 
census of 1871 ; — 





Area. 


Population. 


To «q- 

inlle. 




769,585 
3,51 
8,603,884 

701,441' 

40. 766 
7,823 
58, 163 
21,48S 
48,076 
18,496 


10,000 

3,888,577 

88,9! 

!', 170,083 

1, 180,000 

000,000 

830,000 

166,000 
860,600 






t 




11 




LS 




29 




82 




S 
8 




8 




8 








8,838,307 


64.870, 179 


169 






mrl'LATlON". 



] Irought forward ■ 

Bermudas 

St. PtMre Mid Miquelon HaytL 

Hayti 

Ban tiomlngo 

Spaninh Islands 

British Ialandn 

!■ i' in-li Islands 

Dotofa Inlands.. . . 

Danish Islands 

Pwi'diali Islands 



Area. Population. 



8,835,307 
34 
81 

i7, Etta 

•10, 486 

13,882 
1,016 



54, 070.872 

11,796 

3,071 

572,0(10 

135,500 

8:089,878 

l, 054,110 

308.244 
36,482 

37.821 

?. see 



To w ( - 

inilo. 



5, B87, 04a 68,900,570 7 

The countries of South America make the following showing ; the popula- 
tion of the Argentine Republic being given according to the census of 1869 : 



Brazil 8,262,060 



Area. 



i 



Population. 



Fnm-li Giuniia. 

Duteli do 

BritUb do 

Venemela. 

«""■•!• >rubiM. 

• !■ >r 

Peru 

Bolivia... 

€hili 

Argentino Kepublie 

Paraguay. 

Uraguay 

Patagonia and Terra del Fuego. 
Islands 



Total 6, 952,358 



SO.OOS 

60,780 

ttl.897 

■•W.I2A 

W7.050 

821,816 

610,889 

585,708 

132,575 

871,588 

68,770 

66,700 

376,380 

6.52S 



10,0()0,0(K) 

152,932 
1,500,000 
3,000,0110 
1,800,000 

8, 500, 000 

2,000, 000 
3,000,000 
[,877,480 

1.000,000 

*MI,0IM) 

24.000 
086 



To ftO. 

mile. 



25,740,140 



A n...tli<M- statement of interest, in this connection, *hows the area and 
population of the foreign possession* of the different European powers, 
which are as follows : — 



Area. Population. 



Groat Britain . . 

Turkey 

Holland. 

■;ji.. 

Bpain 

Fount. 



7,024, Ufl 

1.721,232 

674,873 

5,042, 906 

117, 138 

457, S 16 



171,010,000 
27.213,000 
23,433,000 
10,780,000 

(3.4IO.OOO 
6, 240. 000 



Portugal . 
Denmark 

SwedVu. 



Total 



Area. , Population. 



739,703 

87,094 

8 



17,064.521 



3,873,000 
127,000 

_•, foe 



240,047,900 



It is thus seen that the possessions of nine European powers outside of 
Europe, embrace nearly five times as large an area as the whole of Europe, 
while the population of this enormous territory is barely equal to five-sixths 
of that of Europe. The foreign dependencies of all the European States, 
included in the tast statement, exceed the ruling power in territory, except 
Spain and Sweden ; but Great Britain, Turkey and Holland, are the only 
* European States whose ilependencies have a greater population than them* 
Behes. 



POPULATION. 



43 



Population of the principal cities and towns of the State. 



Philadelphia . . 

Pittsburg 

Allegheny 

Scranton 

Reading 

Harriaburg 

ImeMter 

Erie 

Wilkesbarre . . . 
Wllllamsport . . 

Allentown 

Pottsville 

York 

Easton 

Norristown 

Altoona 

Chester 

Titusville 

Danville 

Meadville 

Lock Haven . . . 

Corry , 

Pittston 

Lebanon 

Carlisle 

Columbia 

Carbondale 

Chambereburg 
New Castle .... 

Johnstown 

West Chester. . . 
Phoenixvllle... 



1850. 



408,762 
46,601 
21,262 



15,743 
■7,834 
12,36*1 
5,858 
2,723 
1,615 
3,779 
7,515 
6,863 
7,250 
6,024 



1,667 

243 

3,302 

2,578 

830 



2,184 
4,581 
4,140 
4,945 
8,335 
1,614 
1,269 
3,172 
2,670 



1860. 



1870. 



Tor cent, of 

increase, 
1880 to 1870. 



565,529 

49,217 

28,702 

9,223 

23,162 

13,405 

17,603 

9,419 

4,253 

5,664 

8,025 

9,444 

8,605 

8,944 

8,848 

3,591 

4,631 

438 

6,385 

3,702 

3,349 



674,022 



(a) 121,977 
(*) 



(O 



3,682 
4,449 
5,664 
5,007 
5,575 
5,255 
1,882 
4,1*5 
4,757 
4,886 



58,596 

85,092 

33,930 

23,104 

20,233 

19,646 

17,2«4 

16,030 

13.8AI 

12,384 

11,003 

10,987 

10,753 

10,610 

9,485 

8,639 

8,436 

7,103 

6,986 

6,809 

6,760 

6,727 

6,650 

6,461 

6,393 

6,308 

6,164 

6,028 

5,630 

5,292 



19.19 

147.83 

104.14 

280.50 

46.48 

72.85 

14.94 

108.57 

805.92 

183.01 

72.95 

81.18 

27.86 

22.84 

21 .52 

195.46 

104.81 

1872.30 

32.12 

91.86 

108.59 



83.59 
51.22 
17.40 
89.03 
14.07 
20.03 
227.52 
44.03 
18.37 
8.80 



(a) Since the census of 1870, fourteen wards have been addod to Pittsburg, with a 
population of 35,723, without which the population would be 86,076, and percentage 

of increase 74.89. 

(b) Two wards, with a population of 5,416, added since c?ns.u< of 1870, population 
without, 63,180 and percentage of Increase 85.28. 

(e) Wilkesbarre incorporated Into a city and the township of Wilkesbarre added, 
with a population of 7,090 since census of" 1870, without which, population would be 
10,174, and percentage of increase 139.21. 



POPULATION. 



45 



WHICH IS TO BE THE EMPIRE STATE? 

The annexed official tables show the movements of population in New 
York and Pennsylvania for eighty years. During the fir6t forty years New 
York was constantly gaining in the race, but during the last forty years 
oar State has, at each decennial census, been closing up the gap. The 
same rate of progress will, at the closing of the present century, leave them 
side by side. But the elements of increase are decidedly in favor of Penn- 
sylvania. Her great gain is in her mining and manufacturing districts. 
New York has no elements to compete with these. Pennsylvania must, 
each decennial census, gain upon the ratio of the last ten years, and the 
close of the nineteenth century will show her not only the Keystone of the 
Federal arch, but also the Empire State of the Union. 

New York State population from 1790 to 1870, actual rate of increase ; 
also estimated increase from 1870 to 1900, at per cent, of increase of 1870 : 



CENSUS OF NEW YORK. 



Population. Increase. J t *\^ 



1790 WO, 120 

1800 589,051 

1810 959, 019 

1820 1,372,111 

1830 1, 918, 608 

1840 2,428,921 

1860 3,097,394 

18S0 3,880,735 

1870 4,382,759 

1880 4,949,449 

1890 5,589,012 

1900 6, 311,671 

Pennsylvania State population from 1790 to 1870, &c. : — 



248,931 


73. 


369,998 


38. 


413,002 


43. 


54«, 497 


39.75 


510,313 


26.50 


668,473 


27.50 


783,341 


25. 


502,024 : 


12.93 


566,690 ' 


12.93 


639,563 


12.93 


722,659 


12.93 



CENSUS OP PENNSYLVANIA. 



Population. Increase. ff&. 



1790 434,373 

1800 602,365 

1810 810,091 

J820 1,047,507 

1830 1,348,233 

1840 i 1,724,033 

1850 i 2,511,786 

1880 1 2,908,215 

1870 ! 3,521,951 

1880 4,268,252 

1890 5,172,694 

1900 6,268,787 

Pennsylvania wanting only an addition of 42,884 in the year 1900, to 
-equal the population of New York State. 



167,992 


38.70 


207,726 


34.48 


237,416 


29.43 


300,726 


28.70 


375,800 


27.87 


587,753 


34. 


594,4^9 


25.71 


615,736 


21.19 


746,301 


21.19 


904, 4t> 


21.19 


1,096,093 


21.19 



4tf 



POPULATION. 



ORGANIZATION OF COUNTIES, 

Names and il.it", day, month and year, of tin- auction nf the several 
counties <>r the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, aud the territory from 
which they were formed ; the three first counties which were formed, to 
wit: — Philadelphia, Bueks ami Cheater, were, established at the first settle- 
ment of the Province Oif Pennsylvania, and formed the only origiual coun- 
ties of all that territory of which the now great State is formed, comprised 
of sixty-six equities, to foUoWB, viz: 

1. Adam?, January 22, 1800, formed of a part of York. 

2. Allegheny, September 24, 1788, formed of a part ol Westmoreland aud 
Washington, 

'A. Aniu-truiig, Mareli I'.'. IS<>0, formed of a part of Allegheny, West- 
moreland ami Lycoming. 
4. Beaver, March 12, 1800, formed oi a part of Allegheny and Wushing- 

1"!'. 

5. Bedford) March !', 1*71, formed of a part of Cumherland. 

6. Berks, March 1 1, 1752, formed of a part of Philadelphia, Chester aud 

Lancaster. 

7. Blair, February 26*, 1846, formed of a part of Huntingdon and Bed- 

ford. 

8. Bradford, February 21. 1810, formed of a part of Luzerne and Ly- 

coming.* 

9 1 . Bueks, oilS of the original eotinties of the Province. f 

10. Biitl.r, March 12, 1800, formed of a part of Allegheny, 

11. Cambria, March 20, 1804, formed of a part of Huntingdon, Somerset 

and Bedford, 

12. Cameron, March 20, 1880, formed of a part of Clinton, Elk, M*Kean 

and Potter, 

13. OarbODi March 18, 1848, formed of a part of Northampton and Mon. 

roe, 

14. Centre, February 13, 1800, formed of a part of Mifflin, Northumber- 

land, Lycoming and Huntingdon. 

15. Chester, one of the original counties established at the first settle- 

ment of the Province, 

16. Clarion, March 11, 1839, formed of :i part of Venango and Armstrong, 

17. Clearfield, March 26, ISO!, formed of a part of Lycoming and North- 

irmberland, 



•Previous to March -I. lH'J, ihis county was called Ontario, "out it» name waa 
changed to Bradford on that d 

t Bucks count v was one of the tlirec original counties established at the first settle- 
ment of the Province of Pennsylvania; IOC Other two being Philadelphia and Ches- 
ter. — 9m Vbtoeo/Uu .1 — iii-iu, VoL l. 



POPULATION. 4T 

18. Clinton, June 21, 1839, formed of a part of Lycoming and Centre. 

19. Columbia, March 22, 1813, formed of a part of Northumberland. 

20. Crawford, March 12, 1800, formed of a part of Allegheny. 

21. Cumberland, January 27, 1750, formed of a part of Lancaster. 

22. Dauphin, March 4. 1785, formed of a part of Lancaster. 

23. Delaware, September 26, 1789, formed of a part of Chester. 

24. Elk, April 18, 1843, formed of a part of Jefferson, Clearfield and 

M'Kean. 

25. Erie, March 12, 1800, formed of a part of Allegheny. 

26. Fayette, September 26, 1783, formed of a part of Westmoreland. 

27. Forest, April 11, 1848, formed Irom a part of Jefferson and Venango.* 

28. Franklin, September 9, 1784, formed from a part of Cumberland. 

29. Fulton, April 19, 1850, formed from a part of Bedford. 

30. Greene, February 9, 1796, formed from a part of Washington. 

31. Huntingdon, September 20, 1787, formed from a part of Bedford. 
82. Indiana, March 30, 1803, formed from a part of Westmoreland and 

Lycoming. 

33. Jefferson, March 26, 1804, formed from a part of Lycoming. 

34. Juniata, March 2, 1831, formed from a part of Mifflin. 

35. Lancaster, May, 10, 1729, formed from a part of Chester. 

36. Lawrence, March 25, 1850, formed from a part of Beaver and Mercer. 

37. Lebanon, February 16, 1813, formed from a part of Dauphin and 

Lancaster 

38. Lehigh, March 6, 1812, formed from a part of Northampton. 

39. Luzerne, September 25, 1786, formed from a part of Northumberland, 

40. Lycoming, April 13, 1796, formed from a part of Northumberland. 

41. M'Kean, March 20, 1804, formed from a part of Lycoming. 

42. Mercer, March 12, 1800, formed from a part of Allegheny. 

4*3. Mifflin, September 19, 1789, formed from a part of Cumberland and 

Northumberland. 
44 Monroe, April 1, 1836, formed from a part of Northampton and 

Pike. 

45. Mongomery, September 10, 1784, formed from a j,art of Philadel- 

phia. 

46. Montour, May 3, 1850, formed from a part of Columbia. 

47. Northampton, March 11, 1752, formed from a part of Bucks. 

48. Northumberland, March 27, 1772, formed from parts of Lancaster, 
Cumberland, Berk?, Bedford and Northampton. 

49. Perry, March 22, 182", formed from a part of Cumberland. . 

50. Philadelphia, one of the three original counties established at the 
first settlement of the Province. 



•Part of Venango added by act approved October 31, 1866. 



'-• 



POPULATION. 



51. Pike, March 24, 1*1-1, funned from a pari of Wayne. 

52. Potter, M;n rh 26, 1804, formed from a part of Lycoming. 

53. Schuylkill, March l, 1811, formed from a part of Berks ami N'nrthamp- 

ton. 

54. Snyder, March -, ls.Vi, formed from a part of Union. 

55. Somerset, April IT, 1195, formed from u part of Bedford. 

56. Sullivan, March 15, 1847, formed from a part of Lycoming. 

57. Susquehanna, February 21, 1810, formed from a part of Luzerne. 
53. Tioga, March 26, 1804, formed from B part of Lycoming. 

59. Union, March 22, is] 3, formed i in of N'orthomberland. 

60. Venango, March 13, 1800, formed from a part of Allegheny and Ly- 

coming. 

61. Warren, March 12, 1800, formed from a part of Allegheny and Ly- 

coming. 

62. Wayne, March 21, 1798, formed from a part of Northampton. 

63. Washington, March, 28, 1781, formed from a part of Westmoreland. 

64. Westmoreland, February 26, 1773. formed from a part of Bedford, and 

in 1785 part of the purchase of 1784 was added thereto. 

65. Wyoming, April 4, 1842, formed from a part of Luzerne. 
•66. York, August 19, 1749, formed from a part of Lancaster. 



AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES. 



49 



Pi 



P 

UJ 




4 Statwkh. 



63 



AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES. 



LAND— IMPROVED AND L"M MTRUVKD. 



A.hims 214618 58,508 

Allegheny. 392, 88,570 

Armstrong 230, MB 136,156 

■ r 176,881 71,974 

Bedford ... 197,260 211,587 

Berks , 874,560 97,448 

Blair 9fe,l!s.-, 52,( 

Bradford 168,861 226,464 

Bucks 916,838 48,789 

Butler 27... 157,888 

Cambria . 186 iwt,4«i 

Cameron 6, 485 63, 777 

Oaibon... 25.782 54,620 

Centre 152,238 90,862 

Chester 871,768 88,164 

Clarion 102,747 111,317 

Clearfleld 116,218 ) 56,955 

Clinton « 54,862 7S\61fl 

Columbia 188,710 6*, 44ft 

Crawford. 328,565 1 97. 085 

Cumberland 239,784 19,788 

Duuphin 172,688 61,249 

Delaware 89,488 11,816 

Elk. , 1.1.124 28,789 

Erie., 279,868 l:M.ss<i 

tayeitf. 235,006 m:..i»j; 

Forest L0.890 17, 258 

Franklin 986, S IT 92, 708 

Fnlton 88,996 117,902 

Greene 280, 594 kit. 748 

Huntingdon.. 186,818 188,078 

Indiana 256,023 17 J, 1-14 

Jefferaon. 104,220 186,722 

JuniaUi 97,509 88,567 

Lancaster 402,888 70.858 

I •itwrunoe 148, 509 

Lebanon. 139,481 4:1. *.»:•>, 

Lehigh 181,097 :<P.2I7 

Liuexne 194. 1 ir. L74.881 

Lyooming , 168,892 148,291 

M'Kuan 28,164 i0,689 

Men-er 260, 10i» 1 29, 056 

Mifflin !<7,0S7 60,763 

Monroe k;,m.\ 116,811 

Montgomery •• 256.909 27,877 

Montour 68,183 16,483 

Northampton 170,0*52 15,404 

^.■rihumlierland 147,129 48,452 

Perry , 188,809 126,220 

Philadelphia , 57,518 2,786 

Pike 27,808 88.459 

Potter 58,803 111.727 

Schuylkill 100,136 75.318 

Rnyder 92,580 46,818 

Somerset 249,615 264,442 

Sullivan.. :*i,689 

HutHiuchanna. 290,997 150,010 

Tioga 18 186,798 

Union 70,768 19,070 

Venango 1. 98,840 



#u. <;i l.fNso 
56,448,818 
18,681,426 
14,198,718 

9.4 PS, 119 
13,638,465 

8,01)8,146 
28,158,246 
40,289,218 

18,230.818 

1,884,078 

1,382, 188 

1,484,210 

85,199 

!<■. 737,688 

7,784, 127 

5.931,360 

4, TO", 040 

o. ill 5,460 

21,906,66] 

22.474,577 

19,05::. 183 

19, 2ks. 727 

1,019,620 

23,991,607 

19,260,968 

819,898 

28, 776, 174 

2, ."-;.">, 042 

18,564,876 

9,446,678 

12,941 

5,862,698 

8,861, IT. - . 

70,724,908 

11, 614, "44 

19,016,808 

28, v>5,476 

21,565,724 

11,212,366 

1,566,250 

22,04f 

9,133,277 

6,469. 114 

40,902,050 

4,615,685 

20,991,169 

12,430,987 

f\ 750, 886 

18,945,000 

2.213,825 

2,942,348 

s, i>4.1. 655 

.-,7.M.,4o:: 

12.043,715 

1,658,109 

16,707,011 

10,923,925 

7,891,977 

7,211.006 



AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES. 
Land — Improved and Unimproved — Continued. 



51 



Warren 

Washington .... 

Wayne 

Westmoreland. 

Wyoming 

York..... 



■s£ 


*£ 


5 


3| 


3| 


*^>3 


£■ 


£ » 


s>! 


*. 


aa 






§1 


■ -5 


9-3 


PI 


. e 


83,782 


134,508 


16, 976, 674 


409,863 


114,004 


39,015,006 


110,718 


200,880 


8,816,220- 


342,083 


144,014 


28,210,825 


87,953 


72,212 


6,033,160- 


411,341 


133, 181 


36,358,484 


11,515,965 


6,478,235 


1,048,481,582 



AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES. 



5* 



i-iii -- - : :i-isx«ii,-«i'rti."i / •. •; =i-i .-■■ 

— * /' — ' — --' -' ■-" f ::* — rt'ri r: — — "~r-T — * r7zi — -c »c ri — " — ' zTir:" r-^ -t'Sz 

r- S - - : i -c •- : i ■-- :i:i"- -_: * r -r (.cci; ;:.-:i r. -. — — i i • i» -5 £. 

5 1 c feoniSf-oaraSimb r» r-. 35 i-i -« =rl N «t.5s x » b tS = 



';-c-r.5Ki-:-nr.:i---: jCSC 5 /. ■» ' - r. i-- a - 5 i> H — »<Sas 
J ci c i. r. / :. - :i:r-naTQS»B«oSBfKSoi- i; ;- •- i-. — >S — 



i- t « -r — -» r- « ■- = -r ■■■; — — r» i- 



nc**aa 



— "rf— — ^Ji-^— "^■^u5 2";i -rac*^ 



:i:?.--:::r::i;5^:iei:r:-i:i-::ix-:c-:StM:iTri.-xit 

fjVl-£:i — n -'— — :' t— ■- — r-:i;:i< — 



Ti»"!i:i:is i»-:ir:ic- ss?ae-^«ms — «=:•— ome.o:^N!2'C-«"»e>i-* 

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hi«)0«5«n»- i = »- i 088«*0r. :. - t :ir. -:i.-. i.-r.-.- : - I r — 

4 — — ' — .^" -!-■«" = sT «*•*.:? -f *" i-" •ca'o'rfaf »«■■?! —"—•-'-J tT-fao «?«"»:" --sfsfei 



--rf 



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.- = - : H * i- SB See £ la SB x M-r Yi 5 =■£ ;* 5 Ji = ii ----- i - : I — -—.-; = i 
i~ -\ •-'. —"-"—' — r ■ - i -' = t — " = !-" -' £--'■-' ~ z' r: -' i-' -' 3 : i -":f rf :i.''":':if-'t*fi 



s 



s 



-] — S. ■', ." -1 -: - r; — '-T — i- '• ■ — r. - i - r» l — i-- ■- * :i::i:i :i 
,-Il:o-;;i:i;;i"-:ii.i :l::ii.*-i.:ii . - i- - :: :i — = 



rt£tocfg^—-r£££"i-v—"—*£j — Tr— "—="'-" e sj 



> 5 w x r: rt ~ £ U ~ 



r- 5 r i- J. i. :■: c rt -r — — ; - — -- r: ^ i- -.: - •» :i :i r. ■- it :i :1 — - r. = i- - :i ..- 

c r-5 i-Tf ^Ti-'-c' »« / sorfoo ^ -T X :: :-" -T '.; BO -r — 'c' — * r"rf •?**-? ?f ^" '■' i -':;'(-" /■." 

:i:i:ii--K-:-: rt r. ; - r. :i r- i- ti .» i r. rf i T - - 1" t ;. -r :i ; 

55 — StiBr-l-l-^r-J-! ■* X — I - ■: T. i - i t-.t. ■- : 1 /. r- :: ^ Vl - 5 3 - ? 

— "rf :!——""-'— 'Tiri :! — rf— -r" :f — — — — -^-- «*?f —"— ■— '-r — •» ~"<o 



& 



OKi 



oi 



AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES. 



VCIUCULTURAL PRODUCTIONS OF PENNSYLVANIA IN 1870. 



Product-. 



Wheat 

Rye. 

Indian corn. 

OaU 

Barley 

HUl'liVVllCHl 

Peas and beans 

Potatoes 

Clover seed 

Flaxseed 

tinea seed 

Tobacco 

Wool 

Butter 

Cheese 

Hops 

Slut.. j 

Maple sugar 

Honey ;. 

Beeswax 

H»y..., 

Hemp 

Wine 

Milk sold 

Sorghum molasses 

Maple molasses 

I [ones 

Mules 

Milk cows 

Working oxen 

Other rattle. 

Sheep 

Swine ,, 



Acres. 



Production. 



1,193,765 
BUM 

1,105.74(5 

1,017,580 

25,376 

97,156 

"'ioi.'isu' 



2,204,301 



19, 672, 9S7 1 
3,577,641 
34,702,206 
36,47- 
529, 562 
21,532, 173 
:l",:.7l 
13,889,887 
200,679 
10, 624 
50,642 
3,467.529 
6,681.723 
80.834.IM4 
1,145,901 
90,688 . 
815, 906 
1,545,917 , 
796, 989 , 

_t, on 

2,S4\219 

571 , 
97, 16 j 
14,411,729 . 
213, 373 . 

IV, :ts.-, . 

460,339 . 

18, <m . 

706, 437 . 

30, 04S . 

60S. 086 . 

1.794.. 'Ill I . 

-;;. M- 



Sixth. 

First. 

Eighth. 

Second. 

Ninth. 

Second. 

T«t niv-third. 

Second. 

Firm. 

Bighth. 

Fifth. 

Twelfth. 
Fifth. 
Second. 
Ninth. 
Twelfth. 
, Fourth. 
Slxtt. 

Sixth. 

Seventh. 
Second. 
Fourth. 
Fifth. 
Fourth. 
Fourteenth. 
Fifth. 
Sixth. 
Sixteenth. 
' Second. 
Nineteenth. 
Eighth. 
Fifth. 
Eleventh. 



AMERICAN MANUFACTURES AS SEEN BY AN ENGLISH 
DIPLOMATIST. 

The British Government in 1872, instructed her Secretaries of Legation 
to report upon the condition of what are called textile manufacturing es- 
tablishments in different countries to which they were accredited. Their 
instruction!!, CKpeeiully, directed them to inquire into the rates of wages, 
the "hours of labor and the cost of manufacturing, as compared with similar 
things al home. The idea is a capital one of having a report by their own 
employees U) enlighten, their mvn manufacturers and workmen. If our gov- 
ernment has any unemployed secretaries, with the industry of this Secre- 
tary of the British Legation, at Washington, they had better instruet them 



AGRRTLTIKE AND MAN' I TAiTl'KES. 






to follow Ins example. Such officials hare advantages aat u.-nallv pos- 
sessed by most persons, Reports from all officials are promptly furnished 
them, it m 1 if they will visit uiid personally inspect manufacturing establish- 
ments with their owneyesavery facility i8 offered them. J. P. Harris Gas- 
trell must hare been very industrious. His report upon the condition of 
manufactures in the United States, and, especially, upon cotton, woollen, 
worsted goods, flax, silk, jute. Sic., is very exhaustive, covering 537 puges. 
The reports from all other countries covering only about one-third of this o£ 
ficial volume. Wi should feel highly complimented by the space assigned 
and still mure so by the industry, accuracy and liberality of this entire re- 
port. Our American manufacturers are conceded almost every thing they 
Can justly claim. The department which he was specially commissioned to 
examine has probably the most complicated machinery "I any other branch 
of American industry. He, unhesitatingly, admits that our machinists are 
ahead of the British, in adapting delicate instruments to accomplish their 
purposes. He admits that our iron is tougher and better suited to make 
machines for cording, spinning, weaving, dyeing and finishing the products 
of textile fabrics. 

He fives elaborate statistical tables, showing for lorty years past, the 
growth and magnitude of these branches of business, their increase from 
year to year in supplying Out Own markets, and warns Great Britain, that, 
at no distant day, she is likely to find us a formidable competitor for her 
foreign markets. He ascribes our success to the better adaptation of DUE 
machinery to perform this class of work. He thinks we have been forced 
to construct this machinery because of the high price of labor in this 
COttlktry-. He admits that our mechanics handle our machinery with greater 
skill and that, 1 have no doubt, is because they are better educated. The 
drawbacks to our complete and linal success, which he thinks is only ■ 
question of time, is the greater value of capital, the shorter houre by our 
workmen and the higher price paid (or labor. He thinks that our workmen 
aggravate all these drawbacks by their frequent strikes. 

He notes another drawback to our ultimate success in producing cheap 
fabrics in this country, to wit : That our great mills are run by a few cor- 
porations, and the owners can readily agree upon, the quantity to be thrown 
upon the market. He thinks tin- English system of individual owner- 
ship is much better. In this ho is undoubtedly correct. His references 
are to the great manufacturing corporations of New England. Had such a 
system never been introduced into our republican country it would have 
been greatly better: but having gotten a foothold it is not easy to ehn 
it. Small manufactures cannot live in competition with these mammoth 
corporation.^, and thus each year the whales are swallowing up the min» 



5(J 



AGRICULTURE AM) MANUFACTURES 



nows, Tims a very few op.-iators can inert, combine and kvvy up the 
prices. 

In another branch, to wit: Mining nf eonl in Eastern Pennsylvania, the 
truth ©f this position is clearly demonstrated. A dozen of coal compauies- 
control the trade in the anthracite and semi-bituminous regions of the State. 

Even ii pun the subject of uiir protective thrill's he is much more moder- 
ate than the average American free-trader. He knows that England pro- 
tected all her own industries until they became so strong that no competi- 
tion could endanger them. He don't like our tariff- laws because they di- 
minish the deiiiiuidJoi- British mano&ctawf j but then be don't [bam and 
rage like the active free-traders. 

The report will do good. Its circulation will be amongst those who, un- 
der other circumstances, would never see or hear such statements. TIub 
report was probably intended for home consumption, and not to he circu- 
lated in the United States. A very few have ep'sscd the Atlantic, and this 
is all the space we can spare to note this remarkable document. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY AS SHOWN BY T1IE CENSUS 

OF 1870. 



AdftOOi 

.A Uegheny . . 
Aj nistroiig. 
Beavec 

Bedford 

licrks 

Blair 

Br* i r. .]'ii . 

Books 

Butler. 

Cambria 

Cameron 

Oarbon 

Centre 

•r 

Clarion . ... 
Clearfield.., 

Clinton 

Colombia... 
Crawfbrd. . 
Cumberland 

Pauphin 

Delaware'.. . 

Elk.... 



■ m 



81, 415,1911 00 
88,789,414 00 

4,337,357 00 

4,024,083 00 

1.587,024 00 

16,348,458 ihi 

ii, \-Z\W, IHI 

2,738,306 00 
4,733,118 00 
1,330,083 oo 
8,341, 

890,810 mi 

2,365,788 00 

8,047,0741 00 

11,404,543 ihi 

i . 355, rm oo 

1, Hi-.'. 405 00 
8,846,528 M 
2,708,930 ihi 

in, |. ",7.(109 00 

3,240,032 («i 
13,614,168 00 

11,041.654 00 
l,5iS4,3irj mi 



llligl 
In 

-■- —r, z < 

.* 7 -i i -r Z, 



32, 123, " 

133, 184, 

0. SOB, I 

ii.ii:w:, 

2, 380, i 

34,365, 

•1>, 642,1 
1,107,1 
7,098,] 
1,036,1 

12,062," 
1,845,1 
4,438,1 
4,571,1 

17,341,1 
2,088,! 
1,664, 
5,409," 
4,OS9,-l 

15,235,1 
4,878,1 

20,371,1 

16,562,' 
2,386,; 



AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Manufacturing Industry — Continued. 



51 



-2 

P 
I* 

i 

T 



Brie 

Fayette 

Forest 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Greene. 

Huntingdon 

Indiana 

Jefferson 

Juniata. 

Lancaster 

Lawrence 

Lebanon 

Lehigh 

Lucerne 

Lycoming 

M'Kean 

Mercer 

Mifflin 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Montour 

Northampton. 

Northumberland 

Perry 

Philadelphia 

Pike 



Potter 

Schuylkill 

Snyder 

Somerset 

Sullivan 

Susquehanna . . 

Tioga 

Union 

Venango 

Warren 

Washington 

Wayne 

Westmoreland, . 

Wyoming 

York 



928 
402 

37 
529 

65 
162 
324 
473 
232 
204 
1,616 
181 
481 
694 
886 
608 

36 
458 
194 
254 
1,089 
158 
655 
424 
282 
8 184 

67 

41 
844 
496 

98 

83 
376 
282 
106 
278 
450 
402 
291 
390 
194 
1,111 



52 = Hr 

ills- 



I 



_££SL 




$9,697, 

3,527, 

393, 

3,621, 

512, 

573, 

2,319, 

1,393, 

1,238, 

678, 

14,034, 

3,439, 

4,160, 

15, 480, 

17,493, 

9,081, 

358, 

6,544, 

1,616, 

2,232, 

16,933, 

4,857, 

12,530, 

4,207, 

2,412, 

322,004, 

692, 

249, 

9,586, 

1,240, 

591, 

390, 

3,225, 

2,190, 

1,288, 

4,516, 

3,224, 

2,037, 

3,714, 

2,592, 

1,013, 

7,028, 



987 00 ! 
404 00 | 
191 00 I 
349 00 I 
433 00 I 



050 00 
152 00 
408 00 
613 00 
345 00 
180 00 
700 00 
084 00 
848 00 
463 00 
406 00 

984 00 
277 00 

985 00 
539 00 
703 00 
602 00 
834 00 
855 00 
626 00 
517 00 
313 00 
724 00 
114 00 
671 00 
449 00 
877 00 
054 00 
852 00 
692 00 
568 00 
768 00 
441 00 
075 00 
487 00 
831 00 
934 00 



$14,546. 

5,291, 

589, 

5,432, 

768, 

859, 

3,478, 

2,090, 

1,857, 

1,017, 

21,051, 
5, 159, 
6,2*1, 

23,221, 

26,239, 

13,622, 

538, 

9,816, 

2,425, 

3,348, 

25,400, 
7,286, 

18,796, 

6,311, 

3,618, 

483,006, 

1,038, 

374, 

14,379, 
1,861, 
887, 
586, 
4,837, 
3,286, 
1,933, 
6,774, 
4,837, 
3,056, 
5,571, 
3,888, 
1,520, 

10, 543, 



980 00 
106 00 
786 00 
023 00 
649 00 
575 00 
728 00 
112 00 
919 00 
522 00 
270 00 
550 00 
126 00 
272 00 
694 00 
109 00 
976 00 
415 00 
477 00 
808 00 
554 00 
403 00 
251 00 
282 00 
939 00 
775 00 
469 00 
586 00 
171 00 
006 00 
173 00 
315 00 
581 00 
278 00 
038 00 
849 00 
152 00 
161 00 
112 00 
730 00 
746 00 
401 00 



711,894,234 00 I 1,067,841,351 00 



FINANCIAL. 



59 



II 



S 3 tc e* »iS ? i^?5 «- « « ' 



o c 
95 S 






X t~ <S Jl -r '.r n m H — i r« 

»* C 71 ' ^ ~ r*- — O ?? r» r- C- 
■c -r ?i ' - ; - « •: 1.: i. - s 
j- h. -; l- t ..• K * ■£ « ic « 







& 

Q 

> 



|?S?! 



3f r:f ,?5ss§, 



t 1-' 



«r835fc:;3S5$3S'. 






•w « -» « -o t- ?5 cs 




Statement of receipts at the Slate Treasury from the xcverul *u>irce* of reve- 
nue during the fiscal years ending November 30, 1872, and November 30, 
. 1BT8, 



Corporation*. 

Railroad, canal, express, navigation and transportation 

companies i 

Coal, iron, improvement, mining sad miUTiAujtnrfng| 

companies 

Passenger railway cnmiiunies 

Bridge, turnpike and plnnk road '-oinpanio-. , 

Bantu 

Counties, cities and Imrotighs... 

Gas and -water companies 

Oil companies.. 

Telegraph companies 

Insurance companies, | domestic,) 

Insurance companies, (foreign,) Licenses, »tc 

Premiums on corporation charters 

Annuity for rijfht of way, ( Erie railroad,). 

All other companies ana associations. 

Miscellaneous tares. 

Tax on personal property 

Votaries Public, tax On receipts . , 

Notaries Public, commissions 

Tax on en rill 1 1 u*nt of laws 

Tax on logs 

Tax on writs, wills, deeds, Sue 

Tax on certain offloM 

Collateral inheritance tax 

Tavern li-ciiscs 

Retailers' licenses 

Theatre, trironsand menagerie licenses 

Billiard. Iiowling saloon and ten-pin alley licenses 

Eating-hoiise, hecr-house and restaurant licenses 

Peddlers' licenses 

Brokers' licenses 

Patent medicine licenses 

Brewery and distillery lioenses 

Millers''' tax ' 

Pamphlet laws 

Fees of public officers 

Auctioneers' coin missions and duties. 

Auctioneers' oommiaslans 

Fines and penalties 

Collections on MrflfmnMsfl imtclitt'lness. 

Refunded cash 

Dividends on bridge stocks 

Sale of public property and OKI posts 

Sale of pu blic property . . . , 

QMss or conscience . . '. 

Accrued in ten 'sis 

Lands patented 

CominuUitiou of tonnage tax, as per act, 1*01 

Allegheny Valley railroad, Interest on bonds, per act 18(59, 



WlU 



*2, 112,780 78 a, 869, 082' 80 



439, 197 88 

74.381 l" 

81.981 61 

ML 021 SI 

102,464 21 

36, 750 20 

90,482 93 

6.564 50 

116,389 M 

::,l, :;<.,• iw 

101,5*1 71 
10,000 00 
24,693 01 



561,316 12 
£688 67 

30,680 66 

1100 00 

iiii.:;sij mi: 

20,7711 56 

:l.-,|,si(. 9s 

846, 116 70 

424,1141 88 

3.020 46 

7,064 50 
12,316 81 
2,679 61 
,-),:tt- 78 

1,112 00 
5,831 45 

'III hi 

uo n 

5,801 00 
86,708 97 



4,938 05 

240 00 

20,202 45 

*"&8u'66' 

1.2U1 |] 

45,721 78 

I""," » 

87,500 00 



6,738,346 95 



6110,538 52 
74,537 19 
34,368 25 

343,490 63 

107." 

50, 688 92 
18,331 37 

7, 069 01 

113,990 76 

353,490 78 

68, 34.') 78 

in, (Mki 00 

46,(136 00- 



541,007 91 

2,711 87 

7, 450 00 

36,800 00 

t , .-.<>o 00 

113,117 52 

10,723 89 

'73 9» 

321,83 

124,974 80 

5,121 75 

10,552 84 

12. LAG Q9 

2. 880 38 

10,736 98 

3, 876 91 

J9 47 

4,486 84 

714 67 

19,68] 59 

13,'765'34 
4 00 



3,715 70 



100 00 

915 00 

1, 297 97 

53, 088 48 

230,000 00 

87,500 00 



7.077,073 40 



FINANCIAL. i;i 

Table showing e.t, ■ of the VommxmvKtM*'for(heyeori L872 and 1898. 



i-r:. 



i*;a. 



Bi >•• 

Howe of Representatives 

Dting 

Executive department 

Jndlaiarj 

Public officers 

Military expenses 

1 1- and forwarding laws 

Paid electors of President and Vice President. 

■ ; itutional Convention. 

bikI it nil ii ilii."-. 

! i o"m 11 lit tee 
stitutkms. 
Soldiers' or u tin 1 1 "Wliools. 

uion -iii' -'Is 

<i-.vlv:ini;< stJiti- Agricultural Society. 

Intendments i' 1 1 'onstitution 

- redeemed, Ac 

Interest on loans 

Damage* :iml old claims 

Harl»>r master, Philadelphia 

warden, Philadelphia 

Innpci-i-T-- of eoal mines 

library 

Public buildinga and grounds 

i I..M-..- ,.i i : •• t ii - ■- ,,..,,. 

Penitentiaries 

■nheata 

Counsel fees and v missions 

Special commissioners 

Oomminalonere to adjust claims for damages iu border 

counties 

MvrinnUk' appraisers, 

I,n«ni. munty riots 

Board of Publ ic Charities 

Revenue oommlasionerB 

<3ounly surveyors.., 

Assessors of hank stock 

Unaagara) expenses. 

Funeral of ex-Governor John W. Geary 

■ llaneonp., . , , , 



K71.M6 "l 

101, M7 21 

SO, 880 89 

174 M 

"34 53 

22,12a 17 

1,290 00 



64,881 H 

:. ill 

141,087 in 

471. 980 41 

807,191 50 

9,000 'Hi 

10,900 06 

2,511,173 -7 

1,708,082 88 

13,0711 23 

1,87-1 99 

2,500 00 

■ 

<i, 7.50 00 

w,eiao «4 

71,900 00 
f.S,3M M 

7. 47,11 111 

8,888 22 

■J, 619 57 

7,945 19 

1,794 79 

538 34 

5.943 18 
1,800 00 
1,960 00 



45,074 64 



7,142,990 43 



1107,087 :*7 
900, 
181,010 48 

I", 
848,018 "i 
BIS 7H 

ra,jM8 Ba 

1,3SS 90 

703 00 

410,728 mii 

50,834 57 

6,755 14 

4.19,307 1.1 

SOB 94 

sol,,,-" VI 

•j.ooo 00 
7,8rtn 94 
1,651.7 

ii-JO 20 
2,200 97 
8.706 34 

2, 499 99 

■Si. '.-J3 00 

8, 77* 00 

90, ,19 1 B 

73,882 02 

OT3 80 

3,000 00 

13,255 00 



2, 188 47 
7,543 23 

15,071 19 
4,074 1ft 
4,906 41 

50,026 90 



8,734,027 57 



The State debt as shown by the statement of the Commissioners of I In- 
Sinking Fund, October 1, 1874, was as follows: 

Debt bearing coin interest $4 ,423 ,500 Oft 

Debt bearing interest in United States currency 19 ,668 ,000 00 

I>i It on which interest has been stopped 135,433 03 

Iii-lit bearing no interest 100 ,669 38 

Chambersburg certificates, act May 27, 1871 83 ,032 96 

Agricultural College land script fund of Pennsylvania 500 ,000 00 

24,910,635 37 



62 



FINANCIAL. 



WHAT PENNSYLVANIA PAYS FOR INSURANCE. 

V. rv lew persons have any idea wliat tin- aggregate of insurance is, in 
all its forms, paid by the people of unr State. One your since, .»u insurance 
bureau mu organized by the Legislature, and we now have the first an- 
nual report of the Commissioner for 1873, in two volumes — one Fire and 
Marine, the other Life Insurance According to Mr. Foster's report, there 
was paid last year to 

Fire and marine stock companies chartered by our State. ... $13 ,701 ,052 
Fire and marine mutual companies chartered by our State. . . I ,651 .497 



Deduct one-tilth for receipts from business done in other States, 



Receipts of other State and European cum panics having agen- 
cies in this State 



15,411 ,549 
3,082,30* 



12,829.240 
S ,272 ,477 



Pennsylvania paid for fire and marine insurance in 1873. ... 15 601 ,717 
Life insurance paid in 1873, life insurance com- 
panies chartered by the State, partly intimated, $2 ,000 ,000 
Agencies of companies chartered by other States 

on business done in this 6 ,01 6 ,236 

8,016.236 



23,617,958 

This aggregates more- than three times the entire revenue collected by 
the State, or, in other words, the people of the State, in 1873 paid for in- 
surance equivalent to $6 30 for every man. woman and child within the 
State. 

Some of the details of the above summary will be more fully compre- 
hended by reference to the following. Full details can be seen in the Com- 
missioner's report : 



FINANCIAL. 



BCHHRSfl DOSE BV INSURANCE COMPANIES IN I'ENNSVI.VaVIA. 



Risks in tone 
Doc. 31, 1-7:1 



- -. "C 

"\_\ Losses paid ' 



♦327,719,775 *1<»,557, 064* 
485, 315, 898 1,106,743 



ereo I iy 

Penn>\ -lvarii;i - 

Ifataa] comp a nies chartered by Pann- 

in Ivan .1. " 

Joint stock fire companies chartered 

by other States. 2, 853,636, 516 38, 649, 712 

ie» of European fire companies, 792,796,310 1:2,368,683 
Life Insurance oompaniee 'hartered 

• rmsylvania 52,669,914 692,777 

Utiia«Bi«neefv.iuj.»ni^«''iiiirt<'rt'(l i>v 
otherState* 174,406,781 6,016,236 



•6,183,379 
1,087,361 

31,138,808 

8,849.*2I 

.■.7!',li40 
2,136,964 



& 



5,286,446,594 60,291,219 40,960,077 90.78 



&gg*6gau 

Pennsylvania joint stock inland and 

marine companies ' #81,457. si" *3,2O3,084 

Other Btatea joint stok inland and 



nunne oompaniee 
Aggregate 



13.928. 115 2,379,194 



45,385,982 ' 5,588,178 4,426,899 09.75 



•2,845,517 
1,888,89 



00.66 

00.24 

00.84 
00.92 



WTION OF INVCfUXCE COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



PaloTuil enpt- 

tal. 


Assets. 


Income. 


Expendi- 
lures. 


•ylvunia joint stock lire 
ami marine oompaniee . 
Oth«-r Btab ick Are and 


89,387,838 

-".779,285 


♦24.K53.084 •18,668,753 
55,584, 409 39,819,029 


•12,644,044 
36,270,434 




39, 167. 108 
•4.202,475 


80,488,893 53, 486, 292 


48,914,478 


Eoropean fin Lnsuranoe 00m- 
paiuea 


810,979.898 * 1 1,076, 080 


•9.750,286 


Pennsylvania mutual lire In- 
surance 


1 
Assets. Liabilities. Income. 

08 820O,O88,7-46 11,041,887 


Expendit'a. 
* 1.632, 788 


Fennsylvanis life insurance 

companies 

Life insurance companies of 1 


♦18,642.476 
881,796,888 


$10,971,847 
'306. 198. 935 


84, 108,898 

113,982.980 


•2,780,728 
81,772,409 








365,437,832 i 317,170,782 


118,088,550 i 84, 588.137 



The Commonwealth received, in 1872 and 1873, taxes paid by insurance 
companies .is follows, viz : 



1874. 



is::!. 



From companies chartered by out State, tax on corporation 

stocks ami net .earnings — •118,396 59 •113,990 78 

From other Stale and European companies, Ux on li.-en-es 

and premiums 351.396 08 853,490 78 

487,792 '57 467,481 54 




■64 



FINANCIAL. 



COST OF PUBLIC WORKS A.ND THE STOCKS OF CORPORATIONS. 

Washixctox, D. 0., March 14, 1874. 
Hit Excellency Jxo. F. Hartranft: 

Dear Sir: — If you can conveniently aid in obtaining authentic facts as 
bo the cost of construction, annual amount of expenditure, and annual 
amount of income of the Pennsylvania Central railroad, while it was tne 
property of and controlled by tlir S1 will greatly favor 

Your obodtenl servant, 

JAS. S. B1ERY. 

A duplicate of my answer to tin- Hon. George B. Luring was sent to 
Hon. .Lis. S. Biery, M. V. 

MASSACHUSETTS Se.VATE, PRESIDENT'S ROOM, 1 

Boston, March 20, 1874. j 
My Dear .Sir: — I have the honor and pleasure to acknowledge the re- 
t of valuable documents relating to public affairs, railroads, &c, in 
Pennsylvania. Please accept my (banks lor your kind attention in for- 
warding them. 

Fifteen or twenty years ago the State of Pennsylvania sold out their in- 
terest in the Pennsylvania Central railroad, as an act of benefit to the road 
and State both. 1 suppose that act was the result of certain investigations 
aod reports by commissioners. Are such reports tr. be had? A propo- 
sition to run Massachusetts into State ownership of railroads, is before us, 
and 1 am very anxious to learn what was dene by Pennsylvania under 
similar circumstances. 

If the reports to which I allude cannot be obtained as public documents, 
can you iuform me where I can find them? 

Truly and respectfully yours, Ac, 

GEO, B, L0R1NG. 
His Excellency J.vo. F. Hartranft, 

C!uf>fiioi' of Pfinixtjleania, UarHiburg. 



Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
Office of Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Agriculture, 

Harrisbcrg, May 4, 1874. 

Hon. George B. Lorixg, 

Dear Sir: — Governor Hartranft has referred to my Bureau your letter ol 

March 20, asking certain questions in regard to our State having sold out 

her interest in the Pennsylvania Central railroad some fifteen or twenty 

year since. 



1!\AM I kL. 65 

. ania ai uo time hold stock id oi thai d 

however, had a pretty large experience in the ownership and management 
of public- wr>rk»—cbieflj canals. Aboul 1826, our State, in bei DOrporate 

capacity, i immenced tin- conatruotion "l whal was known us bei main line 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, this was GOropoeed of about 126 miles of 
railruad and about 292 miles of canal. This dumb line was completed about 
1831 and cost the State about $18,61 5,6''»o. 

While bills to complete this main 1 i 1 1 • were printing in the Legislature, a 
aystein of "log-rolling" was inaugurated by which seven or eight braiieh 
canals wen- also put under contract — the whole expenditure feu which 
reached about $17,000,000, An account current might be stated as fid- 
lows, viz : 
Pennsylvania main line, canal and railroad, about 416 

miles $18,615,663 00 

Delaware, Susquehanna, North and West Branch divisions, 

of canal, costing 10 .965 .569 61 

Beaver, Erie. French Creek, one or two others, none of 

these finished by the State 5 ,589 ,234 34 

35,170.466 95 

These public works were managed by a board of three canal commis- 
sioners. For about twelve years they were appointed by the Governor; 
Rri the last fifteen years elected by the people — one each year. The main 
line and Delaware Division paid something, probably two per cent., on the 
cost of investment, exclusive of management. The second class of branches 
did not pay, on an aggregate, the cost of management. The third class be- 
ing unfinished were given away to companies to finish, and the State never 
received anything. 

About 184-1, commenced an agitation which resulted, thirteen years there- 
after, in selling out these works and disconnecting the State from all man- 
agement. The question did not turn so much upon their unproductiveness 
as upon their corrupting influence on State politics. The canal commia- 
sionerB, afl the people generally believed, being engaged in running the 
politics of the State, rather than attending to their legitimate functions. 

The main line costing $18,615,663, was sold to the Pennsylvania railroad 
campany for $7,500,000. The other finished branches, costing $10,985,- 
01, were sold lor $3,500,000. The third class, of course, nothing was 
realized from. 

The experiment, you may say, was a costly one to the State, yet, proba- 
bly, the development which their construction gave to the individual wealth 
of lbs oitiseftB was worth five times what was directly loBt. An amendment 
to our State Constitution, adopted in 1857, prohibits the State from build- 



66 



FINANCIAL 



in tr i i or in an] way siding, scribing stock or otherwise. 11 

Ma,— 'ill team a lesson from Pennsylvania, she would doi 

gage in building 01 ma it State abhors this more Mi »C- 

a miii -I its demoralising effectc upon |m -ti t i- -.-. tliun tin- loi u< nrred 

in their construction. The Pennsylvania railroad was charted in 1846, com- 
pleted about 1S53-4. 

It coal Brora Harrieburg to Pittsburg'. , , #15,237 .965 03 

Bron i Larristrui -■. "|,1 t'uliiinliiii ji.;ii|, A i-., ."> ,375 ,733 43 

Equipment* locomotives, ears, &« ' t>.iiu n 

BeaL'aetate and' talegrap 5,268,642 55 

Improvements at Philadelphia and Pittsburg I ,279 ,71H 55 



34 ,610 ,106 7t> 
Its investments in stocks, bonds, &c,, in other railroads, 

on January 1, 1871, were, within tin- State 90 ,073 .069 82 

This investment increased, within the hist three years, 

about.. 16,000,000 00 



Whole investments within the State 140 .682 .170 52 

Estimates have been made that thfa company has control- 
ling interests in railroads without the State, ousting in 

all probably 500.000,000 00 



646,662,130 52 

The above, probably, covers your inquiry to the Governor, if not, please 
address me as to the point you may desire. 
1 remain yours, 

THOMAS J. BIGJJAM. 

Commissioner of Statistics. 
September 26, 1874. 

Note. — This was written over lour months before the elaborate report of" 
the committee of stockholders, who reviewed the value of assets, held by 
the Pennsylvania railroad company. 1 have not compared them to see 
wherein they agree, or how far they differ. 



FINANCIAL. 



67 



Pennsylvania, about 1826, commenced building railroads and canals by 
State authority. The following table gives an. abstract of co6t, revenue and 
expenditures up to January 1, 1844, on main line : 



Cost. 



Revenue. Expenditure. 



Columbia and Philadelphia railroad $4, 204, 969, 96 $3, 196, 353 »9 , $2, 835, 684 32 

Eastern division of canal 1,736,599,42 i 1,436,665 16 434,934 79 

Juniata division of canal ; ' 3,521,412 21 806,157 13 1,023,286 13 

Allegheny Portage railroad 1,828,461 35 i 1,308,358 82 1,366,534 82 

Western division of canal 3,069,877 38 1,165,496 03 j 848,198 42 

14,361,320 32 ' 7,912,031 13 6,508,638 48 
Increased cost of main line, being chiefly, 
building new Portage railroad, from 1 
January, 1844, to sale in 1857 ; 4,254,342 68 

18,615,063 00 
This main line sold to Pennsylvania rail- 
road by act of May 16, 1857 7,500,000 00 | 

1 

Loss on main line 11,115,663 00 1 [_ 

The following table gives an abstract of cost, revenue and expenditures 
on branch canals to January 1, 1844: 

Cost. Revenue. Expenditure. 



Delaware division of canal 

Susquehanna division of canal. 
, North Branch division of canal. 
West Branch division of canal . 
French Creek division of canal. 
Beaver division of canal 



$1,381,741 96 i 

896,379 52 

1,580,670 87 

1,808,472 10 

796,801 74 l 

511,671 19 



♦844,670 61 • 
200,586 75 

169,242 11 , 
123, 865 39 
5,722 94 
30,525 33 



$838,514 26 
371,882 14 
541,007 06 
463,689 84 
141,897 12 
179,002 62 



Unfinished Improvements. 

North Branch extension of canal . 
West Branch extension of canal. . . 

Erie extension of canal * 

Wioonisoo feeder 

Allegheny feeder 

Gettysburg extension of railroad . . 



6,974,737 38 \ 1,374,613 13 | 2,535,993 06 

2,484,939 60 ■ 

352,456 79 , 
3,160,566 76 | 

390,013 28: 
31,171 56 

667,917 61 ! I 



Increased cost of branch canals from Janu- 
ary, 1844, to sale in 1868 



14,061,802 98 
2,422,616 93 



Branch canals sold to Sunbury and Erie' 

railroad by act of April 21, 1858 i 



16,484,419 91 

3,500,000,00 



Loss on branch canals i 12,984,419 91 



6S FINANCIAL. 

Amount of stocks held by Commonwealth OB April 8, 1*13, in sundry 
banks, canals, railroads, turnpikes and bridg«-, Chiefly WBUlta oflog-rotl 
while improvement system ffM >>i VOttB.6 : 

Amount sold per act of April 3. 1 S4-S, 

(original cost,) $4,191,783 00 

Bold erace, (original coat.) 249,275 ■.»-! 

•Still held, (original cost,) 1.754,321 62 

— *6.l94 ,884 

Amount r» ■ ■>' above. 

FrOCeodB of sale in 1843 .. 1 ,405 ,180 68 

Prooeede ofatool since sold, about 35 ,000 00 

1 .440 ,130 63 

Luas on corporation stock 4 ,754 ,249 93 

Loss on main line 11 ,115.663 00 

Lobs on branch canala 12 ,984 ,419 91 

Loss of Commonwealth on her public improvement*, 28 ,854 ,332 84 



INDEBTEDNESS OF THE UNITED STATES. COUNTIES, CITIES, 
RAILROADS AND INDIVIDUALS. 

United States, May 1, 1874 $2 ,149.725 ,22T 02 

United States bondH to the various 

Pacific railroads $64 ,023 ,512 00 

Interest to the various Pacific rail- 
roads 17 ,335,273 19 

81,958,785 19 



Total National 2,231,684,012-21 

■ •■nil Stains w aoMlmrx, nz : 



Alabama Oct. 

A rkanaaa Oct. 

California July 

Connecticut April 

Delaware Jan 

Florida Dec. 

Georgia. ... Jan. 

Indiana Oct. 

Illinois Dec 

Iowa Nov, 



1, 1873. 

1, 1873... 

1, 1873... 

I, 1X73.. . 

1. 1874. 
81, 1878.. 

1, 1874... 
31. IH73... 

1, 1872... 

1, 1873... 



$11 ,258,836 07 

10,385,000 09 

3,796,500 00 

6 ,095 ,900 00 

1 ,231 ,000 00 

G ,620,809 W 

14,871 ,084 00 

4,898,813 34 

2, 060 ,150 63 

543.056 15 



•This amount r>f old corporation stocks has no market value, and in practically 
WtiJlhlWH. 



FINANCIAL. 



69 



Kansas Nov. 30,1813. 

Kentucky Oct. 19, 1873 . 

Louisiana Jan. 1, 1874 . 

Maryland Sept. 30, 1873 . 

Massachusetts . .Jan. 1, 1874. 

Maine Jan. . 1, 1874. 

Michigan Sept. 30, 1872 . 

Minnesota Nov. 30, 1873. 

Missouri Jan. 1, 1873. 

New Hampshire, Jan. 1, 1873 

New Jersey Nov. 1 , 1 8»8 . 

New York Oct. 1,1873. 

Nevada May 1,1871. 

North Carolina. . Oct. 1, 1873 . 

Oregon Sept. 1,1872. 

Ohio Sept. 15, 1873. 

Pennsylvania . . . Dec. 1, 1873 . 
Rhode Island . . April 30, 1873. 
South Carolina. .Dec. 31, 1873. 

Tennessee Jan. 1, 1873. 

Texas Sept. 1, 1873. 

Vermont Aug. 1, 1873 . 

Virginia Sept. 30, 1873. 



$1 ,336 ,675 00 
2,720,710 72 

22,308,800 00 

10,771,215 60 

28,477,804 «0 

7,138,400 00 

2,243,292 78 

25* ,000 00 

18 ,747 ,060 01 
3,914,195 44 
2,696,300 00 

36 ,530 ,406 40 
660,000 00 

29,547,045 00 

290,477 00 

8,221,062 10 

25,794,061 63 
2,638,500 00 

20,650,225 00 

20,966,382 19 

3,715,978 88 

297 ,500 00 

45,718,112 23 



355 ,895 ,293 43 



Total State debt 

County Indebtedness. 

United States $180 ,000 ,000 00 

Oitiet: 

1st class, 16 cities over 100,000, 350 ,000 ,000 00 

2d class, 12 cities 50,000 to 100,000, 30,000,000 00 

3d class, 53 cities 20,000 to 50,000, 75,000,000 00 

4th class, 105 cities 10,000 to 20,000, 35,000,000 00 

5th class .... cities less than 10,000, 80 ,000 ,000 00 

750,000,000 00 

Railroad Indebtedness. 

New England States $122 ,224 ,449 00 

Middle States 477 ,199 ,070 00 

Western States 883 ,794 ,823 00 

Southern States 280,846 ,999 00 

Pacific States 102 ,839 ,109 00 

Total railroad debt 1 ,866 ,904 ,450 00 




10 

Bauiv. 

Discount by National banks $044,220 ,304 00 

DisooOBt by State batiks 514,081,396 00 



Total banks $1 ,468 ,304 ,700 no 



Total indebtedness of the United Stairs y,\-: ;-- >, .. Hi 



Tn inert thin enormous indebtedness, we have an amount of oaf 
wealth, estimated by llie census of 1870, at thirty billion dollars, ($30,000,- 

•Oft,0OD.) 

Our annual income from all industries and earnings, lias been estimated, 
by a high English authority, at six billion dollars, ($6,000,000,00" ) Bte 
admits we are ahead of Great Britain, France, Russia, Prussia or any of the 
great European nationalities lie only claims for Great Britain five billion 
dollars, ($6,000,000,000,) or one-sixth less than be allows to the United 
States, 

My own statement of public indebtedness, prepared prior to Speaker 
Blaine's address, has been revised, and his statements in reference tu the 
indebtedness of comities and cities adopted. His statement, that State in- 
vestments in public improvements rarely paid, is strikingly illustrated by 
the experience of Pennsylvania. 



Main line of Banal and railroad. 

Her entire branch Oapjklfl . 

She held stocks in chartered companies. 

Loss to the suite. 






|lA,615v« 
[0,484,419 no 

R.1W.SSD .hi 



Sold fur. 



{■;,.',nii,iHMi in) 

. uno o« 

I. ))n. 130 00 

2*. 854, 332 00 



*i,yt,«as oo 



41,294,482 00 



BANKRUPTCIES 

The annual business statement of failures in the year 1873 has been pub- 
lish, i, and is very interesting. Tin' number is quite large — 5,183, as 
against 3,551 in I870j and 2,010 in 1871, and 4,000 in 1872. The appmaeh 
of the revulsion, In w.-\, i, u,i- . listinctly foreshadowed by the statistics of 
the y. ,u 18T2, when the aggregate liabilities of the failed firms were $121,- 
0-".t;,00n, ; ,s against $88,»tfl,000 » 1070, and$85,252,000in 1871. Nor can 
there be any doubt, as to the cause of the increased bankruptcies in 1^72, 
Massachusetts exhibiting 120,874,000, as against $20,684,000 for New 
York eit.v, and Illinois figuring $11,470,000, as against $9,422,000 for 



FINANCIAL. 



Tt 



Pennsylvania. The Boston and Chicago coiirtagrations K-n-ept awaj snail 
enormotu values u i" preoipitate these failures. Insurance, banking ami 
te must have been damaged by those conflagrations to an ex- 
tent tli" Boope of which was not known at tin- ti: 

Turning to the great centres of these interests, we find that while the 
range of liabilities of failed Guns in New forkToity was between twenty 
•ml twenty-one millions a yew prior, bo the great panic, the aggregate in 
1ST- i iee bo between ninety-two and ninety-three millions. In New fevk 
Stat' , tin- amount rose from between eight sad nine nol- 

le thirteen and three-quarter mill i one. In 1'eiinsylvntiia the rise was 
. between seven and ten millions bo thirty-one and a half millions ; in 
Massachusetts (he liabilities i>f 1873, though less' than half those of t$72, 
were- several millions ahead of preceding experience, The amount, in Kaa- 
. was more thau doubled. Ohio also iaor o es o d largely. But the reel el 
Hm couatry shows ao increase of bankrupt liabilities, eaoepi Rhode Island, 
whieh leaped suddenly up te fifteen and a quarter million?, in oomeqveni e 
ol bb pie Failure. Maryland appears te have had her revulsion in 

187% al time with Boston, her bankrupt liabilities having been 

$d.045,nmi in in;^. :i: ,,| ...,!% - 1 .■jjv.o.h. i„ is;:;, California seeinstoliBvc 
had hers in 1811, when her bankrupt liabilities were $4,279,000, against 
only 11,600,000 in 1878, 

From this review the inference most be that this revulsion, although pre- 
cipitated by the Cooke failure, bad been gradually approaching, and was 
largely caused by the conflagrations in Chicago and Boston, The boast 
oth «it i.s ol saving recuperated so suddenly seems to be a dear one bo 
the country, since it has caused all the difference between 2,915 bankrupt- 
cies and $85,252,000 of liabilities in 1871, and 4,069 bankruptcies and 
$121,056,000 liabilities in 1872. and 5,1*3 bankruptcies and $228,449,000 
liabilities in 1878. If it could be BUpposed that t l :e great increase of bank- 
ruptcy in 1872 and 1873 resulted from any inherent unsoundness in the cur- 
rent Biode of doing business it might warrant the preaching on the Bubje' t 
in which the journals indulge. But the examination we have given does 
not justify any such eomlusion. Sao Francisco, Baltimore, Chicago and 
Boston ull appear to have |tad their cleaning out in 1871 and 1872, and from 
causes peculiar to themselves. The great, strongholds in New York »ud 
Philadelphia resisted until the fall of 1873, and then gave way. There is 
i.e avoiding the conclusion that the losses of the tremendous conflagrations 
in Boston and Chicago have been distributed over the country ( and that 
the two cities named have borne but a limited ehare of them. 

Of the failures of 1870 New York city and State had 818 out of 3,551, or 
than oin-i'unrtli of those of 1871 J the same city and State hud MS 
of 2,015 ; of those of 1872. the same city and State had ^08 out of 4/W9, or 



FINANCIAL. 




: 18T8, the same city and Mate hud 1,188 out of 

-lil'lh. Taking die States I New York and Pennayl- 

i:nl in WIS ii" less than *64 failures, and their liabili- 

tfi kg ■..- gated |I87,x<*l i thai tin' atera Of 1S73 seetnB to have 

terj "ii these two State.'-, and chiefly upon Philadelphia, 

I'urk ami theii suburbs. Together these cities centralize all the in- 

i' 1. 1 ■ : tin republic, ami they have suffered for the Collected mishaps of 

all Hi. reel Ol the Country. The calamity burst npOD New York with more 

li'nilili' ill'r.is tlinii has been generally known, and the destruction of 

vuliiiii has fully equalled the losses by both the Boston and Chicago cot- 

bagtetiona. 

■ >■! It 1 be folly to "deny that the revulsion see developed a vast 
mOUl Of dishonesty , retteoness, baseless credit and general recklessness 
Kul very much 1 'I this exists in all great and prosperous nations, and in all 
tniu'N hi active enterprise anil commercial spirit. It ii> surprising how well 
I ln< ci n nit 1 v for several years stood the seven' trials caused by the speculative 
1 mbifl .iiions in New York, involving, as they must have doi.e, very di6- 
HMlroiiN losses. Jt is surprising how well we stood the Boston and Chicago 

Bsgmtlons. But it is iinw apparent that all these events were treated 

inn lightly, It was supposed that the losses could be carried without an 
i' 1 1 But ihe revulsion showed that this was a mistake. 
Ilit'l not I hew gigantic speculations and conflagrations unhinged credit 
■o much, nnr belief is that the whole railway and industrial movement 
lid htVA been carried along without difficulty. But the Black Friday 
,...>,,, mi Now York had a corresponding crash of a breadstutiV corner in 
1 the failure of ell the connected interests, and New York sus- 
l liusvy louses also in the foreign trade from ■ variety of causes. The 
MMUn'jriiti'il ''abilities in bankruptcy in the last UrO years are three hundred 
mul inn, 11 1 n • ■ and a half millions of dollars. But if we suppose half of this 
hill ii would form but a small fraction of the general business of the 
Hi' BslosofKew Yurk city alone amount to three thousand mil- 
lion* id ilollui*. ami those of Philadelphia to ah oit a thousand millions. 
|ite»M In Now York city, supposing half the liabilities of the bankrupt 
in 1.1, 1.1 l.i Im 1, would In- lorty-six millions, oi less than one sixty-fifth, and 
L.nU bo applied to the eonntoyai large. So that Bm condition 

■ •i 1 u .in I"' lodged by the failures alone, but must be calculated 

i.l the whole trade. The business aggregates of this nation 

i,uil\ upon an extraordinary scale. Yet in l^Tl there were 

■h. 11 in I sTo. ami the liabilities were less. 

II 1 1,1 uubl • ' these bankrupt tables shall induce more careful 

lml.11 MM they Will produce good results. But if they generate 

1 ,li 1 1 1« magnitude of the insolvency the effect will In unfortunate. 



FINANCIAL. 7* 

Just each a panic we have had about railroads, and when we come to ex- 
r »pine the subject we find American railroads, on an average, more profit- 

- #M» than the British. So, we have no doubt, the general business of the 

- ^ppqptry would prove, if it could be examined in the same way. A revulsion 
: fchrays brings down many firms that have been tottering for years. It 

dears the atmosphere and makes times better for all sound and reliable 
Hmmmm. If general business had not been sound we should have seen it in 
Ae condition of the banks, whose means must of course be chiefly loaned 
to business concerns. But the banks have come out of the storm unscathed, 
•nil mercantile credit is excellent and trade prospects fair and promising. 
jfS Chicago does not burn up again, or Boston kindle a new conflagration,. 
ire shall see an active trade during the ensuing season. 



fCY, [ 



BANKING. 

Treasury Department, 
Office of Comptroller of the Currency, 
Washington, October 10, 1874. 

Sir : — I have the honor to enclose you statements giving statistics of the 

National banks in Pennsylvania, similar to those of the National bankB in 

Ohio, published in the report of the Secretary of State of Ohio for the year 

1873. 

The statements comprise the statistics on the various subjects treated up 

to the latest possible date, with the exception of the abstract marked "A," 

which shows the various items of the resources and liabilities of the banks- 

at the close of business on the 26th of June last. 

So soon as the reports of the condition of the banks on the 2d inst. shall 

be tabulated, an abstract of their resources and liabilities at that date will 

be sent you as requested in your letter of the 29th ult. 

Very respectfully, ' 

JOHN JAY KNOX, 

ComptroUer^ 

Hon. Thos J. Bioham, 

Commissioner of Statistics of Labor and Agriculture, 

Harrisburg, Penn'a. 



FINANCIAL. 



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FINANCIAL. 



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FINANCIAL. 87 

THIRTY-EIGHTH SEMI-ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DOLLAR SAV- 
INGS BANK. 

124 Fourth Avenue, Pitlxburg, I'o. 

LIABILITIES. 

Amount due depositors, June 1, 187-1 $3 .041 ,205 !»."» 

Dividends due June 1 , 1874. . . 99 ,405 07 

Contingent fund, June 1, 1874 197 ,203 80 

Total liabilities $3 ,937 ,935 18 

ASSETS. 

Loans on bonds and mortgages. $2 .830 ,324 97 

Mortgage interest due 9 ,780 00 

Bills receivable 4 ,000 On 

Stock in Pittsburg banks 71 ,034 01 

I*. S. 5-20 bonds, 1868 250 ,000 00 

U. S. G per cent, bonds, 1881 50 ,000 00 

U. S. 6 per cent, currency bonds 250 ,000 00 

Pittsburg? per cent, water extension bonds, 50,000 00 

Real estate 141 ,452 39 

Bank furniture, safe, &c 12 ,01 1 79 

fash in banks and on hand 208 ,132 29 

Total assets $3 ,937 ,935 48 

Present number of depositors 9,375, averaging $399 01 each. 

The undersigned auditing committee respectfully report that they have 
examined the treasurer's report for the last six months, ending May 31, 
1874, and have examined the assets of the bank, consisting of bonds and 
mortgages, deeds of real estate, certificates of bank stock, bills receivable, 
I". S. 5-20 bonds, 1808, U. S. per cent, bonds, 1881, I'. S. 6 per cent, 
••urrency bonds, Pittsburg water extension bonds, and the cash in bank and 
on hand, and find the same to correspond with the above report. 

J. J. GILLESPIE, 
JAMES D. KELLY. 
II. J LYNCH, 
GEO. D. BRUCE. 

Auditing Committer. 
Pittsbur«, June 9, 1874. 
The trustees have declared a dividend of th/ee (3) per cent, fur the last 
six months, ending May 31, 1874, free of government tax, and parable 
forthwith. If not drawn will bear interest from 1st iust. 

CHAS. A. COLTON, Treasurer. 
I'ittsbiik;, June 19. 1874. 



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EDUCATIONAL. 99 

Newspaper and Periodical circulation in the United States. 





YEAR. 

• 


i Newspapers | 
; and periodi- 
cals. 

! :i 

37 j 
! 359 
. 852 1 

! 1,258 

1,(531 1 
2,526 


Copies annually j 
printed. 

16,000 | 
170,000 . 
1,200,000 
22,321,700 i 
68,117,796 
90,361,000 ! 
995,838,673 
426,409,978 i 
927,951,548 ; 
1,508, 548, 250 
1,659.403,075 ! 


Population. 


1704 

1775 

1S10 

1828 

1835 

1840 

1850 

I860 


600,000 

1,000,000 

2, 800, 000 

7,239,814 

12,000,000 

14,000,000 

17,069,453 

23,191,876 

31, 445, 080 


1870 

1674 




i 5,871 
1 0,458' 


38,555,753 
42,411,328 



Number of publications with their circulation and annual issue in the 

United States, in 1870. 



Number. 



Copies annually 
issued. 



Daily 

Three times a week. 

Semi-weekly 

Weekly 

Semi-monthly 

Monthly 

Bi-monthly 

Quarterly , 

Total 



I 



574 

107 

115 

4,295 

96 

622 

13 

49 



806,479,570 

a4.19fl.380 

A'., 708, 488 

55ll,92t,43l! 

32,395,(180 

67. 810, 116 

189,900 

840, 6H0 



Circulation. 



5,871 



1,508,548,250 



2,601,547 

155, 105 

247,197 

10,594,643 

1,349,820 

5,650,843 

31,660 

211,670 



20,842,475 



Classification of publications. 



Advertising 

Agricultural and horticultural 

Benevolent and secret societies 

Commercial and financial 

Illustrated, literary A miscellaneous. 

Nationality, devoted to 

Political 

Religious. 

Sporting 

Technical and professional 

Total 



Number. 


\--VpjCH OJIIIUUIIJ 

issued. 

._ _ _ 

4.689,800 


Circulation. 


n 


293, 450 


93 


21, 54!, 904 


770,752 


81 


6, 518,560 


257,080 


142 


31,120,600 


690,200 


503 


160, (nil, 408 


4,422.235 


20 


4,071,000 


45,150 


4,333 


1,184,789,082 


8,781,220 


407 


125,959,496 


4,764,358 


6 


3,212,000 


73,500 


207 


15,974,060 


744,530 


5,871 


1,508,548,250 


90,842,475 



100 



EDUCATIONAL. 



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192 



EDUCATIONAL. 



THK MONEY VALUE OK EDUCATION. 

1 1 August last 1 attended the State Convention oi teachers at the Ship- 
peneburg Normal school, and was deeply interested in two essays read by 
ciiiiiuiTit presidents »( out colleges. The questions discussed were, prim 
rily, educational ; but their arguments were presented in such u ligh< 
incorporated statistics ae to render these problems of social abeota 

demOUBtaftlona. 

Dr. Hays, president of Washington Jefferson College, had I'm his them 
(he money value ol education, and Buccessfully demonstrated that no oiks 
iiu i-siim-nt secured lo its possessor bo large ■ percentage upon ita iuveet- 
iiicnt. Tin 1 niily difficulty seemed in be thai ii our Pennsylvania fat 
acted npon hie advice, then the Dumber of lawyers, doctors and divine 
must very booh overstock the market, and block down the price nearly 30 
per '-''lit., liie greonbaoka during the Late rebellion. 

Hut Dr. W l's '^-i.v, prepared without an\ knowledge ol the t 

net thie objection l>y slewing that technical education to instruct the mass 
was indispensably required to raise up artists, defiigners, engtueern, teach* 
era, skirled workmen of every deecription t<i take up our ores — our coal— 
Out iron— Din raw fabrics of every species, and transmute them into all th 
MB I'-rins, shapes, sizes and colors required in domestic and social life 
Thai by thos greatly increasing the value of their labor our sons an 
daughters i Oilld find profitable employment at home, and would not 

:uv.i\ id seek . • i r 1 1 ■ 1 < . v 1 1 1 1 ■ n t iii new and distant States. The com' 
i productions of these two aminent scholars illustrate what for yea 
has been out dream for our good old mother Commonwealth, that she. is tin- 
no distant future, is destined to be the Empire State of out Union, first mi 
all thai tends to make bar great and glorious. I have therefore copied the 
whole "I Dr. Hays' essay, and a lull abstract uf the much longer one 
Chanceltoi Woods, and 1 commend then to the reader's careful considera- 
tion. 

It. I lays spoke as fallows : 

Then- air some fields of debate tliat must be constantly traversed. This 

question ol whether or not an education pays is one of these. The battle 

fbughl "lit and won many years ago, when the free school system was 

proposed and finally adopted by our State. But moat of the heroes of that 

wai . and a generation haa come up since, which knows but little 

ol lln arguments pro and von. This generation, too, is fully as egotistical 

.1 iy i.r its predecessors, and is perfectly confident of its own ability to 

lindci -i. i'i I and settle all doubtful questional and has no great faith in the 

idon of tin- lathers. .Moreover, this modern young America having such 

unbounded faith in its own powers, in ■•■ry mvcfe disposed to believe, that, 



11- 

: 







EDUCATIONAL. 103 

"while an education may have greatly assisted its grandfathers in making 
'their way in the world, yet it is not at all so clear that itself needs any such 
assistance. It is important, therefore, that the facts and figures should 
once more be arrayed for the instruction of the public. This being a ques- 
tion of social science, and not exact science, where the forces are so numer- 
ous, complicated and subtle, and passion, deceit, prejudice "and circum- 
stances so greatly influence actions and results, it will not be often possible 
"to reach precise conclusions. All that can be hoped for reasonably will be 
"that the indications marked in one direction shall be so often and so strongly 
corroborated by others that we shall have satisfactory if not unmistakable 
results. 

To rjegin, then, at the beginning: Does it pay to send "a boy to school ? 
In the year 1870 there was sent from the Bureau of Education at Washington 
a circular, asking from employers, workmen and observers information on 
that very point, and in the published report, entitled " The Relation of Edu- 
cation to Labor," a large number of the replies is given, and the general re- 
sult of the opinions of these men who employ hands, the hands themselves 
and thoughtful men, is that ordinary common school education adds from 
twenty to fifty per cent, to a man's ability to make nloney. In other words, 
when a father sends his boy through our common schools, he makes him 
worth to himself as a man from one-fifth to one-half more than he would 
have been without it. If in ignorance he could make $1,000 per annum, 
which would just keep him, this common school education would add from 
$200 to $500 per year of profits to be saved, either of which sums, if care- 
fully saved each year, is the basis of an early fortune. 

The extreme scarcity of good American laboring hands proves the same 
thing. Not one native boy in one hundred grows up ignorant of reading, 
writing and arithmetic ; but, knowing these, he is worth more than is now 
paid common hands, and so goes to more profitable work. Farmers complain 
of the impossibility of getting good farm hands, but he was right who told 
. his neighbor, "If a man was able to work your farm to please you, he would 
be working his own farm, not yours." Probably every oue of us has among 
our valued acquaintances many who began as farm hands, but are now land 
owners. The men who stay as hands are the ignorant, and not the edu- 
cated*. 

In the same line is the fact that, as a general rule, the wages paid work- 
men is in proportion to the intelligence demanded by their labor. In manu- 
facturing establishments the men who frequent saloons and the street cor- 
ners get the low wages, while those who study up the science of their trade 
• or work and read the papers get the high wages. 

Go to our almshouses, and we will be met with some very instructive 
-facts. If education has no money value, then the poor houses ought in thia 



104 



EDI CAT10NAL, 



respect ol education to L"' an average of the genera] community in wh 
they are located. The truth, however, is, that ili< ■.-■ paup 
lea to one, while the people an- more than one hundred to one educated. 
Eveu a common school education, therefore, divides your chances tor the 
poor house by one thousand. 

There is a phase of this subject developed in connection with crime thatde- 
BerveB our careful attention. I! you go to our jailfi and work houses where 
are punished the petty criminals convicted of vices that neither require skill 
for their commission nor brijig profit iu their accomplishment, you will find 
them an ignorant, stolid, stupid set. If you g-> to the penitentiary whi 
are confined the criminals whose crime pays — forge re, bank robbers and de- 
faulters^ — you will find many of them highly intelligent and often scholarly 
in their own specialty. Very many counterfeiters, in the way of still as 
workmen, are first class, and if fchey had turned their ability to making au 
honest living, might have made a fortune, in addition to those, howei 
who tire caught and punisn mat consider Che targe class of criminals 

who are not punished.. 

Here again we find the same lesson, for we shall probably agree that the 
ignorant actors in such petty crimes an pilfering and assault and battery 
generally caught when they are wanted, but that of the great criminals 
who steal by the hundred thousand and waylay and murder, there is a very 
large number that runs unwhipped of justice. Their knowledge helps them 
to cover tip their tracks or foresee the coming discovery and escape in time, 
or else BO cloak it with the forms of law that it cannot be reached. These 
facts may play havoc with those pel theories that education secures the 
morality of the i omm unity, bul we may as well lace the truth which we 
are taught by experience, thai mere education does not make a man moral, 
hut it dues make him successful and his labor profitable, Pacta do show 
that in the places ol punishment and out ol them, dextrously avoiding the 

penalties due to their crimes, the number ol" criminals who ar located is 

about a fair proportion of the educated people at targe, but even criminal 

statistics show thai a common scl I education greatly increases thi 

chances of profit. 

But it is scarcely necessary to argue this question with regard to these 

elementary studies, for m mil lo»1 I" every Sense of duty In their children 

oould be willing, where education is free, to allow their children to grew 
up unable to read in thi papers the events ol this tumultuous ago and write' 
in the times of then joy and trouble to the friends who would sympathize 
with them and correctly calculate the debts they owe their neighbors and 
the dues that are coming to them. The debate an-l doubt in the phblii 
mind is HOI in regard to those branches whose use is direct and obvious, 
but in relation to these which are very often never directly used, and whose 



EDUCATIONAL. 1.0a* 

main claim, therefore, to public confidence is their effectiveness in discip- 
lining the mind, so that when it comes to the immediate work before it, it 
can perform it best and quickest. 

We are very often told that an education is not necessary to success, and 
are pointed to Franklin and Lincoln, Stephenson and Shakespeare, who 
never went to college, in proof of the assertion. Now, as it may be sup. 
posed, that the less includes the greater, we propose to devote the remain- 
der of this paper to the money value of a college education. If we show 
that for the average boy or girl a college education is very greatly to be 
desired and vastly increases their chances of success, then o fortiori every 
boy and girl who cannot get a college education ought to get just as good 
an education as they possibly can. If a thorough education is very de- 
sirable, then every one ought by all means to get the very best education 
within their reach. Since, therefore, every college graduate must go 
through the intermediate steps of the academy and high school, a plea for 
college education i6 equally available for every other grade. This is the 
easier line of argument to adopt for academies, high schools, seminaries 
and all such institutions, because the statistics are more easily gathered 
and are already at hand more fully. 

The experience of the religious denominations in this respect is very 
significant. Between these denominations the competition is very active 
and sharp, and within each denomination the competition between individ- 
ual ministers is no less active. Not a few denominations have tried the 
experiment of an uneducated miuistry, and some have sought to make it 
their boast, but it cannot be successfully contradicted to-day that every 
li-ading denomination in this country and Europe is an earnest advocate for 
this education, and that within these denominations the influence of the 
educated ministers is out of all proportion to their age and natural talents. 

This leads us to make some remarks on the basis of comparison. The 
success of Franklin, Lincoln, Stephenson, Shakespeare, and their like,, 
proves that in every country high positions are open to all fitted to fill 
them. If, then, a college education does not improve a man's chances for 
these positions, the n number of college graduates found in them ought to be 
in proportion to the number of college graduates in the country. That is 
to say, if half the young men of this country go to college, about half the 
Congressmen, judges, cabinet officers, and such like, should be college-bred. 
But if more than one-half are college-bred, and not nearly one-half of our 
young men go to College, it is very evident that the college education 
greatly benefits a man's prospects for these high positions. 

The young men in college have no more natural talents than those out of 
college. I believe the average is no higher one place than the other. This 
opinion, however, has been controverted, and I propose to allow one-fourth* 



EDUCATIONAL 



fur stupidity ; that is t-- say, Quit taking out of those who do not go to col- 
lege the dumbest of every four the average talent* of the otbei 1 1 , r < • • • will 
b- fully is high as the talents of tin- average college student. Remember- 
ing my own companions iu my common school days, 1 am sure that th 
of up who went to college were no Hmarter than those who did DOt, and 
when I compare the keenness of wit aiid thought which I have me! among 
the poor and neglected children an cities and country districts with lite 
mental ability and inability which 1 have met in college during lour y< 

as a student, and foot more as president, and what I have Bees elsewhere 

•of college men, 1 do u<i believe that colleges get into their class's anything 
above the general average. 

Tin- question iighl also to be introduced thus early and remem- 

bered. II college-bred men attain eminence at an earlier age than others 
of equal talents, in this world where life is so short and uncertain, that is 
■ r.'iv important Item to be considered. 

L*'t us with these two conditions of the estimate in our minds then look 
at Congress. This would aeein to be a very unpromising lield, for the 
impression is abroad that it requires political trickery rather than culture 
and ability to insure a mau's election to Congress. With, however, BODkC 
very favorable opportunities for forming an opinion on the last few Con- 
•ses, I assert my conviction that in point of ability they w*re such aa 
this nation may be proud of. Corrupt men there were for whose corruption 
w..- might blush, but though corrupt they wore DOt weak, and I believe in 
point Of integrity, and certainly as to ability, they were far above what thej 
i. oeived credit for. We have fallen int> • » vi.-i.-us liul.it of the detraction 
Of our public mm, and I say this fcO Cfttei my protest against avast amount 
of reckless lying done iu this way. 

What proportion, then, of the 1 nited States Congress ought to be edu- 
cated men? Of course the Congress is open to everybody if he can get 
votes enough to elect him. By tin- census of 1870 there were 2,611,796 
malae between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four, In 1872 the Bureau 
"I Education gave special attention to the collection of college statistics. 
This being two years after the census, then urn bei in o -liege would naturally 
be greater, and so taking the two as the basis, the proportion would b-- un 
favorable to edacation. In that year there were 17,884 in college, and divi- 
ding the number between eighteen and twenty-four, the college average age, 
by this number, we find that about one buy in every 140 goes to college, or 
that the college men, graduates and those who do not graduate, are about 
140th ol the male population Dropping, now . as we have sa:d, one-fourth 
for stupidity, and we shall have the proportion less than one to -»ne hun- 
dred. The proportion ought to be 140th, but out of the 140 take away the 
40 stupidest, and surety the remaining hundred will average as good natural 



EDUCATIONAL. 107 

talents as those who go to college. The present Congress has 302 members 
of the Ilouse of Representatives and 73 Senators. Therefore there ought, 
if an education is of no special advantage, to be three college graduates in 
the House and one in the Senate. There are, however, 138 graduates 
in the House and 55 who received a less complete education, and 35 gradu- 
ates in the Senate and 15 who obtained an academical education. That is, 
a class comprising only one 100th of the population furnishes close upon 
two-thirds of the Congress. If a denomination could show such a record 
it would be called a state church, and every unprincipled politician would 
be for joining it. Note the figures, 193 to 109 and 50 to 23. 

From Lanman's Congressional Dictionary I have compiled the following 
statistics in regard to cabinet officers. I shall hereafter use two terms, col- 
lege men, meaning all those who took a complete course or a partial course 
at college or at an academy, and self-educated, meaning those whoenioyed 
no such advantages so far as known. There have been fifteen different men 
«lected President of the United States; of these thirteen have been college 
men and two self-educated. There have been nineteen Vice Presidents, of 
whom twelve have been college men and seven self-edueated. Three Vice 
Presidents have become Presidents, none of whom were college men. 
Thirty-three have been Secretary of the Navy, of whom sixteen were col- 
lege men and seventeen were self-educated. This is the only office which 
I have found in collecting these statistics where the self-educated men had 
a majority, and here it is but one. Ten men have held the office of Secre- 
tary of the Interior, of whom eight were college men and two selfoducated 
There have been thirty Postmasters General, of whom nineteen were col- 
lege men and eleven self-educated. There have been thirty-four Attorneys 
General, of whom twenty-one weie college men, and thirteen self-educated. 
Of Secretaries of War there have been thirty-four in all, of whom twenty- 
seven were college men and but seven self-i-ducated. There have been 
twenty-nine Secretaries of State, twenty-two of whom were college men and 
but seven self-educated. When we reach the Secretaryship of the Trea- 
sury a fact is developed which surprised me. If there is any cabinet 
office where mere business life would seem to be on an equal footing with 
the colleges it would be here, and yet the colleges almost monopolize the 
place. There have been thirty-three Secretaries of the Treasury, twenty-nine 
college men, all but one full graduates, and only four self-educated In all 
there have been 203 persons holding cabinet offices whose history I have been 
able to ascertain, of whom 142 were college men and 61 self-educated. If 
an education is of no account there ought to have been two college men 
out of 204, instead of 142. In other words, a fragment of society certaiuly 
less than a hundredth part furnishes more than two-thirds of these cabinet 
-officers. So in the recent Constitutional Convention of this State the in i- 



108 



EIM'UATIUNAL. 



jority were college men, lor out ot 1+2 who were at some time members 
it, BS were educated and only Ifi self-made. 01 tin- signers ol the Dvclara- 

tion of Independence, there wet* »■» all W>of whoa n were educated, oc 
only one lees khan tbxee-Jburth, thirty were lull graduates and but Bib 
pelf-made. It is DOl to he doubted that men may work up to these posi- 
tions of influence themselves, but if success and fbrtu hus so much 
more surely attain'''! by at) education BO wise boy will neglect it it" he can 
pofirtit.lv help it. 

Turning new from political lift to the Legal fraternity, exact statistics are 
more inaccessible, but bo bras observation goes, ii points directly to the 
same thing. There have been eight Chief Justices of the United States, of 
whom seven were college graduates. There have been thirty-seven asso- 
ciate justices whose history in known, of whom twenty-four or two-thirda 
were colI« htates. In this State the same holds true. Every jud 
on tin' bench in Allegheny county ia a graduate, as are also inosl ol the 
judges of tli" State. It' we look among the lawyers we Bhal) find u fact 
true which will explain this abundance of college graduates r»n the bench. 
There are very many lawyers of marked ability who had no college educa- 
tion bui they are generally middle-aged or old men. The men who attain 
eminence young are the college men. 1 believe four-fifths of those who at- 
tain eminence as lawyers ai from thirty to forty-five years of age are col- 
lege-hred men. Those, as a rule, who attain eminence without this previi 
mental discipline only reach itat from forty-live to sixty veins of age. Now 
the term ol office ol the judges is a long one, therefore those elected ar« 
generally among the younger men. It seems hardly worthwhile to oleel i 
man of sixty or seventy years of ago to a ten or fifteen years* term of office. 
Thus it is that the college graduates cany off far more than their propor- 
tion ol these judgeships. So in the medical professi there are many 

physicians who attain eminence without this early education, but they come 

to it when they are older. The doctors that reach this great BUCCeea y 00 
are generally college graduates Of oourae this rule is not without many 
pxcepti.e.- but when it is remembered that not mors than one-half of the 
lawyers and physii ians are college educated men. and thai so large a pru- 
portion of the eminent men of these professions come from that college ha 
and that a still larger proportion of those who attain eminence earlj 
famished by thai college half, it raises s wry strong presumption in favor 
ol it being a paying investment of time and money to take as thorough a 
course of education as our means will allow. 

Probably the fairest as well as the severest teat to which this Question of 
the value ul ,i, education was ever pot occurred during the recent war. 

Both sides were pushed so close to the wall that neither ci I anything 

about a general BO he could snci Odd in getting victories, The Wist 1'oiitt 



KJ>rf'AT!OV\ 



men weir matched against the others in al! *■— - -'▼vri .m-| t- 
latinus as generals of the opposing am.:-?- i..-: ■•• ininamli"^ 
divisions, brigades and regiments of infantry, i- i:.-y ami »■ 
hat tli.' Holds. There was n<> lack of men ready •• i->epi .•*'• 
sibility coming IVuni every station in lite They wen- 1-" 
battalions on their own side and against them. What ■■ » 
of this test? Before the war was half over the opinio- • ■ 
Suith was pretty well settled, that he who had been •>•• . ,- 
was tar more than a Inateh for him who with eijua! -w. 
that early drill and discipline. When the war on.?-: ■■ - - 
anything but graduates left prominent on either si: *»- • 
Longstreet, Beauregard. A . S. Johnston, Joseph E. -" ~- 
J2. Lee, and Honker. Hum-nek. Thomas, Mead*. V"~ ;» *■ 
man and I J rant were all West Pointers. 

To sum up results then we rotne to the*- : : ,^- 
known as a eoimnon school education adds r-.-r : 
man's money-making power, whether he oiit'- ir- ■— 
honestly. A higher degree of education xiv zi.tr-' " 
tion. If we look into those profession*, no. & t*- " 
a man's brains and learning, and not his mca-y k«-"* 
ally obvious. Every business man's brsshi* j- vr- 
eides brains a banker, a merchant, a macESaan*- ^ 
money also. It is a matter of no important* -r— — — 
or doctor is rich or poor, «0 he knotc* i*-r v -wmr- 
lege education fits such men to do a* ffterw- 
they would probably have done at i'trr? *r"ir~ 
words, it adds ten years to a man'* 
hood, nor ten years of infirm old ar»- 
when his body is ablest to endur*- \m.tew 
nervons strain, and when the fee* t»- — 
ment pays so promptly ho large s mt 
from $1 ,500 to *2.50#. Xow if s 
him, he can put that cducatiot vbw 
calling, and get $1,000 to %&,mt m 
will more than pay for itaerf in-nrr- 
a railroad, a bank or a UfUftrrikm 
will pay for itself in two » 
fl.fiOO, and I have received 
It is almost my entire 
a moment the suggestion oC«ff- 
ther , if a young man fir mkT ~ 
breaks up, and mei 



e. 

dar 

- - ear, 

- - al, or 

earnestly 
ough you, 
.• of the sub- 
youth and the 
.madorned man- 
i education in the 
that special ednea- 
'f us to discharge in 
• >y which each citizen 

or ease, but of severe, ta- 

' 9 different enmbina- 

t can make it. 



I 



EDUCATIONAL 



■dy. But no man loei location by baring it 

sold out under .1 foreclosure oj b mortjj burnt up in :i lire, or stolen 

li red by a reckless partner, or spirited away by a de- 
fault Ic-keeper. It is tin.' only kind i>i 'a Fortune parents Ban give 
ilicii children, wh children can nut waste by their extravagance, or 
be oheated oui of by other people's villainy. 

It [i ited by the most careful observers of business life, thai in. tin? 

large citii oe hundred persona win' undertake business mi their 

own account, seveuty-five fail, and make their living Bcrving somebody else 
an book-keepers, clerks or helpers in t<iime way. Ten others make a bare 
living with many tips and downs. Ton more teach moderate affluence, 
three "r four more considerable wealth, and not more than one in the 
hni!! i aches the real large wealth thai bo tempted his eyes, when 

as a boy he was in such haste to get into business for himself. Ihil every 
hey thinks- h- is the one in his hundred thousand who will turn out a Bi 

Franklin, ami BO neglects til lucation that makes men .if ethers, and only 

gets wiser when he is too old to repent to advantage. I once heard a man 
say that possibly many a boy then in college might have turned out a genius 
like Franklin ii he had been kept at home. But lie had forgotten to count 
up how many there are at college who would have been blockheads at home, 
and what multitudes there SM who are all but ciphers in society, who would 
have made masters if they had had a genii education. College bny6 are 
sometimes called proud, but. the really vain and proud are tln.se who think 
themselves SO Bicart they can get along without schooling. The truth is, 
y boy and girl when they get out in life will find there with them, in 
the sharpest competition, boys and girls just as bright as they arc them- 
selves, and they stand a | r chance when the ,„idn o! thorough discipline 

is all against tbein, as well might a common hand undertake to light, with 
an accomplished boxer. 

And new parents and boys wind say you to these figures? Are you am- 
bitious for the future? It bo, y hi cannot afford to omit education. It is 

not indispensable to sn m, but it brings success soonest and eureet. 

Though the college men an less than one-hundredth of the whole they 
secure two-thirds ol th< good places. To put it a little clearer, if among a 

hundred thousand d * hundred good places are to be distributed there 

will be sixty-six Of them go to the thousand college men fri the hundred, 
thousand, while for the other ninety-nine thousand there will he only thirtv- 
foiu places. In one case your chances are one iii fifteen, while iii the other 
they are hut one in 2,911, 

Sorely it is wise to make the best preparation we can for a life so very 
uncertain as rhe considerations thus far presented have been ex- 

clusively th,,se of the lowest and most materialistic kind, But every man 



EDICAT1UNAL. 



Ill 



i to i lit ilization ami Christianity and genets! culture. Here 

. 18 all but indispensable. M:iny i n have tin' wealth urn 

trinity i" In' mi v influential for good, hot their ignorance and want uf all 
cultivation and rennemen] make them ridiculous. Edacatioo pays in mousy, 
Inir :t pays even a larger profit in enlarged manhood, intellectual enjoy- 
icial influence, the elevation at society, the refinement of the people, 
ami the general home comfort and public prosperity of toe community 



INDUSTRIAL L-iHUCATlON INDISPENSABLE TO OUK STATE 



BY CI iR WOODS. 



I address the representatives of the 19,000 educators of our large, rich 
influential State, to whom is entrusted the moulding of o»ir 1,200,000 
■(h, 

rfot oar fertile soil OK OU* many manufactures, in themselves considered, 
are of so much importance as the bruin and brawn of the youth who are to 
:iti- tins soil, and increase and perfect those manufactures, tints giving 
i high rank we should attain among our bister States. 
However h limbic our work us teachers may be regarded by those who 
by their annual income ir their display of dressand equipage, 
measured as every work should be, by the good done, it is second to none. 
I do nut address legislators, sensitive as art aspen leaf tO the popular 
pulse, or manufacturers, looking eagerly at the profits of the present year, 
those who bow for others and the future, who toil not t" mine coal, or 
tike pig metal, but to build up true, intelligent men and women. 
1 address you on a particular subject, and 1 desire to do it as earnestly 
and with such statistics and bets as will impress, yon and, through j 
others in different parts ofom State, with tie- greet importance of the sub- 
ject, and secure suob action us shall advance the good ofouf youth and the 
iaterests of our State, And 1 propose to do it in a plain, unadorned man- 
ner, stating some id" the many facts before me which favor education in the 
theory and practice "I the arts and trades ol all kinds, " that special educa- 
: n our calling which should lit and enable aftob of us to discharge in 
best manner the special narrow round ol duty, by which each citizen 
fills his own personal place :, i social life 

our lives are not those ol idleness or ease, bul of mi i ■■ 
haueting labor on material as varied in its nature as the different combina- 
tions of matter with the multiform elements si mind and heati can make it. 



•1? 



EDrCATIOVU, 



To make au ingenious piece <>f machinery requires labor and -Will; to 
mould and fashi'->n a soul demands the exercise of the highest powers witli 
which mat LB ©ndOWCtt. To create is tho province of Omni pi >t< !Ond 

only to this is it to develop that which allies man t'> ih«- Creator, Ed 
Hod is "one of the greatest and noblest designs thai can be thought on, and 
for which this nation periaheth."' And yet the puddler, cuuii. 
glass-blower or sheet worker receives greater compensation than the 
moulder, who fashions. ft>* eternity. More i* paid tor th< 

for the object covered ; for the setting than for the jewel. 

Our duly afl educators is not simply to instruct in one or a few ^i 
but to decide nn the comparative value .>f different studies to different 
students, with different capacities tastes and purposes, 

The relative worth of different kinds of knowledge to the student ha 
been sufficiently regarded. The studies he has pursued may "be valuable, 
and to the extent to which he has pursued them whilst they may In I. 
than other studies that might be in whole or in part substituted. An im- 
mense amount of information bearing on the industrial activities, which 
should be understood by all, has been passed over, while the less useful 
has been studied. There has been a tendency to regard the useful as ig- 
noble. 

The answer, then, to the question, what Should our youth study ' una not 
been intelligently given. '['lie philosopher ~ .- » i ■ 1 lic.y B&OUld study &a1 
which they will most need when they l>ee. .me men Witt. Penn, in writing 
to his wife in relation to the education of his children, said, -'Give them 
learning, but let it be useful learning." 

Practical, skillful men in the trades and arts we need. To have theni we 
must educate them They will not grow of themselves. God will not work 
a wonder to help 08, when he has given ub wherewith to help ourselves. 
Especially are such men demanded in our* State, where there are no many 
pemons engaged in agricultural, mechanical, engineering and mining pur- 
suits. To advocate such an education is to advocate the highest Interests 
of our Commonwealth and its toilers, 

Tho old and rich Institutions of England are elbw to adapt themselves to 
the changes in learning, In Cambridge, it is said, a man may yet get. the 
highest honors in mathematics and natural philosophy, and have never Been 
a crystal, a lens, an air-pump or a therm. .meter ; and at Oiford be may get 
his first honor in natural science without knowing the Binomial Theorem 
or the solution of a triangle. Yet in technii lum we are far behind' 

England and the continent where are numerous richly endowed institutions 
fitted to give instruction in practical education. They have consequently 
acquired great superiority over us in many fi>| tin- art* and manufactures 
We have been too well satisfied with oureelvee and our school Bystem, and 






EDUCATION 



II.; 



mil educated our youth in the arts so an t<> develop, without "trial 
tad error," and without the most lavish waste on* abundan1 natural re- 
sources. Our wealth has reached the aam of $80,000,000,000* Bm n 
th it wo are in most oases exhausting our virgin Boil without seeking Co 
il ; that we urn consuming OUT vast shms of mineral wealth ami 
lessly destroying our forests. In the year I s "" this transfer of wealth 
! Burface and from beneath the surface, after deducting the cobI oflal 
and material, wsb |l,18S,410,86fl, or^ol all our computed wealth. We 
:b from the earth, and, aided by foreign capital to the amount 
of $1,400,000,000 our supposed entire foreign indebtedness— we erected 
oai edifices, bail! our ships and railroads, and fancied ourselves mora 
wealthy by this entire amount, We forgot that the change of a 'l<>1Iar from 
the puns to tin' band, where it could be seen and counted, Is not an Incr 
of one dollar in our wealth. It "its ■ dollar, and is a dollar still. We Jot- 
that it \a labor which creates wealth or enhances values, and, so far ah 
■■•■ was employed in developing out resources, to that amount, and 

that amount only, it haa added ti> our wraith. OFtliiH vast natural wealth 

must not be too prodigal We have, ii is true, one of the richest coun- 
tries "ii the earth ; a fertile soil, extensive forests and an abundance of oil, 
ooaJ ilt, gold, silver, tead, copper, nickel, slate and marble. .Much 

a! our soil has already been exhausted through had agriculture. We are 
iul in tbiB than the Chinese, who flee that eve rj element taken from 
the ii->il is returned to it, bo thai there .shall be no waste. Our woodlands 
■ recklessly stripped, noble forests often girdled and left to 

I for years to decay, monument* of our wastefulness, thai the rry. 

rtear!" is coming up from all parte of our hind. Our iron and coal 
too, have b» o used without regard to economy. What we want is to use 
all our abundant material ao oconqmically us to have nd wast", and to ap- 
ply to it so much of skilled labor an will add tin: most iiiissihle to its value. 
The labor, too, should be applied in this and nut in foreign countries. To 
send our cotton to England and bring it back, paving for it many limes 

i we receive, or to send over our wheal to be converted Into labor, u 
doing what England did from Alfred to Bdward the*Confeasor— Belling our 

is Cdt a sixpence and buying the tails for a shilling. We have no faith 
in the opinion, early expressed in our country, that we should confine our- 
selves to agriculture, and avoid manufactures. This would make us the 
-laves of foreign countries, simply tributary to their wealth. 
An agricultural people cod never become wealthy or powerful. What 

do waul is intelligent, skilled labor to enhance the value of the natural 
wealth of the country, and send it to the market increased in value ouc 
hundred or a thousand fold. How greatly labor increases the value of the 
material, can !><■ easily illustrated Aniline colors, surpassing in beauty 
8 Statistic.-!. 



lit 



EDI (JATIONAL, 



Tyrian purple, arc made Ironi coal tar, until latch a worthies! 
and the Aniline blue Bells foi ^i!^ n pound A pound of cot) ding 

[2 cents, made into muslin of good design, sells for 80 cents, and into 
chintz, $4 ; :| pound of the finest cotton, costing* 40 cents, made into cotton 
lace, vi ill bring $1 r O00 ; iron ore, costing 76 cents, made into bar iron, will 
for $5; iiorso shoes, $10 50; tabic knives, $180; the finest needle 
ml; shirt buttons, 129,480; watch springs, $200,000; hair Bprii 
*400."on ; pallet arbors, $2,577,595. Here labor lias, with tlio aid of ma- 
chinery, produced the difference between 75 'cuts and $2,577,696. Any 
article obtained without labor has no exchangeable value. Rude labor, 
thai which requires no practice or education, brings the lowest price ; dex- 
terous labor, which enables a person through practice to perform workc 
parte of works quickly and nicely, brings a higher price; and skilled labor, 
combining b knowledge ol the principles underlying the i-pcraiionB us well 
as dexterity in their execution, brings the highest pi i' <-. Skilled labur 
creates values, rude labor often destroys them, Tl>e Inst stroke of the skilled 
sculptor gives value to the Ettatne ; one blow of the rude laborer might de- 
stroy ilf work of years. It 1b by labor that our machine shops and iron 

furnaces bave bee ore productive of wealth to our State than would be 

the i -lil mince of the world Ami il one-ball oftho 618,000 persons 

in ''ur Stair engaged in agriculture, manufactures and mechanical and 
mining Industries Bhould become skilled laborers, there would be an annual 
addition to our wealth "I $184,800,000. If there should be the same change 

in one-naif of the 9,000,000 engaged in the samo pursuits i ir whole 

country, it would, at a very low estimate, add $2,700,000,000 annually to 
wealth of the nation. We must not "verh.uk the bet that the sum re- 
quired for necessary food and clothing is the same for all classes of lal 
era. In England it has been computed that sl"J.~> represents the coot of a 
highly skilled over a Bkilless workman, and that this cost -d" a skilled work- 
man is Jess than one year's purchase of his increased value to the nation. 

A single fact will illustrate the value of skilled labor in producing ilf 
best machinery. A P^tsburg cotton manufacturing company wanted a 
now Corliss .-team engine to take the place of one they then had. The offer 
of "lie for $8,f>00 was refused. A second offer, for the fuel saved in five 
• by the use of the new engine, disclosed the fact that the saving would 
be $200 per month, or $12,000 in five years. The engine was taken at the 
lii.-t offer, The saving from machinery running evenly, a\ oiding the break- 
ing ol'th as probably equal tc» the Baying of fuel. 

Time will nol permit as to do wore than to allode to the vast losses 
arising from ignorant and incompetent workmen, engineers, architects, 
ovcrBeers or owners of property. The abandoning on the ocean of the 
French steamship L'Amerique through die ignorance of the engineer; the 



EDUCATIONAL. 



by tinr i'Wii government, at a > ■ i of SI 1.0(1 
draft monitors, not large enough t" carry the turrets for which Q 
intended ; the placing of an engine at the cost oi nearly $800,000, on • 
of our government ships, which was abandoned afti i .1 single voyage to 

lingo, in which tho lives of many illustrious n ned ; the 

Pembertoo m in which of the 150 employees 38 were killed, 

and many disabled for life; the recent Mill B 
lives, ami $2,000,000; the* IhHing oi a floor in a Syraonee charch, killing 

•illy 1 !, and injuring loO more ; these losses ore familiar to all, La 
sums and many lives ore lost liy incompetent railroad engineers and archi- 
tects. Soils are exhausted, and small crops are gathered, through lgno> 
ranee of the chemical and mechanical principles Involved in agriculture. 

art; now taking annually nearly stiiMl.OOO.mii) in value Irom the elements 

of our soil, ami it. li;«s been said that wo have iakeu more in value than tin 
entire wealth of the country. Agriculture is Eosl bocomiatg chemistry, anil 
husbandry, machinery. 

When men understand the theory as well as practice ol theii 
there will be less time and money waeted in t'nlile attempts at invent;. 
directly at variance with well established laws. Inventions, of which we 
have many, as the 13,000 patents granted last year show, are generally the 
result nl scientific knowledge. We have already placed England on 
obligations to our inventions to the amount of $1,000,000,000. (hit tin 
1,000 rejected applications foi patents last year prove; that there kai 1 

it misapplied lime ami ingenuity in this direction-. Wo are almost daily 
reminded of the folly of the man who, by years of labor, sought to propel a 
boat by taking water into the bow ami ejecting It from the stern. 
$20,000 lost in the vain attempt to collect the alcohol from bread in baking. 

Bad the efforts to construct eleetra-mngnetic engines in the lio| I' BUD* v- 

ing steam, are examples of the same kind. I have often been compelled 
in advise young men to abandon useless projects towhlcfa they had devoted 
is of patient toil and all their means. A knowledge of scienlilic prin- 
ciples would have saved them this loss. Science often comes to the rescue 
of ignorance, though sometimes at B late hour The pretended •',' 
of diamonds in California was exposed by OEaeenee King, but not until in- 
accent men bad been defrauded of hundreds of thousands of dollars. The 
Nevada Grand was revealed to the public by a young: scientist, sa\ 
$1,000,000. A graduate of a scienlilic school, for a fee of $250, showed 
the iron mines of New Fork, iii which hundreds of thousands of dollars 
were invested, to he valueless in consequence n\' containing titanium, thus 
100,000. 

It must be remembered tliat what was economy fifty yeaTB ago, is gross 
Wastefulness now, and what is economy now. will be regarded as reck I 






EDI CATION LL 



prodigality fiftg yeata hence. Prom the waste of former y< are Ebitnnoa are 

now rii ado. 

. Ijcbs than forty wars ago Dr. Buekland said: "W'c have daring many 
years witnessed the disgraceful and almost incredible fact that more U 
86,000,000 linsin-ls per annum, more than one-third pare of tha beat coals 
iced by tho mines near Newcastle, have bpon condemned to wanton 
waste, on a fiery heap perpetually blazing near the mootb of almost every 
[•It- in that district." All the small coal was disposed oj is this man 
ner. Dr. Buekland said tha inevitable consequence of this frightful waste 
would be i" axhaaet this coal licld one-third soeiier than it would l>e ex- 
hausted if wisely economized, and to endanger tho interests of the inhabi- 
tants w ho depend fol existence on machinery kppt in action by coal. Eng- 
land b>day realizes the justice of this warning in her perilled manufactures 
Carrying coals to Newcastle' is no longer an absurdity. In this country it 
is now wisely proposed to consume all the coal dust . 

I Scott Russell, the builder of the Great Eastern, from his own experi- 
ence, says : ". The community at large are deprived of enormous treasures 
in mechanical inventions, and enormous progress in scientific, arts, by the 
tact of the general want id' education in those who practice them. It may 
DOl be known, but it is yet I rue, that the mechanical power employed in 
all our manufactures is infinitely more costly than it need be. It is equally 
true that some skilled men know thoroughly how to produce immense 
economy in the production and use of mechanical power, but that we dan 
not put the means Into the hands of uneducated masters under whose con- 
trol they would bo applied. I am not speaking of a loss of a, 10, 20 or 30 
percent.; I say that we know that we are only utilizing one-tenth to one- 
twentieth of the power we employ and waste, and that an economy of 100, 
200, 300 and ttiO per cent, is quite within our power, so soon as a better- 
infuimed, higher-skilled, more perfectly trained class of men and masters 
shall arise, who are fitted to be trusted with the use of instruments and 
tools, at present utterly beyond their comprehension, control or Applica- 
tion to use." 

And again he says : " I lind everywhere throughout the work of the rail- 
roads of the continent marks of that method, order, symmetry and absence 
of waste which arise from plans well thought out, the judicious application 
of principles, conscientious parsimony and ■ high feeling of professional 
responsibility." 

Such a practical and thi-oret ical education as 1 am advocating will save 
many of the losses arising from ignorance, or a want of habits of thought. 
Property and Hie will be preserved, the nation will be enriched, and the 
fierceness of the struggle between labor and capital will be diminished. 
What benefits the Stale benefits her citizens. Bettor educated and more 



EDUCATIONAL. 



Ill 



skilled workmen c< land higher compensation, and higher compensation 

will enable the man to procure mum-.' comforts and luxuries, and to lal 
higher position among hie fellows. 

v person educated in the common brsnol will usually earn 

the snm thai an uneducated one will, and thou his prospi 1 for 

advancement i>i the poaition of overseer or manager, with a salary ol mi 
thonaands, while the ignorant man lias ao such chance. A few ineo, 

;i director oi one of the extensive cotton manufacturing eorporationi 
Lowell, Massachusetts, stated (hat only 16 out of 1,200 opofatives in thoir 
mills were unable to write their names, and thai the wages of these were 
SR per cent, leas than tlie wages of those wh »nld write. 

In the same mills were 150 girls who had ln.ru teachers. Their i 
e IT] per cent, above tine general average, and to percent, abovo those 
who made their mark. 

But it cannot fail to have bean o bser ved that a mere theoretical knowl- 
edge will not secure success in a profession or manufacture. To know that 
an experiment or operation can be performed, and to perform it, are Quite 
different We have seen many and grand iajlazes, and large sums lost 
from this cause. The theory of navigation would not ensure a safe captain 
■■II the or, 'an. Many currents and their rates, many winds and their effects, 
and many peculiarities of his own ship must be known. Power to think, 
combined with a thofongl .1 knowledge of mechanics and the prin- 

ciples of science, will enable one to manage machinery skillfully, econo- 
mising labor and increasing its oflbetivaness, Machinery everywhere i> 

forming the most delicate- and the si powetAi] operations, from the 

spinning of the slemlerosl thread to tin: making of the mi ifl plate. 

It must be directed by intelllgoneo and thought, and the ■• the im- 

provemenl in machinery, tin- gr« atii' I he intelligence and skill required to 
manage it, To-day, with the aid ol machinery . one girl spins as much 

8,000 iiftb.. snii-staini'l Hindoos •■ent m ,; ii Iiim i a estimated, 

that, at the present time, As laborers of Europe and tin- United Stal 

i the aid of machinery, ate doing four times the rhole 

population of th.- :i l,.|„- could do by direct Inbor, 

Machinery in the varied mairal Bnablei .ill, ol whatever t 

igth, i" I'lni remu ,ii.[,io-, meni , which is essential to the pros- 

perity ol a. Agriculture calls fox oalj ■ mall pari of the laborers, 

and those ol well developed muscles. Already ourm sxemany 

and varied, urn tin-' annually l" st,umi,fmij,ono, ,|,,.il.le our agricultural 

products. In our Slate, the value ol our manoiactttrefi for 1870 was |TU,- 
'-'.> 1 ,3-1 1 , ami our agricultural produotB were only $183,010. 0'.'T, 111 mauy 
arttcles we aLready soasi 0* surpass othet nations. Of savon^y-six <-h»«ws 
uf articles manufactured in BirminghsBi, England] the chairman ol 






EIMVATIOXA1.. 



Commerce Biotas thai twenty-four are ro-placed in the com- 
mon markets ol the world by tin- I'nited States. Our cut nails, sen 
machines, pomps and edge tools arc unsurpassed by those of any other 
nation. We have orders for table glass from Europe : oar cotton fabi 
are seni over tbo world; Bigelow's looms for weaving carpets arc unrivaled. 
We have $10,000,000 invested in the ceramic art in a single city, and have 
in our country every y of clay for the most complete suae 

in ilds Is chef industry. We are bow filling a large order for loco- 

tivea for Russia Oar silk manufactures in 1872 reached the earn of 

000,000, affording remunerative employment to 1 1,7 13 men and women, 
while cur Importations of this article of luxury have fallen to $24,000,000. 
a reduction of $10,000,000 in three years. To affect contempt for an 

Ai I. .ii -silk . now, is to betray ignorance of its value. We are taking 

annually from England 150,000 tons of tin at the exorbitant |uie,. of $115,- 
200,000, foolishly allowing her a monopoly in this article, while possessing 
mines in ow untry, and yet, to her astonishment, wo send back tin 

crave. By increaehig onr manumctures, we should stop so largo import. ■- 

- of wooi i as $52/408,021 in 1872, and larger importation! 

other textiles, books, wares and numerous luxuries for which we pay an 
rrually many millions. 

Tbeso indiisii'ie- should be multiplied, and technical education will tend 
to this result, by giving nj tiie skilled workmen needed for this work. The 
almost entire diseppearaut f the apprenticeship system ami the Oppres- 
sive rules of the trade* unions, make this edner.t .ion :m imperative neces- 
sity. Olir manufacturer* would gladly listen to the entreaties of father. - 
sad mothers to take their bom as. apptontices, but they cannot. 

State oni-i remedy this evil, or suffer our youth tr, lM'C.mie common 

laboten umler Foreign ovarBoeca. 

England until L86£ bed this education, and BO fell behin. I the con- 

ct. losing her position IB the manufacture 'd' many articles. The shawl 

tradi dfiwae absorbed by continental rnanutaettuors by reason of 

r technical knowledge ; the .silk trade was injured by a Superior skill 

in dye and finish on the continent ; tin- designers, dyers and engravers 

foreign countries, bj poseeesing athosongfa liieoreticalBndpraotioaliaiow- 

thcii several trades, prodnoed greater purity am] beauty of design. 

cleaner and brighter colors in the clothe and other fabrics they manufac- 

• !, fine) patterns and greater lightness; Coven try ribbons were taken 
from her; foreign workmen were employed a*< painters ami designers, and 

jfaal deficiencies existed in then branches of knowledge which hear 
intimately on the greal departments of industry. Alarmed at these <lis- 

rics thai, ,-he was losing her supremacy in manufactures, that French 
companies were building loCon BO English railway, and that iron 



JiDIX'ATHiNAJ. 






t building in Glasg lustrnetcd in Belgium, she 

tied technical schools of a high order in the ities, 

h others of a lower grade in the smaller towne Poi d single deparl 
at of the art school in South Kensington, 61,000,000 wpre expended, 
ami £80,000 annually were given For its support by Uie State. la 
Institute, BiHii^t, Ireland, iVniii ;>00 to -loo femalo stad< nts arc tra 
all branches of skilled labor) for which taste and physical fitness make them 
suitable. 

In Europe tbeae scl Is arc many, and are supported wholly oi in part 

:. sent-.', too, worthy the object. In 1869 the 
! Bchools in Paris. Eleven thousand men receive ■ technical edn- 
mnuallj in Prussia, From 10,060 to 12,060 workmen attend the 

'i the I Diversity in Berlin. Creusol is a w Icr of activity, skill 

from her systematic l-clink-al education. IV the - 

Switzerland, cut off from the sea and from mines, with bee moun- 
climate, at everj disadvantage, computes with tin- world in m&uj 
her manufactures, lu our own country, Cooper Institute, Stevens Insti- 
tute, the Worcester Free Institute, and the Institute ofTei 
Boston f and many colleges and universities, are doing valuable service in 
artmeut. s 

That there should be some chang ! cvuroe el education, conform- 

to the increased osteal of I tie sciences and tbeii nntnerons applicatti 

i vidi'iit. What shall tlic .'ii:in^<. i,i. ? What reforms shall be in- 
troduced in our prosenl studiss, and what now studies Khali f» adopt* 
Tiini- will permit me (■■ make only a few suggestions in reply to these im* 
port u 

The primary school should given knowledge ol objects, theii forms and 
colors and uses. In doing this, drawing will be (bund highly useful, and 
ii will prove able change from studies less interesting. It. is, too, 

the foundation of technical education, and is important to all of even 
trado and profession. By training the eye to keenness, and the hand to 
iraey and rapidity, it will prove i valuable aid to penmanship, m-thog- 
raphy aod reading, in all of which close observation is necessary. In its 
higher f metric, model, mechanical snd architectural, it should be 

continued through the higher schools and colleges, Ii lend msrtf.pictura 
drawing of which I speak, but sunn-thing higher and more useful. A« n 
result of this study, we shall have better artists, engineers, mechanics, 
architects and designers. Many articles, such as glass, pottery, cabfc 

Iture, prints, and other manumcturea, may be rendered worthless, or 
have their values increased many fold, according to their designs, Uood-' 
designs ii tin value of in-inK from 20 to 36 1 ' cent. " 4 " imuorl 



|H't 



EDUCATIONAL 

is Hii.-. art of iloai isidered now, thai a firm in N"< pey* • 

designer in Bhoes $8 BOO a year. By 1 1». - bounty >>r hi* designs a manoJw - 
tuier of rilver ware in Taunton, .Massachusetts, drove every other manti- 
lacturer out of tho market A single manufacturing company in Mat 
chusotts, stated Lhal their designs cost them 110,000 annually, every dollar 
of which went to England, France and Germany. Tin's sum should be 
i to <"'i- own country, 

Workmen do not safflciently understand tho importance ol drawing. It 

is said ill at it' this ait were understood by every journeyman in a machine 
shop, the productive efficiency would be increased &'i per cent. By ena- 
bling workmen to work from a design instead of expensive models, this art 
would save a vast amount of time and money. A manager of an import- 
ant branch of industry at Worcester, Massachusetts, says that, when a lad. 
lie was one of n class of thirteen, who spent all their leisure .time in study- 
ing drawing. At. the present time, every one then in the class has attain- 
i<1 an important position,. either as manufacturer or manager, and each lias 
owed his power to seize the opportunity of advancement to his knowledge 
of drawing. 

Massachusetts, ever alive to her educational and manufacturing interests, 
finding that she was far behind Europe in tin- education of her laborers, and 
I lint . as B eotieequenOO, her industries wore suflc-riiig. adojtted drawing as 

one of the studios to be taught in all the public schools of the State, making 
ii obligatory on evarj nity tiontajniug aver 10,000 inhabitants, to furnish 
face instruction in this art to all over 15 years of age. An art director 
was prooured from Europe at a salary of $5,000, ami generous provisions 
were, in all respects, made. The result is most gratifying. In 18T0 net 
product in printed cottons was over $1 7,000,000, ami her other manufac- 
tures in which design is of the first importance, were probably more. Mas- 
sachusetts never made a better investment Bbi her sons and daughters, and 
her manufacturing inter, sis. 

It is believed that this study Can be introduced into oar schools without 
interfering at all with the present lines of study. Familiar lectures, with 
illustrations on ^1'omebry, elementary physics, elementary chemistry and 

natural history should be given to all wh" SMfio leave school early, The 
amount of scientific information thus received, though it may be small, will 

I the pupils to notice farts and to study principles in science throughout 
life, As the pupils advance, as far as practicable, models or drawings of 
machinery, or tho machinery itself, and all processes ,,i manufacture should 

examined and reports made with drawings explaining them, showing 
their excellencies or defects, and eraggpsting remedies, Special schodls, 



EDUCATIONAL 

ig Bcbools, should bo established when tl 

branches may bo thoroughly tanght. As a i as it <■-.,.,, be don* 

: where certain trades or parte of trades: can ha team 
re the band and eye can be trained, and the student prepared for work 
u i !:■ hi. of worka. Those who take s higher course in ow 
ole acd universities, should receive thorough instruction in ail 
ices which relate to aagi ring) agriculture, the arts, tradae and manu- 
factures. It is my opinion, confirmed by many educators of oxperii 
and good judgment, thai much of the time — yours, it may be, now devc 
• few primary studios, reviewed bo often thai the process becomes 

taical, may be saved by <■ eaofa study at tlic proper age and 

•"•mitt i ii- unnecessary portions of the text-books. Occasionally , for a tens 
ill" simly of arithmetic, geography or grammar, maybe wholly ouufeted I'm- 
some new ami mora interesting Btudy relating to science or the arts, Tin- 
aliments and illustrations will awaken mind, kindle enthusiasm, ami 
many will i.c induced i" prolong thou attendance at Bchool, u ho otbera ise 

»vi>'ilil M"t. liy thia course lac more will be aa ipushed in a given trnw 

n bow. It lia.s been (bund thai students who have Bpent but two hi 
per day in Btudy, and Ihe remaining hours in labor in which they (alt an 
■est, have often made as much proficiency in thrir studies . who 

Ii;in e devoted their whole time to study. 

Those whose coarse of study is to bo united bo fourteen •■■ Bucteov 

kge — and these compose by 'far the larger- par) el our stodenta mould 

o a short, practical courae, in accordance with such limited lime. All. 

..i whatevor capacity or purpose? should noi be compelled to pursue the 

i tine in t l*o same time. Thia is the very objection brough I sojnatlj 

insl the old collegiate system. Yd while thai system in many colli 

has boon bo much changed as t brace numerous d latin 

(.. tin- different students, and in addition, iu one case, el least, to offer more 
liiaii forty optional studies, there has not been a corresponding en 
i of our grammar and ward achooJs. 

The effects of these practical ami th< oretical technical schools, wbe 

ibHahed, have been riiosl marked, stimulating ihe intellect to arlnit\ 

and diminishing the poverty, vice and crime of the community. And when 
we consider thai 82 per cent, of the criminals of our country never learned 
trade, never were ma si its of any skilled la In ir. ami <mly li per cent, are 
skilled artisans and mechanics, the ethloaJ valnc of this education beoonoes 
nxoa important. The professions are crowded ami manufacturing, 

hanical and agricultural pursnits axe leas honored than they should 

be. 1'ur lalhers and meillmrs slmiild leel that a |ii'aeli<:al technical I duca- 

tiou ia whai most of their sons and daughters need. Our youtli should be 






EDUCATIONAL. 



taught that there is true di -.killed manual Labor, and that it will 

liberal pecuniary returns. 

To woman, tapldly rising to licr tmt: position, to whom the. awnucs of 

' !j the professions, and :» 1 1 kinds of employment are Opening, this rob- 

jei i appeals with peculiar force. She should have ■ deep interest in any 

lauxe which will render her leea dependent on husband, brother of ral I 
and which will enable her to obtain agenerouB Bnppori when eth<T <■■ 
fail. She shonld .seek to be in ■ condition t<> feel independent and to be 
able with oaee to earn a livelihood A knowledge of Borne art will tend bo 
her B higher position and t<> Becnre For her higher respect. From In i 
knowledge ofl olore and llieir relations, and her skill in drawing, woman i.-. 

fitted to Bucceed in whatever requires taste. The success of the lady 
pupils iii South Kensington is greater than that of ihc male students, and 
that in the face of greater difficulties. The many branches of art-work- 
manahip requiring di licate fingers and native readiness of taste ban be bet- 
ter performed by woman than by man, to 1869, 20,006 women were em- 
ployed in watchmaking in Switzerland. Our silk manufacturers employ 
7,802 women in light, clean, remunerative work. \ lady in Pittsburg 
s2T>i) per month for designs in embroidery, made wholly by hereeli 
Woman con excel in draughting, architectural drawing, phntography,-en- 
graving, modeling, d ami painting. Education in the arts, b] 

ning to her bow departments of labor, will enable her better to compete 
with men, seonxe for her beater compensation for her service, and will in* 
crease hot usefulnase and influence. 

I'm- the proper education of all on* youth, with the least loss the edu- 
cation thai will beat lit them for the dotiea of life, 1 plead, 1 do not, while 
speaking in behalf of practical learning, forget the moral and religious 
training without which man will be a failure here and hereafter. The 

earl is mure ihan the hand or eye- the future more than tbe present. 

Lbility, power, maj lie used for evil Instead of good, to enrse instead of 
bless. To others 2 must entrust this lubject. l plead for useful learning 

in the seh i ml room or the Bliop. or lioth, as a ans of interesting our youth, 

ing them a taste fur luminal pursuits, so restraining them from idleness 

and crime, of enabling them t" provide better for their owi mfort and 

happiness, so increasing their Bebf-Toepec1 and adding to the wealth and 
il power of the State. 

The effects of techoical eduoation in Europe lead us to believe thai thi- 

•iii. commenced En the primary school and continued through the dii- 

ii'ieni grades, would bring many of the 6,000,000 youth in our oountipyof 

-rihn.i age, who attend no Bchool, under instruction, and make them indus- 

is, moral, happy skilled laborers, instead of paupers and criminals. 



EDUCATIONAL. 128 

When plans for education in all its departments, for all, shall be wisolv 
devised and faithfully executed, we shall have better and more productive 
workmen, better citizens,' thinking men and women, multiplied power of 
machinery economically used, the yield of our soil doubled, a more virtu- 
ous people, and our republic more prosperous and more safe. To us this 
great work is committed. Let us be faithful to our trust. 



EDUCATIONAL. 



125 



Value of buildings 
and grounds 






Cost of board peri 
week 



-id 


sssss 


■ •? 


«-»e«f 


ig" 


sssss 


• ?i 


SSS8S 




r A TORY I! 



ITIONS 



REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 



fill: CONDITION OF BBFOKMATORY INSTITUTIONS IN PENN- 
SYLVANIA.. 

Tin- I sketch was prepared 1" be need, ii occasion oDered, at the 

St. Louie Prison Reform Congress. At a former congress at Baltimore 

some v iflections bad I made upon Pennsylvania u not up to tin- times 

in regard t" modern reformatory institutions. I have inserted a portion of 
tlie same, claiming priority for Pennsylvania, and giving a brief sketch ol 
her existing reformatory institutions. 

Tin' criminal cede of n lb of the original '"i"'ii'> was *■.> mild, nor 

were their reformatory institutions so wisely organized as were those of 
ili^ colony of Pennsylvania founded by William Peon. The leading prin- 
ciples "f this code were embodied in his frame "J' government prepared in 
Bngland, and are distinctly contained in the sixty-second section of bis 
i law enacted at old Chester shortly after the landing of the good ship 
- Welcome" On the Bhoree of the Delaware. This set and the supplementary 
legislation of 1705 and 17G". all demonstrate thai his plan was to make hie 
prisons work-housea wherein the inmates should he employed in Hume use- 
ful industry tending bo their own reformation, and making some compen- 
sation to that, society wboM UVWB thev hail violated. William lVnn has 
been dead one hundred and fifty-sis yearsj yel could he arise from his grave 
; - take pari in the doings of this congress, how few of his published 
npinionB would have to he modified. Be has been generally regarded, not 
,i- ;i Btatosman, bul as a religious reformer, This, however, in a mistake. 
Many others, equally zealous, wli^imis reformers, have labored to elevate 
our race; but where ran yon point bo the founder of an empire that based 
bis institutions upon go stable ft l"i >u u <hit i < n i . and was guilty of so few mis- 
takes, Pennsylvania was fortunate in having, if not the ablest, certainly* 
the wisest European thai aver crossed the Atlantic to found an empire on 
these shores. Tin' labors of her fbundot made Pennsylvania, in criminal 
jurisprudence, the model colony of the original thirteen. In the earlier days 
of the Commonwealth Benjamin Franklin devoted his matured energies to 
the fuller development of the same principles^ after his death the vener- 
able Bishop White, aided by a host of worthy co-laborers still further ma- 
tured the system. The result was a prolonged and earnest discussion in 
the reviews arid encyclopedias of that day, resulting in our State in the 

ii-i of I^IS. authorizing the construction of the Western, and the act ol* 



KEFOBMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 



\Ti 



thorizing the erection of the Eastern Penitentiary. The Wi 
one being the Bral buitf wan imperfectly constructed tor the parp i 

rclng solitary confinement, and although conducted some forty yi 
on that principle, its enforcement has recently been abandoned, and the 

mere are now assi.-iiii.liMi in a common hall " for tabor, learning and re* 
tigions instruction.*' Tin- govern meat «>f this institution Is therefore now 
more than half the time solitary, while confined »<• their cells, and the 
inaiiulor of the time congregate, while assembled in discharge of cerl 
duties. The managers maintain these changes have not Injured it as i 
fbrmatory agency, but have, or will, as Boon as all their arrangements are 
tpleted, add greatly to the productiveness of its labor. They hope, in 
ih is respect, to make it fully equal to the Allegheny work-house thai - 
to say, self-supporting. 

The original construction of the Eastern Penitentiary to enforce separate 
confinement, was n great improvement upon that »( the Western, 
management has labored zealously foi nearly fifty years to demonstrate 

theirs is the true philosophy for the reformation of oriminals. Ti.< 
Philadelphia sentiment outside of that prison, appears to be in full sympa- 
thy with its internal arrangements, and I know of no other kindred insti- 
tution that secures the co-operation "i" so large, Intelligent and tealoui 
laborers in the work of reforming the prisoners and taking care of them 
after their discharge. Even the semi-police force to superintend the ticket- 
of-leavc prisoners under the famous Irish system, are scarcely more fhor- 

ii than the voluntary labor organized fortius purpose in Philadelphia. 
This prison is the only one conducted upon the separate system in th;- 

country. It is not probable that any more will be erected upon this sys* 
; their construction is costly; cell labor cannot bo made remunerative ■ 
their solitariness shocks public feeling, and then it appears to run counter 
to the Divine plan which evidently formed man for social enjoyment. An I 
yet with all these serious drawbacks, (he Eastern Penitentiary, even in the 
estimation of those who believe a better system can be devised, has noi 
. a failure. Its peculiarities, however, have caused its advocates to miii* 
i ery little, in the general conventions of prison reformers. 
Pennsylvania in addition to her two pendteutiaries, has some fifteen pris- 
combiningthe county jail and penitentiary — that is to say, they receive 
convicJcd criminals sentenced to labor tor short terms, leaving only the 
more hardened criminals sentenced for long terms, to be sonl to the peniten- 
tiaries. 

The most remarkable prison in our State, is the intermediate prison, 
known as the Allegheny County work-house, now in the third year of its 
operation. During the first year, imperfectly organized, it only fell a little 
below being self-supporting; the second year it paid all expenses and nei- 






REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 



tod some fifteen thousand dollars profit. This year they hope foi still bet* 

lot things: ami all this. Its managers claim has been accomplished without 
diminishing its efficiency as a reformatory agency. The remarkable sue* 

'■I' this institution will revolutionise the construction and management 
prisons in our State. 

Tin 1 leading juvenile reformatories of Pennsylvania are tin- BsBtern and 
Western Sonses .>i Refago. Tin- former of these wffl booh he ■< half i 
tnry old] Mie latter nut quite hall' that. The Conner has three distinct, 
brant bet . mate and female, white, and a colored department. The Western 
.mi- is tu he in the future known as the Pennsylvania Reform School, and 
will hereafter l»c» coed noted upon what is known as the family plan. Nes» 
buildings in the country, upon a magnificent site, will make this, when Cully 
organised, the model juvenile reformatory in this country. The buildings 
are in process oi erection and when fully completed will cost upwards oi 
$500,000. The advantages of this family plan are very decided, though 
not enough to change an old established institution merely lei - the sake oi 
Changing; the BJStem. But when Cor any cause an old institution has to 1"' 
removed and re*built, then a change tu the family system should be made. 
Nearly all the modern juvenile reformatories in Europe are based upon this 
family System. It. has great pliability as to numbers; may be ciunineuced 
in a small wu\ with fifty inmates, and may, from time to time, be extended 
to DOS -I' two thousand. 

We have in our Stale an institution usually regarded as educational, hut 
which is undoubtedly eflicient in absorbing very largely a population that 
weald otherwise crowd our juvenile reformatories. 1 allude to Girard 
t .liege for orphan boys. Its inmates when admitted there are fatherless 

. between the ages of six and ten years, and are educated and sup- 
ported by the munificent bequest of Stephen Girard. The number average 
about live hundred and sixty, though it is hoped ihat (his number may 
shortly be doubted. If these boys were DOt cared lor and educated by 

trust, their want of parental Control would cause many of them tu DC- 

come inmates of our juvenile reformatories. 

Pennsylvania has also a large number of homes, orphan asylums and 
homes of the friendless, largely sustained by the various religious denomi- 
nations, in which the children of orphanage and want are cared for und 
. dncated, thus greatly relieving what would otherwise be our over-crowded 
juvenile reformatories. The larger number of these are in the vicinity oj 
our large cities and are sustained by one or more wealthy churches, and 
the aggregate number of children in these exceeds those in the juve- 
nile reformatories established by law. This class of institutions, which is 
chiefly sustained by private contributions, has heretofore had occasional 
Aid frOOk thQ State Treasury. The BSW Constitution of our State entirely 



REFORMAT! IKY INSTITUTIONS. 129 

propriationa to such ia the f afcnra under aeofariaa control ■ This 

will cause most "I them in the "future tu rely entirely upon private contri- 

ion fur their atjppori . During tli*- last ten years our State has expended 

rge amount "I money in the Bupport and education of her soldiers' «>r- 

tns. These, like the children educated at Girard college, had they not 

been cared for, their want "i parental care and control would have 

Bod many of them to Rod places in her juvenile Reformatories. The 

ed lor, up to the close of the last liuancial year, was 7,46!'. 

Hi.' number y>t t«i > !<• in myy be two thousand more, The amount h-o 

epended is about $4,500,000, and probably $2,500,000 more will be 

equired before these Bchoola are closed. The cbildreo leave at the agp 
:• eo and iii'' schoole cannot therefore be oloeed until about 1879 by 

Legislature, session of 1874. Pennsylvania is not alone in this field ; 
, , however, the first to enter it and has it mure fully organized than 
other State 
Hie following '>■■ nearly the state of affairs .is presented In i i 
current at this date : 

Al»l IT l'iil—N- . 

The Eastern Penitentiary 

!'li- Western Penitentiary 113 

Allegheny Work-house 435 

Philadelphia House i»l Correction S00 

Semi-Penitenl iariee fifteen 450 

2.6JM 

.1 1 - VEMI.K KKKOHM ATORIKS. 

House ol Kerage, Philadelphia 566 

Pennsylvania Reform School 2fi6 

'•Irani College lor Orphans B60 

ilomes "ii Friendless, Orphan Asylums, Ac - ,600 

So] Unas' OBOTMX Schools. 
Soldiers' Orphan Schools ...... 3,101 



INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL CONGRESS. 



The two following papers were prepared in answer to memoranda ad- 

icdto 1 1,'irrisburg, through our government at Washington : The first 

the Department of Justice of the French government, and the second, 

■ lie Italian government. The Department of Justice in France had been 

oqncBted to report upon the usage ol governments in regard to the con 

D ^TATianoB. 



i;j<> 



REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 



vietinu tur second, third, fourth, Use. . offences. The report asked fa 
the Italian government was upon our charitable institutions. 
These papers, called partly memoranda oud partly iaterrogatoriet 

been, I presume, carefully drawn up in Kronen and Italian, bol had been 
translated at. Washington liy s»iih' perKuii who did nO< understand the ! 

jeotsto Which they relate or the technical terms employed, [am confident 
neither government would have felt honored by the involved Isaiguagi 
which tln'v wen- transmitted. I have nut, therefore, copied them with mj 
answers. , 

Uumuonh 'uli ii "» I'knj,\-yi,v.»m.v, j 

thin I 01 BukkaO or Statistics ov Labor and Aobu.xi.ture, 

STATE HOOSK, /farrish'liq, April SO, f8T4. ^ 

Hon, Bdwaku Voumg, 

Chief of Bureau of Siatislics, WtwJiiitghiti : 

IIjuv Sib;— Tin- Attorney General has Bach a crowd of business on 
that he banded mc, yesterday, your letter, and insists that I shall ana* 
it, 

Our StatV, lVinisy l\ :■ 1 1 i .1 , Inis Ih-i-ii in advance OfllllV ■ • 1 1 1. 1 - 1 . in tin- i'Ul 1)1 

new world, in the ameliorate i her criminal code, Her great foun< 

iu thf ,-:; md sectiou of hie great lau of 1682, declared thai prim 

should i"- work-houses, and la the same act inflicted tho death penalty 
wilful murder alone. Thus PcnnBylvania, in her history of one hund 
and ninety-two years, has only one crime upon lior statute books for which 
oho inflicts capital punishment, Her penal code was revised at [east twice 
during li-T i-"l"nial existence, to wit i 1705 and 11(37. aa a Commonwealth 
it has been three times revised, on all which occasions commissions of able 

jurists had been appointed, and two «>r tBTOtl yOBFS COoh W8S devoted to 

tin- subject. The result of these has been the elaborate aots oi 22d April, 
17114. 23d Wpril, L829, and 31flt March, 1860. Dpon no other sahjeel i I 
her legislation has she expended bo much care, and in no other branch ol 
Inn jurisprudence does she stand so pre-eminent, With these preliminary 
remarks, to enable the department of justice in France to comprehend tin 
bearini:- "f my answer, 1 proceed to answer the interrogatories propounded. 
Iii the absence of the Attorney General, Dimmick, I have submitted tl 
aoiwera to bis assistant. 

I remain respectfully yours, 

THOS. J. BIGI1AM, 
Chief of Bureau uf 8iatitl\ 

l'ii>'. IViinsylvania authorizes her courts to impose a severer penalty 
for tli" second than for a first offence. By the I82d section of not ol March 
SI, I860, she empowers her OOUrts, when punishment fur both flrsl and see- 



ItUFORMATOKi IXSTITIW Li 



i;d 



Id In- ■ •.•nlineim-itl in (lie pi-niteiitijiry, In SCUtCS .-, ■ j:i tin 

• - - 1 1 1 -I . - tip linn- in ir the ftrsl ofionce. The details ol Uw 

net legislation were different, but the principle tin- same 
eond, —Criminal courts, for misdemeanors, may imposes lino; Ebr more 
ravatod miedemoanora they may add imprisonment in the county 
aornotmies evon to the paniteotiaqr, Efelonioa see punished by i" 1 )"''- 
nent in the penitentiary. The Former sentence must have been 1i> the 
litpntiary in order to subject the prisoner to the double punishment for 
■ 1 1' !"■■ n »■. ! to in answer t<> Brat interrogatory, 

Third I undfrntand that any crime for which thro prisi I bi 

ad in the penitentiary in s former cm aid \»- given in pride 

• hi trial (bra second nffenco, although not technically the same-, when a • 

punishment might be inflicted, Per example, ifhe had formerly been 

■hod tbr the crime ol arson, on a second trial for highway robbery the 

nor convicl ion might bo given in e\ identie. Some afoof Judges have eon- 

i this increased punishment to a repetition of the same orimo. 1 lumr- 

(Ter maintain thai the words of the statute are broad nnough to indudQ 

similar as well as the same Bfleneo i but punishment in both cases must be 

a penitentiary offence. 

1h. A former com iction for misdemeanor, for n hich ■ Ban had been 

isl'iI, could nut bo given in evident n a subsequent trial where pon« 

fiction might be followed by imprisonment i;i the penitentiary, 

t'ifih. The law makes the discretion of the, judge trying thocaso i In- au- 
thority to increase the penalty. Our Supreme Court can alono hitorfera by 

writ of error which carries up the r ird. No trial of the facta is made in 

i' Supreme Court. I find na authority in regard to the number ol brTcn* 
cm beyond the second. 

Sixth, The law makes ao dietiuctiou as to length o4 time that must 

me between first and second; and a eoarictiou in one county ol tiic 

-nit'' conic! be given in evidence on a second trial in any other county, 

osnth The record of previous conviotion would have to be given in 

ionce apon the trial, Ptarof testimony might be, given to itideutify the 

criminal, not to prove the ibrmei conviction. 

in.jiifh. Our penitentiary n rda are accurately kepi and show Brat, 

and, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh convictions, iu the same 
prison its own records are theovideooe; when lormer eonfinement has been 
lifierenl prison, uiiIckk the prisoner confesses, I cannot answer how it is 
ascertained. 

S'niih. our sentences arc governed by law alone, the discretion of the 
judge in between u minimum and maximum. The judge may impose, first, 
a line, second, confinement in county jail* third, confinement in peniteotia 
asd fourth, in capital case*», sentence to death. 



liKKURMATOKY INSTITUTIONS. 



Tenth.— Out penitentiary records show in regard to every prisoner hit- 
im ai i< • iv or non-reformation Great attention has been paid to the accu- 
racy of our penitentiary record*. The Philadelphia Penitentiary, im the 
separate system, claims reformation to be its prime object. The Pittsburg 
Penitentiary r on the congregate system, claims equal efficiency for reforma- 
tioB and that the labor of the prisoners will bo much more remunerative 
The Allegheny work-house claims to be equal as a reformatory to eitlu 
the others, although the prison is entirely self-supporting. The new hous* 
of correction, Philadelphia, is Bimilai to the Allegheny, and is expected to 
be wlCeupportiflg. 

ComoXVBALTU OV 1'knnsvi.Vama, i 

OpKICt Of Hi riK.u' ok Statistics or Lawk ACT AoHN i i.ti kk, > 

Statu llc.csr, li<iri-i.-*),ur<i, Sept, 1G, 1874. ) 

Hex. Edward Vnl '.,., 

Chii'/of Jlart'ini qf ikaiisHeu, Washington : 

Hi :vi: Sin: The Secretary of State has referred to my department yours 
of 24th nit., asking information for the Italian government. The reports ot 
the Board of Charities of .Massachusetts and Pennsylvania and half a dozen 
Other States are lull of Statistics on these subjects. Tht? proceedings of the 
prison congresses held at Cincinnati, Baltimore and St. Louis and also the 
World's Convention in London will probably afford all you desire. I send 
you by express three volumes of reports of our Board of Public Charities 
my own report mi statistics and our common school report. These will be 
marked on the outside, International Statistical Congress, for use of Italian 
Charge de Waits, Washington, D. C. 

Yum series of memoranda are so involved that 1 shall try to answer the 
leading ones without following closely your order. 

In regard 10 your first and second, 1 reply our laws are very numerous 
in regard to charities ; not published in any one pamphlet ; I cannot furnish 
then. 

To the third: Our charitable institutions are governed by law- -some 
by general law others by, special charters. 

To the fourth: Their civil conditions arc alone subject to our lawn. 
These laws do not regulate religious belief. 

lo the lillii : !'n h institution generally holds the real estate upon which 

Sometimes it OWnS other real estate from which it derives 

in Income. Mora frequently its revenue is derived from dividends oa 

Blocks or other personal property. Some public charities, such us th« 

support ul the poor, are derived from proceeds Of pnblic taxes. 

To the sixth : If by private r]i:niu is meant begging from door to door, 

then there ifl ranli less of that tolerated in this country than in the old, 

rid. The general opinion being that money thus spent is mm tatty need. 



REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS 138 

To the seventh : We have no generation oi paupers. The individual poor 
are temporarily relieved. 

In regard to the number who received and the amount contributed to 
eharity, I would state generally : Our State has now a population of 3,800.- 
•00. Our great founder provided in his great law for the support of the 
poor on what we call the township system. Thirty-one counties, contain- 
ing probably one-fifth the population of the State, still adhere to that sys- 
tem. The large counties, containing the other four-fifths, have collected 
their poor each upon one or more farms where they labor what they are able 
and are supported for the residue by the county. This I call the alms- 
house system. 

Our townships support 3,500, at an expense of about. $200 .000 00 

Our fifty-seven almshouses support 22,180, at an expense 

of about 1 .100,000 00 

Our school for bliud supports 183, at an expense of about. . . 09 ,955 70 

Our school for deaf and dumb supports 227, at an expense 

of about 52 .873 25 

Our school for feeble minded supports 180, at an expense of 

about -IS ,500 00 

Two juvenile reformatories support 970, at an expense of. . 95 ,433 00 

Two penitentiaries support 1,033, at an expense of 129 ,949 00 

Pupils in public schools 800,000, cost 8 ,500 ,000 0'! 

Forty orphan asylums, homes for the friendless, &c, are chiefly supported 
by private contributions or churches. We have ten hospitals supported 
by endowments or private contributions. Girard College endowed with 
$5,000,000 supports 560 pupils. The National Government alone provides 
support for its soldiers and sailors in war and merchant vessels. 

Nearly all the specifications under the letters a, b, c, d and e, are provi-* 
ded for in some one or other of the institutions above referred to. I doubt 
if any other State of the Union includes a wider range of charitable institu- 
tions. Their administration is generally good, combining a prudent 
economy with a liberal disposition to premit no worthy subject to be un" 
cared for. The details you will find largely stated in the reports which 1 
Kcnd you. These embody more statistics than ever can be mastered by 
your Italian clerks unless they possess the patience of Job. 

You also transmitted me a duplicate of your inquiries to answer for the 
city of Ilarrisburg. My connection is with the State government and 
the reports of the Board of Charities include returns of three small institu- 
tions of this city 

All of which is respeetfullv submitted. 

TIIOS. J. B1GHAM, 

C</nvmiz*ioner. 



KfiKORMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 



135 



§1 

it 

c 

c 

3 



I 8 



s 

8 
3 



S 



§ 



I 

X' 

V. 



I I 



5 « 
g S 



'.as 

Spg£ 
5 .c 



l« 



SIS 

I- Si? 



8 



J^ .-s- jx^jocjs-rri^xc-rTi^tt^rix £ ■»*-»•«* "?52 <s *|5 3 ' 






2S i 



- PC 



S r. 



g :§8SSS8 






mMii mmi 






Si. 



§2 



2Si^5|^2ls 



s o 



111 

c s ? 
= <S3 



33 g, 
©OS! 



,-x 



SIS 



!?S 



828 



fi 



§1 

2g*: 



,'T r ■ - - : 



c 
s 



w v^ *-* m 3 

|26a sect 

£ — — — — wj kJ J .». *-. ^ ,». <-. r». J', f. ft. ft. &. Ru 



£ 



L*9 . •- 



;• lil|fiJill& 



o c 



m.mH$Ul 



136 



REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 



Average ] S§ 



Wholo No. of | 
prisoners , 



58 



33 

t~3 



2 5 



Expenses of ! 
maintenance^ 



Salaries of offl-i 
com i 



88 

oo — 
6fe 

88 
3m 



38 



iX 


* 


1 


-r 

us 


5 


51 

f 


5 


5 






j Value of iui- 
i provcincnts ,.| 



S3 

II 

p 



§SS 



3§3 



a 






4 

a 

a 



Vuluo of real 
estate 



Acresof ground 



Opened 2 22 



IS 



H 

y. 



If 



to 



~m 



S 



,01. iji 



§ 3 



X 



■a c I 

55 5 



3 



i r 



1 I I 

~ < *. 



S fig 3 i s £ % 



REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS.- 



o 
o 



-3 



?5 
i — 
X> 



Total. 



i SSSSBSS 5sj : 5Si83ggH|3»=-5fi!c* 



a Ulrls . 



I *• 



llllVH . . 



= I 



Hiiv 



m*~> 



■ ~ 



«S;i «f ri -' 



?H 



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an 



S i 5 



. tilrls. 

< • 



on 



is 



— o 
"■c w 



M 

« 5 » ; t. 



2 it! 



* | Boy*.. 



Total 



a , liirls.. 

K I 



m 



l-: = ; ' 



■0* 

a 
C5 



*S»i 



•r I 



9 Hoys... - 



ft; o 



U S 



I£ 









x 






x 



U3 

93 



w fc. 

■3 £ 






: u 

if 



. lilrls.. 



* ; Boys . . 



Total 



= t.lrls... 

3 .— 

P Hoys... 



2 = 5 



Igij gSg"SB°-»2 









him 



IS?. * 

1 '" 


'. « S- ™* 


;a : 




Is!' 2 


— a« 


:» M 






S K S5 


jr 




l§, ! r 


ra a 


j*0£«ei 



I " 



2t o 



Slgnw-sis'^S^'SSS^ia 



tilrN.. 



: 5§ s " 
q§B.V'~ 

§8* 



e» «a « 



2i6*a 



ua« 



:fii 



!ig= 



5 



o 



5 ! 

* Boys . . 









i-'i! 

al'lS'IHPWl* 

i «« - • 



■|* s iS 



£ 

i 

|i 

= .= SI 
'last 

§!>;£ 



■= £: 



S«583« ;* 



~S.fi 3 



5 III* 



•a 






!!! I! 



fti.: 



S3 

2JS"> 

SB 

R55» 



Siis 



•sis - 






fsT-' 

IS' 1 « 



8' ?l 

I; 

|-i !' 

Si: K 
• ! ; • 

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""Ii 

iif« 






If 2 ?i 
•■5 2 2£ 



(- — «•• 



If 



?? :1 5 P 






i:{" REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 

PENITENTIARIES. 

STATISTICS FOB THE NINK MONTHS KXUIN'ti 3KPTKMI1KR 30, 1873. 

The number of convicts in the penitentiaries on January I, 1873, was 
1,084, and the number committed during the nine months ending September 
30, 287, making a population of 1,371. During the same period, there were 
discharged, 362, leaving in the institutions, on September 30, 187'!, 1,009 
convicts, thus : 

White. Colored. 

Total. 
Males. : Fein. . Males. Fein. 

On January J, 1873, there were ' 042 Ifl 124 3 1,0*4 

Admitted during the nine months 239 ; 3 43 ■ 2 j 287 

Population 1,181 18 i 167 :, '■ 1.371 

Discharged 317 . 5 38 2 j 362 

Remaining September 30, 1873 864 ' 13 I 123 3 ! LOW 



REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 



Jo!> 



Mixwllfiiiroti* Stali*lirs, relating to (he House of Refuge, ami Reform 
School : \ 



inn "tin KKKCCIE. IMItl.AIir.I.l'lllA., 

! lltKOllll 
...... _. . — _. HCIIOOL. I AKKIVK-'l' • 

White i colored llotli riTTSDruo., 
department, ill- 1 »u: tnieiit . denurtme*r> . 1 

When opvned HO). IW. ' Ml 

N'nmher of at n»u] land Hi 13 i SI 

I "n«l Of KlUlinl SIK.OUO (O : 910.000 (10 *28.(»«> (■> 

iii-l vl liullilinipi | •#»7»,.-io» Hi ■ £t4.(«iu W 373.500 01' I.TO.Om (Hi 323,100 On 

capority an ■ i» aai sat: I,** 

VsWot real nnii', lnriiifiiiiK ir.iltiiliw*. . • ^w.Bii w i s-jh. mi m ' Mwn,om m swi,oori im m.ao.uu) m 

Varoe »f immhI prou-ny S0,£nHi M01W 20,000011 .vi.oti m • 711,010011 

Ke«-lpt* for M72. cxrlixlliiR luiior ♦ill,22»o; .V..2BB 01 ' IM.4SISI 

ICrrelpt* from labor of Inmates 26.HUI 57 3.N27 7« ' 30,620 33 3,356 25 31.4M.Vl 

K\|iendltiin« for IK72. exettidliig NUIII'li-a. . ' ■ 1 1 15. Ml Hi 46.3W7 4(1 , IU2.3J6 *• 

F.xpeuilllurex for Mmrlw anil wage* ll.ii.il 1 > 5.4IUSS' Hi. 570 4? icaue SIS KiiMKi 

Averani' numlMT of Inmale* #442 ll« 55« 2-fJ 3W 

' >*t per 1 aplta. ni'ti "MS (C N13I09 ijKW «> *172 01 U140 42 

NuinWrof volume* In (Hilary I.dii ' 1,5110 2.51m I.WM I.3MI 

MlNCKI.I.ANKOI'S STATISTICS — I 'wltillltrtl. 



HOI SK OK KKKI'oi:. 
I'm I. mill. Pill \ 



IIKI'OIOI SCHOOL. 
I'lTTMinili. 



KM AI'ITI'I.ATInS. 



Wlilh'. Colored. 



While. '('(mi'iI. s' i Whltf. Colored. I e" 

.( _ j ! 5 I C 



V\gf. \o. r.f liimaloK for 1&72. .. itlXi ; 7(1 
Average ajje of those rvrelved . . ■ 14 . 14.B 

Ai,"' nl Ih.' I'ldeM Ifl IJI.K | 

A(TCOf the youngem ' y.1 Jll.r, 

l-arjcest No. In Inst It "ii tn IK72. 3M ' S3 
-ovules! No. In In.MU'n In 1X72. 3Vt iit 



Vo. of volumes In library icw 

Tlwvlu liiMltullonor ihosvdl* 



mi , 38 l v>< 

12.11 .14.31 14.2 

I'l.-i , 111 | I*.. - . 

7 ■ » . .1.7 

mi : m , .vo 

(HI ' 31 : 525 



103 ! 5H i 16 7 1 212 
12.fl ;14.» 12.3 12..V 13.11 
II) ! 14 ■ 14 ! 1(1.2 
12 II II ll>.'> 
.VI ; 17 ' I 255 
53 IS > 5 ' 230 



IK 

N 

17" 



520 132 , W I Ul 
13.4 14. Ni 12.5 l|.t.* 

la.:, ia.3 ia.7 I U j 

M.I 111.3! V 10 1 

551 ;l« : 10? ' 4" I 

515 120 ' N4l3ll 



170 'I.OW -»B> 2,500 1.322 3R3 13>l I 4!l .1,1*1 :2.132 503 l.lTi. V>l 



KII 
13.11 

17.3 
9.1 
hi* 
755 
4.XM 



i 



i-hanP^L montlii Ifl.2 'i 27 51 I SI.I ' 21.4 !H.«3I.<I ..... 17.5 ' 1«.S .W.3' r..:i ' II 



School Statistics, exhibiting the number of each sex in attendance at the 
beginning of the year ; during the year ; number discharged from the 
schools; number remaining on the roll : 



lliil'-K or HKFI'lll.. 

I'llll.AliKI.I'lll 1. 



Whlii'. Colonil. 



C — ' 



nr.r. ►< iiooi.. 

I'lTTMICKIi. 



HKCAMVClA- 

TIO.M . 

i ami 



? £ 



Nunilit'r In atli'iidanri' at las', rrimr;. 
AilmittiHl lo srhool diirtUK I hi' your . 

' s**hriul population for Ilii'ycar 

Iii'iharioil fmni srlinol In tin- ynir . 
In MIMHUnrr M rttmr «I y«ir 

" IiwIuiUiik funitlniv. 

' hnllKllliK :l liull of <IVI««I. 
i lllt'lllillll!{*0.l» ML 



;tK ' 


86 


11 


: « , 


:a> 


•222 ! 


iit! • 


43 . 


:il , 


:ui 


.V.7 I 


11* 


1211 • 


HI 


iCi 


1S5 ' 


41 1 


42 1 


:rr ' 


310 


3B2 


77 


N? ' 


:r, 


:«i; 













; , 173 : 


57 


S» I 


Ml ' 101 


75 1 


NH , 


:m 


124 ) 


71* | 1 III 


477 


! 2111 ! 


i« 


354 


W7 1 2K> 


1,2.7 


71 ' 


27 


Da 


.VH ! Il» 40» 


. 1*1: 


(Ifi 


•Sf> : 


en i inn 


«1'l 



CRIMINAL COURTS. 



141 




Anion nl , 



Number .... 

Xtlllllj. plchlll 

gnlltytoio-J 

dktment.. .' 






nri'igflC'tBf 



tftfrf 



'ft 



"S"S; : '?fi!ll5 r: ""' oc " , "" I "' I *5'"' 



"•S * ^ s 

8 5 §1 



No. of nolle 
j>rosequica, 

l >"o. of <*>11-| 
VICtlOM . . 

Number of| 
acquittals, | 

i No. of bills 1 
tried I 

! Number pre-j 
1 (tent's made. 

No. returned! 
b : ignored . . . . I 



a I No. returned' 
^ ; as true bill*,: 

a 



Tot. bills laidi 
before grand, 
jury 



j Number of person* 
char'dwitii crime; 




5§$" ,e kSSS?tS"SSS2g2£:;S;S&« 

SS2ZI! o S5'"tSSni2'~' c::,D ? i:0 '"' m "''?S 0DOO '~ 

?|SS?SSg!?gg2S' :s §r:S2gK8§=fJt??J 



*J : '-ft 




*■?! i • « 55 * S 3 2 Sec© § = = « 




CUIMIN'AL COURTS. 



143 






3 
^ 



o 
3 



35 



SB 

2 
O 

u 

a 



»3 



k Amount.. 

an. I 

9 « : 

a 2 ; Number. . 



!S8SS3 :5g2? = 



» -i — — ii -r 



No. plead guilty t; 
to indictment.. 



k rt ?i •— »•; f 'O—* 



:2-?l 



I ?. ; Number of nolle; $" ,:=, = °' ?, ' f, S^2 =, ?i 1 ' - 1 

S ! proneqnles : *"■ 

K •_.. . . 

• S No. of convictions. » - - * " •' " 

: « ! 

p. .... 

, 5 . No. of acquittals,; * — ■ -* ■ -' 



No. ofbills tried,' 2 *• 



: No. presentments! S 
made , ^ 



fe'-S! 



> i No. returned ig-j S=>"-??2»gt:«'2?2S 
a ' nored 

:•{].. . .. • 

a No. returned asi §"3SaSS8!S8&te8g 
5, ! true bills 

ToJal billHlaid be-! «°5~3?2|SS?j>tgfe 
; fore grand jury, 1 

! No. of iwraons charged] 23&SS8S§SSSggf: 
with crime ' 



S 



s? 



n< . 

f|E 

3 k 



■ = £ •:«* 'S3? 

i £ a 1 i'-'5 c' >•"£ = >'. s? «•&."£ '• 



aoo*ooiioo»o.ooo 

J ; Ml ; : U§ fl M 

2fei|5l: : |gl<i|I ; 

sags = £. ,.*>•;>■ >;>>■.- 



ill 



CB A CITABLE INSTIT L'T 1 N S . 



CHAKlTABLli INSTITUTIONS. 



SUPPORT AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE POOPl. 

William l'emt, in the thirty-sixth section of hie great law, passed at Ches- 
ter on the 7 th day of October, 1682, enacted "That if any persons shall fall 
into decay and poverty and be unable to maintain themselves and children, 
01 who shall die and havo poor orphans, the public shall pnividc for their 

:nfi>rtable subsistence,"' 

This is the corner stone of the Pennsylvania poor laws. In the simplest 
of the province the township system for the support of the poor grew 
ii)), and we are surprised to find that thirty-two counties of Pennsylvania, 
in whole or in part, yet adhere to this township system. The larger and 
wealthier counties of the State, containing fully four-fifths of the populatio» 
and wealth of the State, have adopted the improved Bystem of sustaining 
their poor and unfortunate in one or more large almshouses. Each of these 
systems is presented in the following tables, showing the summary of the 
expenditure incurred in the support of this unfortunate class of our fellow 
ritizcilfi. 

The following table shows how many counties, in whole or in part, ad- 
li"ie to what is usually called "the township poor." 
The Boeond table exhibits an abstract of the almshouses. 



CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 



Ul 



Total net ex- J^ 8 ? J^ZZ^r J 

penses alma-i 5r2EoS?-r3s£?3>2S 

tiouse and out- ^1^ S .n 8 .»^ B S .t S . 

door relief...,..' "-">-2*£"> -«S 



Total ooet of out- 
door relief. . . 



S3 



SSS8 

§gg£ 

- 5 



Total ex-t 
peudit'rs . i 



Value of 

Super la-' 
r 



3 



!8§t-.S?l?SS£S 

:r-*x*-*i.-"o s-fm 



\ 2 : Total re-! 
I lieved...i 



Value of real es- 
tate, including! 
buildings ■ 



ft 1 - 5 



PI 



*x 







II 



r««cT-r ^T 



1 

cTwqf 



©» 



gg 



30 <fi£<&at** ^<cr£#$-*a 



S£3 



*<Ot£ — -H S 



c. A Ji » — m -r *»■ i- 8 — <o — 



3 

& 



■s 



55 



52S8S'- 






S$S 



22 = 



t~ us -r = o - 



?2§9 



883 



2?? 



iiiilliill 



SIS 



3?p 

"If 



3!?2"SS"" l ?!'ss»«xi;h«ae o'e: x to o 




If 

11 



till 
gjjss 



ESSlsS-g-8 
™^ S .§*8g 

r c e a = g 

- o~ e = 

PgS^£ 



s' 



3 



CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 



149 






00 
OS 



' ma 

Total.... ,(*;_:.,- 



Kcuialta, 



4 — - 

8 : 

* Mak-k 






1 J 

I 



3 

c 



l 
£ 



Fl'malr*. 



M4 ci I -: 






ay -*i?.. 



5 J Fi-iiwlo. ^Ij 

St I 
Eg i 

KO 

RS i Males.... 
B 



SM6H8 



ay. 



E2 



S£ : a 



ill 
ilrf 



1 K«m»lM. 



Malrs.... 



FlMIIHli". 



Male..... 






BR"" i* 






I 



* 



i 

m 

£ 
2 



W 



it 






a 5 

51 



Friual**, 



i "wrji 



IgW* 



' hVliuti**! 1 . i 



Bl2 



Si* 



■of* 

ill 



5 

IE 



B 

C 

6u 



Tout..... ,^_-rf_- „-!«s 



i j g$g§S-S« 



Malt**.... -■ _'_- -j 



K»»m»lt*s. 



5 ' I? i 



a 



I 



"S 



s 

a 



I 



X 

cr. 



J I" 

* « 

<*. C 
>■■ = 









i s 

i Malm..... 



rrinalt>. _* 



Mali-. ... _- 



Prmaa». 



Frflialm. 



' X - 



Jj 'Mate* 



H S 






?ss? 



vi — '-=i 



S :'S 



SBJ5 



?K?,S 



! Males....! " " 



:Mal...... j 



Eft 

rfleil 



I sil 



; HISS Si! 



150 



TAX LAWS— CONSTITUTION OF 1313. 



[HE TAX LAWS AND THE CONSTITUTION OF 1873. 



ARE OUR LAWS FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF 
TAXES IN CONFORMITY WITH THE CONSTITUTION OF 1S73? 

No former Constitution of Pennsylvania] colonial or Slate, has ever at- 
tempted lo limit the admitted sovereign power of the Legislature is regard 
to ill- assessment and collection of tazee. I n law, common sense, 

and iln Aired responsibility of the representative to his constituents has 
been hitherto found a sufficient safeguard 1 regret that the fraincrsof our 
■ id Constitution did sol leave well enough alone, or elae U8e much 
clearei tenna to express their meaning. No tw members, even of the 

committee, seem to kumv what was ni'-ant by the Bret three lines of Article 

IX, section 1. IT the purpose was to impose a Limitation on the taxing 

power they ought to have more clearly expressed their moaning, 

Under our former Constitution a peculiar syeteni of taxation had grown 
up in our State. The Common wealth collected from our great corporations 
most of the revenue necessary to pay the State expenses, leaving the 
burden of local taxation to be paid by the real and personal property as 
found 1 1 1 m > 1 1 tin- assessors' hooka. Did the trainers of 1 1 da new Constftul 
mean to change our tax system ' Mo*t of them that 1 have spoken to say 
"no," and point to the term "class" a* to word, the corporations being a 
claafl upon which the Legislature may impose Bucfa taxation. Theoorporsr 
t ionts do not recognise this as conclusive, and several of tlu-m have, as I 
understand, already entered appeals to tost this matter in the Supn me Court 
Article IX, section 1, declares that " All taxes shall be uniform, upon the 
same class ol B objects, within the territorial limits of the authority levyiug 
the tax. and shall be levied and cojlectcd under general laws.'' Now the 
Legislature is iht authority levying Si i and 1 assume it can treat 

corporations SI < • laSBi and levy a tax upon them, and need not extend 

that to the general property of the citizen, lint can the city councils of 
Philadelphia also decide thai Block jobbing is a class, and levy thereon all 

the eity expenses? Can the county commissioners of I mty 

Bag real estate is a class, aud we will levy upon it all the expenses of said 
county '! Can the commiss Dauphin county say personal property 

rlass, and levy on it all the county expenses? Can the city councils 
of Pittsburg say that venders ot merchandise are a class, aud we will levy 
upon them the expenses of the whole city? And if these authorities can 
thus act, why can not svory othei board possessing the taxing power select 



TAX LAW?- CONSTITUTION OF 18T3- 



151 



lass, and exhauel tin- last dollar this class owns? Such" are some of 
the difficulties we encounter by this change. 

Again, if any change is made by this Constitution, when and how doeB 
it take effect? Does the adoption o\' the Constitution nullify all Uwb in- 
ifotenl with !ta spirit and intent, or does tliis change only lake place 
■when tin- Legislature in accordance with the injunctions of the thirty-sec- 
ond section of the schedule shall have passed the laws necessary to ca 
these changes into effect ''. This last interpretation I assume to be the 
reot one. If not, half the laws in Pnrdori's Digest might by one or another 
be declared to be null and void. The Legislature may safely be truBteil to 
determine what legislation must be changed to conform t" the new 
stitution, hut to permit each citizen to decide this wmild bring end' 

fusion. For example, our legislation in regard to tic- levying and col- 
lection of taxes is not now regulated by general laws Tin- city councils 
nf Philadelphia assess the entire taxation upon thai city. UUOnntSng this 
yeat U) |12, 300. 000. But in Pittsburg, and probably all the other cities, 
the councils assess only city taxes, county commissioners the enmity taxes, 
•! boards the Bchool taxes, Ac. 
In regard to the collection of taxes there are several different systeo 

system that has must probable claim for being considered a general 

ie old system where the oounty commilwioneTe appoint the town- 
i-hip collectors. But nearly half the State has adopted the more modem 
in In which the county treasurer and deputies Collect the taxes. The 
taxes are usually all payable at the city treasurer's office. Now.how- 
. mi. this Constitution enjoins "that all taxei shall be levied and collected 
under general laws." The Legislature has not at its first session made all 
these changes, and can put in the idea that ii is only enjoined as soon as 
may be after the adoption of this Constitution to make the necessary 
changes. 

A carefully digested tax law, so as to do even approximate justice to all 
classes of citizens is the most difficult task over undertaken by any legis- 
lative body, and an entirely perfect one never yd has been enacted by 
human legislators. No one session is sufficient for such a task unless a 
bill has been carefully matured by a former commission or committee. If 
the organic changes required by this new Constitution are to be completed 
within any reasonable time the sooner they are begun the better. I assume 
that the duty ol the coming Legislature will be to at least inaugurate 
measures looking to such a change, conforming our tax laws to the le- 
irements of the new Constitution. Can that body hope hir its ways and 
means committee to mature such a bill during its session ? Ii so, it will 
crtainly require a committee remarkable both for its industry and intel- 
ligence. Most probably a commission of experts - . thai can be reason- 






TAX LAW.- I INSTITUTION OF 1873. 



aopod for. 1 nave therefore thought it within my province to collect 
SHOD materials U might furnish the ground work of such a revision of our 
laws en Llif important subject ol the levying and collecting taxes. The 
two leading inquiries upon this subject are: Brat, what is the prubablw 
amount of 1 1 sally assessed and collected for all purposes in our 

State ; and second, bow oan this amount be most equitably and justly ap- 
portioned upon the entire property of the Stete. The amount of taxes 
assessed for State j • : 1 1 • Btftutes only a small portion of those assessed 

under the authority of State laws, and the whole should bo carefully con- 
sidered bj the Legislature in any action upon this subject, especially where 
the entire system is to be revised to conform to our new Constitution. 

Our returns in regard to State taxes are lull and accurate, but in regard 
to local taxation arc wretchedly imperfect. I have procured returns from 
every county in regard to the amount assessed for county purposes in 
18T1. (See pages 5 and 6 of naj present report. J But of the cities outside 
of Philadelphia not a single return. Front the boroughs and townships 
nothing but an approximate estimate to enlighten us. In this respect we 
arc very far behind the State of Ohio. In that State every local board im- 
posing a dollar of taxation makes return to the' county authorities. These 
in turn report to the State Auditor, and his annual report to the Legislature 
Bpreads the whole before the people id" the State. That body is therefore 
um well informed in regard to local as it is in regard to State taxes. 1 sug- 
gest that some similar provision be inserted in your legislation in tin's 
State by which the amount of all local taxation will be reported to tin 
• "wnty authorities, and bj them aanuallv reported to your Depart me; 
Internal Affairs to constitute a portion Of the annual report of that depart- 
ment,. By this means the Legislature will know the bearing of its lej 
lation, and the people ot the State the entire amount collected for local a* 
welt M State taxation The State government, is not likely to require in 
the future bo peat SSI amoutti of taxation as it has since the close of the wet. 

In too legislation of 1818 and 1814, a considerable revision of our Si.o 

taxes took place, and a reduction of fully a million, probably $1,200,000. 

I here insert, in tabular form, a table, showing the amount and tbesource* 
from which the same was collected for 187'2 and U 



TAX LAWS CONSTITUTION OF 1873. 



L5* 



QjAXXMBHT of ,! tin 8tOl> 'I' ''cast/ rtj j : il M.iufc< ? <>f f 

during (he fiscal yean ending November 30, 1872, and Aownri'" 

ma 



i:s .•!•■ nm , 



1078. 



vm. 



Corporation*. 

Kailroad, canal, express, navigation and trannportati'm 

oompanies . 

f'otkl, iron, improvement, mining and manufacturing 
oorapanieH., 

I '■■anger railway companies . 

Isridpr, turnpike and plank road companies 

tonka. 

.mil borough* 
- • wmpanieK 

< ill oompanies 

Telegraph oompanies. 

I nanrance companies, (domestic.) . . 

1 nanrance oompanies, (forei^,) licenses, Ac 

rremiurnH on corporation charters 

lOity for right of way, (Erio railroad, 'i . ... 

i axtlee ana usscHjiationa. . 

MtscaUcuwow Cacoav 

i ;»» aa personal property 

Notaries public, tax on receipts 

Notaries puiiliv, oojiunlsetans 

Ta* or laws... 

i on logs 

villa, deeds. Aa 

Tax on certain office*. 

< ollaioral tnheritMn'v 

Tvwi ' 

ReUi: ones,. 

Theatre, <-ir< u* and menagerie licenses- . .,, . 

loon and ten-pin alley lieensea .... 
-»inu*e and restaurant "liewiae*.. 
Peddlers' licenses . 

-•■s. 

Patent medicine licensee 

Hrev,- Ustlllery licenses.. 



Pamphlet laws 

i pf publii- uftVerM. 

Auctioneers' oommiftMon* and duties.. 
liiniorm. 
M and penalties 

1 



on bridge stocks. . .... 

of put>li<* property a:nl i'*lnal.« 

Df pnbli-' property . . 

IWBtif iXill.M.-|'-Iii . 

Accrued interest* .... .. ,, 

lAi.de pat. ntcd. .... 

SB) mutation of tonnage tas, as per act, 1861. . 
rneny Valley railroad, interest on bonds, per act 1W. 



88,419 



•■: --■ 

;i 134 in 

11,381 84 

W 1,021 ii 

mi 36 

90,483 aa 

0,561 SO 

1 16, : 18 

SH M 

101,584 7 1 
10. 000 (H» 
34,093 01 



36.1,316 12 

1.683 iI7 

80,080 00 

<HK) (HI 

iw,38o ;cj 

30,770 56 

Ma M 

846,116 7ii 
434, ©I 

3,020 •»•'. 

7,08* 38 
12.318 -i 

2,679 '.1 

1,885 ::. 

1,112 00 
-J] 46 
Oil W 
510 ao 

5,801 00 



1,938 Ufi 

'J-40 00 

-4,204 91 
US, 784 73 

4*i0.00tl i« I 
1*7.500 no 



nfio,6a 

7 1,^(7 19 

84, »>8 25 

■ H'.',409 63 

107,0-77 19 

IBS 92 

18,22 

7, 952 01 

li::.!i00 76 

I li 7' 

AS 76 



541,007 91 
2,711 27 

7, Wti 00 

•y,, hoo 0(1 

1,500 00 

11:1,117 U 

10,738 88 

178 9» 

J^ 78 

«24,974 89 

5, 121 75 

10, MS 94 

12, 165 02 

2, H30 38 

I (», 736 9* 

(.876 91 

S.009 47 

UN 84 

714 G7 

t»,00J 57 

6f*M 

l 00 



I.71C 70 



100 00 
945 00 

4,297 97 

58, <K4S 48 

J30.000 00 

87,500 00 



t:.7:«,348 95 I 7,077,078 40- 



154 TAX LAWS— CONSTITUTION OF 1873. 

I think our laws as now revised will, in future, yield about as follows : 

From corporations, about $3,500,000 

From miscellaneous sources, about 2 ,000 ,000 

From outstanding indebtedness 500 ,000 



6.O00.000 



On pages 5 aud 6 of my present report can be found tabularized to each 
Bounty the nmount of county tax assessed m each county for county pur- 
poses. The councils of Philadelphia assess the entire taxation of that city 
1 i all purposes, and hence its return includes the whole taxation of that 
city. The entire aggregate of that table is $16,804,830 9s. The amount 
of school tax VT ascertain from the school report for 1813, $9,235,120 II 
One "I tin- heaviest taxes in most of the rural counties is tin- road tax, in 
regard to which we bave mi a single return. 1 estimate this road tax in 
the State at $6,000,000, The poor taxes, assessed for the support of the 
parti; oo the township system, but chiefly in poor and almshouses, 
] have estimated at $2,000,000. Omitting Philadelphia, whose returns we 
have, I have estimated the city taxes of the other twenty-one cities at 
$3,000,000. If 1 am even approximately correct the satin taxation ■'' the 
State, as stated, is $42,039,951 39. Tt or somewhere neai It, 

has in one (biro or ether to be collected from the property holders of Penn- 
sylvania each year. Nobody likes to be tai I each one is anxious t> 
have tin- burden transferred imra his own shoulders to his neighbocs But 
the datj ol the Legislature i> to have this as equally distributed as human 
legislation can do it. If we knew the actual cash value ofeverj species of 
properly in the State, and could divide the (a> to be raised |>y this, we 
could i\jntl\ till what the percentage -In.uld be. But an approximaf 
Lfl the In 'St that the wisest legislation can accomplish. 

One other consideration comes in here. By the immemorial usage of 
OUT State a considerable amount of property is exempted from the payment 
ol taxes of all kinds. This includes the buildings owned by the State, tlio 
county, the school boards for public purpose, and also churches, ceme- 
teries and burial grounds, &c. 1 have been anxious to procure returns to 
BUOW the amount so exempted. In only a few counties do their tax records 
show the value ol this exempted property. From my correspondence, and 
the few returns 1 nave received, 1 assume that property hitherto exempt 
bears the relation of about one-tenth to the entire taxable property, Th<* 
design of the new Constitution undoubtedly was to largely reduce this ex- 
empted property, what the result will be time must determine. 

The assessment laws of our State, since the period of the revolution, 
have been revised and re-enacted some Four or five time* with \erhiil m 



TAX LAWS— CONSTITUTION OF 1S73. 

I one each time; bul tin 1 essential feature lias not been i 
what is now required, to wit : .-I ea.-j/i i-irluatfon of llU pTOp&rty upci 'h- 

' books. The actuul figures iipmt die tax records have resaeBented how* 
nnh hIhuii one-third, mie-liftl), and in some cases « .nlv | tenth iIk- cash 
ne. This, tun, though the oath administered to s hap be- 

strong us the English language ean make it. Considerable efforts 
been made to correct it, and the actoal returns of oar latest aseessne 
iii v report, pages S and 8,) show in (be trhaje aggregate that 
assessed values have reached sboul one-bati the bras value, In thri 

in my judgment, the true value has been reached; in sixteen otl 
nearly tbal value, and in the forty-seven remaining* counties, every figure 
two to sis is represented In bringing up the to the ti us \ aloe, 

and one foiintA is ■ .nlj il at one-eighth its true value, 

I do not believe that anything like une-half the pereonal property owned 
by our citizens is found upon our assessors' books. In Ohio, the value of 
personal property upon the assessors' books is about one-half that of it.- real 
estate; in New York, about one-fourth, but in our State only about one- 
tenth. This great injustice has been, to a considerable extent, modified 
in our State by taxing corporate wealth iu another form, to wit : By re» 
quiring the officers of the corporations to become the tax collectors, and 
retain the same from dividends paid by the corporation. In fact, two-thirds 
ii .Slate tax is now derived from this corporate tax. Several of these 
poratione have, report says, resolved to appeal from the accoun^* set- 
tled bj the Auditor General, and bring before the Supreme Court the cou- 
-iitiitiu[i:ilii\ i. Tour taxing laws in regard to this species of property. But 
ihoold he kept in mind that by far the larger amount of corporate weaitu 
is not taxed at all for enmity, city, school, road or poor taxes. The large 
State tax they pay is Dot even a lull equivalent for their escape from nearly 

.i.l local taxation. 

In regard to the true value we nave two independent valuations, one by 

ceneuB returns of the United States, and the other by our own assessors. 
The I'nited S'atfs, after jriving our State assessments, add their statement 
• ■f what they call the true value. Their statement of our assessed value tti 

was $1, 313/236, 042. Their estimate of the true valuation was nearly 
three times thai amount, or $3,808,341-. 11 2. They also gire us their re- 
turns of the annual production ol the ["receding year as follows: 

Agricultural productions ; ,9»l 

Manufacturing productions "11 ,894 ,224 

Mining productions 76 .208 ,390 



t .131 ,180,606 






TAX LA VVS— CONSTITUTION OF 1873. 



Ont t i"i I ht 4 retorni the value of nil property on the 

»'b olrs at $1,779,766,416. jjyorwaeallinitoofthetnii iltu 

nl (hi,— is ^-i ven by Bounties in my present report, on pages 7 and 8, and 
nearly doubles the MNMQIs' I ftlue, aggregating $3,425,3*25,415. The value 
Of property i" a upon ili'' BSoeOBOra' bunks are have U) reaeh by other means. 
This includes nine-tenths of our money and active business capital, tod 
aearbj ill our oorporate wealth. In regard to the latter, for example, rail- 
roads while oni returns are -rerj fall, those within the State an mixed 
up with those without, bo that an suet statement cannot be procured. I 
K/ai al ooneiderablc pains in ray last year's report to separate the cowl .ii 
railroads within ths State "mm tlie general returns. The report of the lat* 
i'X!kifiPiiir_r committal nl i he Pennsylvania railroad has goie- Gar to eonrirm 
my own estimates, and I reproduce from page 161 of report oJ 1873 as fol- 
Iowa : 

J't'iui.sylviiitiii railroad and its. branc br* -*14u ,837 ,2o:i 

Heading railroad and its branch-en 60 .906.110 

Railroads in P .uiiu. independent ol Pennsylvania 

and leading ti4.l3y.lbe 

Canals in oar Slate 28 ,151 ,219 

Street railways 8,131,807 

Telegraph*. 5 ,669.167 



# :.'13 ,918,736 

The banking and tnoneyed capital ol the State 1 put us follows i 

National banks . ... $58,010,240 

Suit- baal K ,370.16m 

Baviagel -timatedj ... . so ,000 ,oot> 

Building ami loan associations, ^ estimated i, . . '2.S .1100,000 
Private banks, sod all private discounting of notes and 

noitgageu 125 .000.000 



-'4 1 ,380,40a 

sylvan a paid last year, ti pei insurance baraan returns, $23,017,963 

for ti r- ■ and lile insurance alone. 

Tto Capital of those companies i i below. |£0 j ,400 

The capita! ol manufacturing companies cannot !"• leas 

than 80 .000,009 



12o ,000 ooo 



TAX LAWS -CONSTITUTION OF 1873. 157 

The active business capital in use by wholesale and retail merchants, 
liquor dealers, &c, is certainly not below $200,000,000. 

This would give us as follows : 

Railroads, canals and telegraphs $313 ,913 ,735 

Banks and money dealers 241 ,380 ,408 

Insurance and manufacturing 120 ,000 ,000 

Wholesale and retail merchants and liquor dealers, Ac . . 200 ,000 ,000 

True value of real and personal estate on assessors' books, 3 ,425 ,325 ,415 



4 ,300 ,619 ,558 



This, I estimate, as the approximate value of all property in Pennsyl- 
vania which the Legislature could hope to reach by her taxing laws, if 
-every citizen was so conscientious as to faithfully report its true cash value. 
My own estimate is about fifteen per cent, below that of the census returns. 
If, therefore, these returns and estimates of taxation and value of property 
are approximately correct, then ten mills or one per cent., if valued at cash 
rates, would be required to pay the taxation now imposed for all purposes 
in Pennsylvania. 






[BER, 



"IIH UUIO I RAIT, 



Originally the w bole of our State wag one vast forest, aptly described in 
the rayal charter to William Pens as Perm's wood*. A little less than two 
BftTttrtrraa baa SO greatly changed the aapecl "| things that we are nuw told 
that twenty years more will leave our productive forests exhausted, and 
Penn'6 win ids must cease to even afford timber enough to furnish supplies 
!"i domestic consumption. It therefore behooves our citizens to examine 
full* into our present stock, and bow the same can be husbanded fop 
tlic iiki' of coming generations. 



RATIONAL CONVENTION OF LUMBERMEN, 

The " National Convention ol Lombermen" met at Williams-port, Penn- 
sylvania. June 23, 1 S~4 . 

The committee on the nomination of permanent officers for the Conven- 
tion reported as follows : 

J'or Prttidtnt — Hon. L. D. Wetmore, ' d' Warren , Pennsylvania 

Vice President* — Hun. J. (i. Thorp, of Eau Claire, Wisconsin ; Hon. 
Ezra Rust, of Saginaw, Michigan; C T. Marston, Hartford, Connecticut. 

B eo arding Secretarial — I. K. Smith, Buffalo, New York; H. 11. Col- 

Cjiiitt, S:»\ :in ti : iria. 

Corresponding Secretary — .1. Henry Byraonds, Boston, Massachusetts. 

The report was accepted, anil the gentlemen Dominated were unanimously 

elected. 

Judge L. D. Wetmore then took flu 1 'hair, ami made an able and com- 
prehensive address. 

lion. \v. ll. Armstrong then made an address of welcome in behalf oi 
the Williams-port lumbermen. 

The oommitl a the order of business for the Convention pieeented 

their report, the firel clause of which was adopted as follows: 

Your committee would respectfully recommend that a National Asencia- 

tion Ol Lumbermen I"- now! I. ami that a committee of live be ap- 
pointor on articles of association. 
The committee was subsequently announced, as follows: 
W. H. Armstrong, of Pennsylvania. Chairman ; H. Savidge, Michigan; 
-I <r. Thorp, Wisconsin; S. T. Drew, Vermont; W. H. Gleaeon, Florida. 

The second recom adatioo of the committee, that this Convention enter 

its protest against the proposed treaty ol Iprocity with Canada was read. 



LUMBER. 



Ling, the following reeolati nt presented by 

Bun. W. II, Armstrong, i ■ !vauia: 

i ed, That in the judgment of this Goi proposed treaty 

at reciprocity with Canada would be injurious to the industrial interests of 
■•in try , and should not be ratified; that its » fleet upon the 

■ ii we especially represent would be most disastrous, end 

woul'l oompei a lain 'M tn wages^yo order to compete with the 

Cheaper labor of Canada, or the suspension of business in many sections of 

■null v where it is now extensively carried on. 

This resolution elicited a very earnest discussion in which Messrs. Arm- 

I Pennsylvania, Rust, of Mi-diigan, Drew, of Vermont, Johnson, 

of Maryland, Colquitt, >1 Georgia, Bartram, of Michigan, Blanchard, of 

Pennc i. and Gleason, of Florida, participated. 

The Committee on unfinished topics in the report on order of business re- 
Led the following resolutions i 

Resolved, That two commutes, tiv < .\<\\, oue for white pine, and one 
yellow, hum the different manufacturing points, be appointed by the 
chairman to recommend rules for the uniform inspection, measurement and 
classification of lumber, to report at the next meeting I this association. 
Jieaoli-rd, That a committee of seven be appointed to procure statistics 
: the amount uf white pine and yellow, and other valuable timber 
ling in the United States and Canada, and where located; also, the 
production, distribution and consumption "I the same, and Buch other statis- 
tical information as would give the most accurate idea obtainable on all 
matters of interest to the lumber trade. 

committees, ordered in these resolutions, were announced by the 
chair as follows : 

Committer on Inspection of White 1'ine — P. B. Merrill, Williamsport, 
Pennsylvania, Chairman; T. M. Avory, Chicago, Illinois; John .S. Esta- 
brook, Ea aw, Michigan ; L. G. Mason, Muskegon, Michigan; Triad. 

C. Pound, Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, 

mittee on Inspection of Yellow Pine—Yl. H. Colquitt, Savannah, 

Georgia, Chairman; W, II. Northrop, Wilmington, North Carolina; J. D. 

dni-r, I'ensacola. Florida; W. l>ermy. I'asejigoula. Mississippi j C. S_ 

Langd'Mi. Darien, Georgia, 

CommUlei on Statistics — Ezra Rust. Saginaw City, Michigan, Chairman j 

E. \V Durant, Stillwater, Minnesota; J.J. Dale, Savannah, Georgia ; A, 

\. Sumner, Albany, New V'-rk ; George W Lents, Williamsport. Penn- 

L 0. Calkins, Chicago, Illinois; Charles J. L. Meyer, Fond du 

Lac. Wisconsin. 

R, M. Forsuian, of Williamsport, Pennsylvania, offered the following 
resolution : 



ISO 



i.l'MRER. 



Resolved, That tl> do hereby recommend to all persons 

enga^-d in the Itunhei trade tile Importance of lorming local organiaatia 

The following amendment was offered bj W '-I- II • Bartram, of Michigan : 
And that local organization be requested to communicate to the National 

association the basis of their organization, and the names of their officers, 

so thnt official cnMiiiiuLicatii.il may be maintained. 

The amendment was accepted, ami the resolution was adopted. 

E. M. Blanchard, of Pennsylvania, offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted : 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed to devise means for regu- 
lating tin- supply ofluinbcr in accordance with the demand. 

The committee was appointed as follows i 

G. W. Lenta, Williamsport, Pennsylvania; H. M. Prentiss, Bangnr, 
Maine ; 8. H. VWbsteT, Kast Saginaw. Michigan; S. B. Townsend, Ionia, 
Michigan j A 0. Hopkins, Lock Haven. Pennsylvania. 

W B .11. IJartram offered the following resolution, which was referred 
to the executive committer : 

Reaoimd, That & committer ol throe from Michigan, conslstlTig of T. W. 
Palmer. John S. Estabrook ami \\ M. Watty, be appointed to collect statis- 
lies Bhowing ill'- ivsnli of the so-called reciprocity treaty on the lumber 
trade of Michigan and adjaceni Stairs, -anl committee to raise the funds 
tor defraying the necessary expenses ui snch work. The information to Ik 
collected and presented to the Senators from that State prior to the next 
session of the Senate, and a copy of the same to be placed on file with the 
Secretary of the association, and thai a like committee with similar instruc- 
tions be appointed from each of the States of Pennsylvania, New York and 
Wise . iiisin. and that said committee ol twelve ho instructed to appear be- 
Ibtl the committee tu whom th< treaty is referred, and that they be request- 
ed to call to their assistance lumbermen from all parts of the country, to 
the end that the true interests of the lumber trade may be fully understood 
by the Senate before o decision is reached on this question 

Tin ciiiiiuiitt' ■(• mi permaaem organization matin the following report, 
which was adopted : 

Pretidmi L. p, v\ 'etmore, Warren, PenaeyWania. 
VwPrwtdni J Gr. Thoip, Bah Olaire, Wisconsin. 
RteortMnjf Seefittafy- F. E. Bmbick, Wllttanwpocti Pennsylvania. 
r '"""7" Bfy— J. Henry Bymonds, Boston, Massachusetts. 

''" nmUXH W H. A imBtrong, Edgar Mun son, Williams port, 

Pennsylvania-, R. K Hawley, I,;.. in,,,..-. J UM B. Smith, Buffalo; T. L. 
Kinscy, gavannafi , Georgia; George B. Scott, Peuaacola, Florida; 0. T. 



LUMBER. 



161 



!<mi. Hartford, Connecticut; II. M. Prentis9, Bangor. Maine; N\ B. 
Jradley. Bay City, Michigan; Thad. 0. Pound, Chippewa Falls, W» 
sin; William Knight, St. Paul, Minnesota. 
Tin' report of the committee wan adopted. 



THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 

• cKtcact tin' following- article from Thr Timber TrgdoA Journal, nl 
Loudon, the leading paper, published in England in the interest of the lum- 
ber trade. It will be seen that it seta forth very effectively the objects and 
advantag* association. 

On Tuesday last, lumbermen from various perta of the Doited States 
assembled in Convention at Williatusport, Pennsylvania, for the purpose of 
blishing a National association, which would represent the interests of 
their trade in that country The experiment is unquestionably a bold one, 
ami if successful there can be little doubt that the projected society will ex- 
ercise a powerful influence over the future of the lumber industry on the 
American continent. The astonishing expansion and millions'- proportions 
which the timber trade of the States has so quickly attained, render it in 
the highest degree advisable that a properly constituted body with a con- 
trolling power should direct its further development, endeavor to remove 
the obstacles that impede its progress, and harmonize interests that may be 
at variance. At a time when apprehensions more or less well-founded 
are beginning to be entertained that the timber resources of the country 
ate decreasing too rapidly, it is also peculiarly appropriate that those most 
deeply affected by the question should meet and investigate it thoroughly. 
The great advantages that other industries have derived from the combined 
action of those engaged in them, is the best guarantee that the lumbermen 
if North America will most effectually secure the present and future pros- 
perity of their trade by a sincere and hearty -union. Whether the spirited 
projector of the movement, Mr. J. Henry Symonds, of Boston, should wit- 
ness the immediate adoption of his well devised plan or not, matters little, 
as its ultimate success is inevitable, it being the only true basis upon which 
enduring trade can flourish. 

The exact programme to be curried out at the Convention has not, so far 
ea OUT information goes, been published ; indeed it would have been difficult 
to have pre-arranged any settled course of action, seeing that the delegates 
represent so many districts wide apart, and that it would, therefore, be 
difficult to foresee what subjects would be considered of most general im- 
portance. One of the most pressing requirements of the trade in the Uni- 
1 1 Statistic*. 



162 



Ll.MBEH. 



ted States, bowover, Beams to be a uniform survey of lumber. Complaints. 

are rife in many localities that the measurement of lumber is curried 80 in 
.i manner detrimental to the interests, tri tin- dealer, and wo may oxpecl to 
see tli i< subject nf common interest fully discussed. Another great want 
of tin' trade is a proper classilicatioti of wood. At present it. is impossible 
to tell Gram the quotations of prices what the quality of the lumber ifl, unless 
:» person be specially acquainted with that particular market, and this, in a 
country where there are bo many great centres of produce and ol - 
renders it extremely difficult to ascertain the actual value of certain domes 
of goods. In order to give effect to the latter reform, it is only necessary 
that the delegates should come to a decision aiming themselves, as there 
can be BO difficulty in classing the virions qualities of timliei grown in 
each part of the COUHtry, The question of transport is already assumi; 
serious aspect in the States, owing to the action of some of the leading 
lines of railways which have changed the rates 6F freight rather arbitrarily 
Railway companies may, however, change their front When they hare to 
deal with a united trade instead of with individuals. These are. we believe. 
seme nf the most, prominent questions under consideration at the present 
moment By the meeting In Williams-port. We nope, for the sake of the 
great interests at stake, that Unanimity will prevail, and that no socttOTial 
differences will he permitted to m« this judicious attempt to nationalize 
the lumber trade of the Cnited states. \\'e hope, moreover, that the dele- 
gates will not separate without establishing some central and permanent 
organization which will watch over the interests Of the trade, and draw 
closer the Bonds of union which .night to exist among these who have a 
common object in >. few. 



TIIK TIM Will SI. PPL V. 

Wo extraci the following communication from the Montreal (7a 
July 15th : 
To the !-:<Uh,r uf dk Qatettk: 

Sit; : — I luiil in your issue of Saturday an article copied from the St, John, 
New hVunswii-k. Telegrn/ili, on the subject of the timber supply, from which 
it appears that that pfOVinCQ which lias foi SO long a lime furnished a laige 
Htnoiint ot the consumption in Ureal llritain and the I'uited States is about 
used up, the St. Orotx being now the only source of supply, and it appears 
from that paper that the reason of its holding out so long hi to be attribute! 
tit a large amount nf the timber territory, drained by that stream, being 

the hands of private parties, who, however, h pi the demand, have been 

recklessly sacriiicmg then- property, reducing year bj year the dimensions 



U\MBEK. 



m 



:>■ limber they gel out, while . > n «--t li i 1. 1 of the whole product te now of 

the very inferior ami almost valueless deamriptiofi called hemlock* The 

pine is all used up, and it is evident but s few years will serve to throw 

iin-m nut of competition with the provioee ol Quebec in the wetter <>i 

uce, 

Sini'c 1 brought tin: timber u.ueatiou to the notice ol tlto .iuicrican pun 
be ■ - < > 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 i i ■ : 1 1 i i > 1 1 x which have been published in the,£raz?tfi and the 

Boston Lumlirr Trade. I pot'ee the i|Ueetion has been imllv i'\li'nsiu li 

iltBCUBBed I'V ill'' \lii<-iicaii preBS, ami. taking llir ;il;uin,rt iiiOik U IB I Wfl • 

I liv the President i" Congress, Hrengly urging the necessity ofpaasing 

td providing for die preservation uf their t imbei . and giving bonuses 

imi tree planting — s asure which should haw bees adopted before the 

timber lands were all grabbed up by railway computations* specujaturui &u. 
1 showed in those communications what has nol since been successfully 
disputed fan the diaeuesion of the question* that the United States would 
urn up all the pine timber they have aosl of the t£ucky mountains in from 
tea to twelve years, ami that all oar pine and sprutus would nol give them 
i full supply ol tlicii annual consumption for Uicee years if ualled on i" do 
A 1 1' I dow, as serving further t" draw attention to tin- ijneetiof), and tn 
hope that our Unubermeu vvill take it into serious uonsidaratioa, and realise 
the necessity and value ol curtailing their operations, I wotdd ask tbt i 
reflect on the position the United States would I"' placed in, and what the 
price of lumbei must be in Canada, when it will require onc-tbjrd more tl 

the tonnage ol all the Bailing vessels of Europe and A ricj combined to 

■hi the present consumption of pine al , and double the an it uf 

tonnage "' a " Burope and America (or the branspoitation "i then present 

sumption of commercial woods of all kinds from the Pacific coast, if 
they are i" be Found in that quarter. 1" ii not evident from this »iew of 
ili" question which is based on their own Congressional returns uf the'eou- 
Miiiiptii.ii, that the commercial wnmU of Canada will in a low years u.uii 

due immensely beyoad that of any other description of property we 
poeaesa? And is ii not utter fblly fan the owaerq »f timber property to be 

■ •niitiiiiialU :i« il WOtlid :i |»[ n ■: 1 1 . running U rare with each iitlier, tu ser v 

will soonest come to tlie end of their supplies, wasting their tune, worl ing 
hard) sad sacrificing a material so valuable ami imlispennable with. mi any 
earthly advantage resulting t.<> themselves m- the home aunjmuuity, when 
bell the tabor and capital expended would enrich them all, and doubly pro* 

I the lime uf exhaustion uf ihi'ir sl.»k in traile, which im .tin to! 

oapitsd and labor could for generations replace! S$q Car as regards that in- 

palnable wood, the white pine, every tree of which will bo worth st nucfa 

within the next decade as black walnut is to-day — tin- Ottawa lumbermen 

■ tin- control in their own hands, and are abloto govern the markets 



164 



UMBER. 



l)otli of Britain and tin- middle and eastern states of America to their own 
advantage, if they will make the effort. Let (ken curtail tbe supplies by 
line-half, and tiny will secure a return of ten dollars for one of profit they 
iinvv make, atld those who hold timber arid are able to preserve it from tin* 
axe will yet ill. better. 

Tin' question of timber exhaustion is met by smne with the argument 
thai iron will take Eta place to an extent sufficient to keep down [ta ]n-. 
but. facts are against this viownf the ijucstion. Let any one travel through 
Great Britain, and he will neither sea any room for improvement, or im- 
provements to any appreciable extent going on ; and yet that old and long 
Finished up Country consumes annually live millions of loads, or over twice 
us in mli as Canada consumes ami transports to nil countries — paying, at 
the same time, double what it is sold at here, notwithstanding her nbun- 
dance h1 coal, iron, ami cheap labor skilled and unskilled .. and sly will fun. 
tinue to use timber as long as it is to be bad, no matter at what etist ; so 
far as regards the I'nited States, it must reach four times its present price 
before Ha place ha supplied tS any gaest extent hj iron or any other pro- 
dad, for it is to thein a material absolutely indispensable. 

Sweden, which has hitherto been the great timber supplying country ol 
the north of Europe; finding- the drain upon herresources so exhausting, has 
alBO taken the alarm, ami within a few weeks back has passed an act in effect 
prohibiting the cutting of timber of smaller dimensions than ten inches in 
diameter, mi the public domain and all private lands, annulling at the HUHG 
time all eon tract* nude for timber on account of private parties prior to the 
passing of the act. As a large amount of their production consists in desls 
of from live to seven inches wide, this supply will be cut off, and the 00*1 
will be much enhanced in furnishing a large description which can only 
UOW be found at great distances from the floating streams. It take* i 
hundred and twenty-five years to grow pine trees ten inches in diameter 
in that country. 

Russia reserves all the timber on the banks uf her streams for four miles 
back, as a breakwater and reservoir to preserve the country From inunda- 
tions ; yet here her greatest wealth ot timber is to be found ; but the heme 
and foreign supply must be drawn from beyond that distance. A Russian 
timber firm in London that owns the timber on a river and its tributaries 
in that country which empties into the White sea, as large as the Ottawa. 
informed me that they are now reduced to supplying themselves with tim- 
ber material of from six to ten inches in diameter, and that Russia has but 
little commercial timber available for the English market. Parties in Britain 
ROW look upon the north of Europe as pretty well "played out;" but they 
are quite sure Canada is yet one unbroken forest. One influential journal, 
the London Standard, after ransacking the European timber sections and 



LUMBER. 165 

finding tile supplies all but exhausted, turns its attention to Canada, and 
assures the British public that there need be no apprehension of a timber 
famine, as we "have 1 a supply for the most exacting populations of the 
earth for centuries ;" while we ourselves have calculated our supply as not 
sufficient for the United States alone for a period of three years. Another 
journal, the Building News of the same city, equally well informed on the 
subject, sets down our timber territory at " nine hundred millions of acres," 
or twelve "times the area of Great Britain, all told," and what is puzzling 
to them is that the supply is so enormous, and yet the material so dear in 
their market." This is the sort of information furnished the people of 
Great Britain, who are so deeply interested in the question of the timber 
supply, by some of their leading journals ; but they will, howeveV, wake 
up to its true position when they find the United States will be forced, at 
higher prices than are now paid in England, to secure all the timber we 
have, in order to supply the middle and Eastern States, which in five years' 
time, will be totally stripped of their pine, and pretty well through with 
their spruce timber, and will also be forced to compete with them for sup- 
plies in the north of Europe, and in India and Japan, which are pointed to 
by some English writers somewhat better posted on the subject, as sources 
from which in a few years hence supplies must be drawn . 

I understand a meeting of those engaged in the lumber and timber trade 
in the provinces of Ontario and Qnebec is to take place some time in the 
fall, at Ottawa, to try and arrive at some means of curtailing the supplies 
— a very wfse measure. 

Yours truly, 

J. LITTLE. 
Montreal, June 13, 1874. 



LUMBER. 

STOCK OX HAND, JANUARY 1, 1871. 



167 



PINK. 



■ HKMl.OCK. 



LATH. 



Willlamsport 122,606,894 5,737,009 I 83,604,800 , 2, 646, 150 

Lock Haveu. . . . 22,312,000 ' 2,289,000, 720,000 

Port Deposit.. 950,000 ! 

Baltimore. j 3,090,000' 



Philadelphia. , 10,249,971 



Total, January 1, 1871 159,017,865 5,737,000 

Do.. .January 1, 1873. , 187,407,638 j 10,737,440 



Difference 28,389,973 5,000,440 



35,893,800 
45,129,700 



9,235,909 



245, 133 



3,611,283 
8,776,280 



164,997 



STOCK OX HAXD, JANUARY 1, 1870. 



HEMLOCK. LATH. PIl'KKTS. 



Williainsport 134, 166, 157 

Look Haven 58,500,000 

Port Deposit 1,500,000 

Baltimore 3, 500, 000 

Philadelphia 11,000,000 



6,098,000 27,627,300:1,653,085 



Total, January 1, 1870 208,666, 157 

Do.. .January 1, 1873 187,407,038 



6,098,000 
10,737,440 



27,627,300 \ 1,658,065 
45,129,700 | 8,776,280 



D i ffe rence. .. . -_. ; ^^. . ._. ... ... ._. . . ._. ._. _ 21, 258, 519 4,639,440 17,502,400 2, 123, 215 

The above is a correct statement of the amount of Susquehanna lumber, 
lath and pickets in first hands, in the above named markets, on the first 
day of January, 1873. To the horse disease, which swept over the whole 
country during the past season , and to the strikes and riots of the working- 
men in various portions of the State during the same time, is attributable 
the decrease of the retail demand supplied from this and the Lock Haven 
markets. The close of the old and the beginning of the new year, however, 
brought a larger demand for lumber than usual ; shipments haj'e been quite 
brisk, and the lumbermen may congratulate themselves that, notwithstand- 
ing the vicissitudes and interruptions to business operations the year just 
closed has been a very gratifying one. 



168 



LUMBER. 



WILLI AMSPORT LUMBER SHIPMENTS. 

Slat ciii. lit showing the shipments of lumber by canal and railroad, from 
June 30, 1873, with comparative statements of increase arid decrease. 

The shipments for the year 1873, as compared with 1872, show a COP 
responding increase, and we give the shipments for each month for the two 
years. Onr readers ran then form a correct estimate of the shipments (Vot» 
this point. 





I'ASAI,. 


CATAWI U 1 


P. AM' 1 . 


1872. 


f 


I 

r 


— 






3,«92,432 
4.580,840 

5. 273. ih hi 

a, 124, imi 

7,849.542 


1,778,790 






4, i v ;. boo 






■'>.-- . 




1,977,000 
12,184,000 

in. -'*7. 000 






4,581,890 
1,898,881 








24.458,000 


80,161,814 


21,086,541 








■ ANAL. 


i I I IWIOM 


F. AM' l 


1878. 


I 


-r 
■ 
O 

!■ 

4,630,500 
9,066,300 

16,69"., UOo 
111,526,000 
11.2WI.500 


•r 
I 

2, 57I-5. 04<r 
4,008,860 










7,109,360 






0,070,488 
8,478,880 
7,687.900 




12,868,639 

9,481,000 






Total for 1873 


21,784,829 
21. 158,000 


58,460,500 
30,1.11,814 


40,712,800 
34,08 








2, 673, 171 


28,208,886 


16, 656,059 



The canal slmws :i decrease up to July 1 , ■>(' _,<iT.'J,l 71 feci ; the Catawissa 
again ol 28.298,886, and the Philadelphia and Erie a gain of 16,656, 95$ 
feet, making a total increase over the year 1872, up to July 1, of -12,283.67 I 
feet. 

The total shipments up to July 1, 1872. were 78,665, lf>5 feet; up to 
July 1, 1873, 120,948,629 tot. 

Wii.i.iA.vispiiHT, Pa., JuJij 18, 1873. 
Edgar Munoos, Esq., 

President West ]t ranch Lumberman' a h'xchangr . 
Dear Sir: — The committee appointed l>y you under a resolution of the 
Exchange, to compile statistics of the shipments of lumber for 1873 to the 



LUMBER. 168 

present time, and a statement of logs rafted out of the Susquehanna and 
West Branch booms ; also comparative statements for the year 1872, have 
the pleasure to present the following report : 

Comparative statement of lumber shipments from Williamsport and Lock 
Haven, from January 1, 1873, to July 8, 1873, and during the correspond- 
ing period in 1872. 

1873. 

Feet. Feet. 

Shipped over the West Branch Canal 41 ,014 ,029 

Shipped over the Catawissa railroad 63 ,980 ,000 

Shipped over the P. &. E. R. R 54 ,890 ,000 

Total amounts of shipments in 1873 159 ,884 ,029 

1872. 

From January 1, 1872, to July 8, 1872, the. shipments were 
as follows : 

Shipments over the West Branch canal 40 ,793 ,007 

Shipments over the Catawissa railroad 30 ,151 ,614 

Shipments over the P. & E. R. R 25 ,249 ,541 

Total amount of shipments in 1872 96 ,194 ,162 

Increased shipments in 1873 63 ,689 ,867 

STOCK ON HAND JANUARY 1, 1873. 

Amount of manufactured lumber on hand in Williamsport and 
Loek Haven, January 1, 1873, as furnished officially to the 
Lumberman's Exchange 170 ,588 ,64 8 

Logs rafted out of the Williamsport and Lock Haven booms from Jan- 
uary 1, 1873, to July 8, 1873, as follows : 

Feet. Feet. 

Out of Susquehanna boom , 433,423 logs, scaling, 86 ,698 ,969 
Out of West Branch boom, 82, 7 64 logs, scaling, 1 5 , 1 69 ,250 
Total amount of logs rafted out of both booms 

in 1873 101,868,219 

In the year 1872, during the same time, logs were rafted out * 

as follows : 
Out of Susquehanna boom, 519,732 logs, scaling, 101 ,143 ,953 
Out of West Branch boom, 105,135 logs, scaling, 20,050,964 
Total amount of logs rafted out of both bo«ms 

in 1872 121 ,194 ,917 

A decrease in 1873 of 19 ,326 ,698 



13 y tin.- foregoing statement it will be observed tlmt tlitr increased ahip- 
aieuts ftjHf lln- six months ending July 8, 1873, have been '-arn-'das follows; 

Feet. 

liy tlie Catawissa rsHvoftd :i-J ,828 ,886 

By tyfl i'. &. E. R. R 'I'i ,040 , ■!."> :• 

By the West Branch canal 221 ,022 

All Trhich is ri'.s|ie<tJ'ullv submitted. 

P. B. MERRILL, 

F. E. EMBICK. .Secy 

Curiimrl/r. 

•I ■•}> fit I \N 1 I1IM1N. 

OmCE Ga/.k-ttk ami Bci.i, Kris'. | 
Willi a m sport, August ,i, 1873. ) 

As several errors liavi- crept into our report of the amount of logs rafted 
out of the booms from time to time, we publish to-day a review of all tin- 
bills of logs and the dates, with the corrections. The table will be found 
valuable for reference: 



POR WEEK ENDING. 



No. Logs. No. Feet. 



Friday, May 2,1878 45,850 

Friday, May 18, 1878 39,478 

Friday, May S3, 1878 51,187 

Frlduv, May 80, 1873 85 

Friday, June 8, 1873 08 

Friday. .Iniu- l:i, JH7:i 58,408 

Friday, June 20, 1873 , 51,943 

Friday, June 37, I8f8 38,818 

Friday) .Inly 4, 1878 i 40,654 

Friday, July II, 1S7:4 58, 368 

Friday, .lulv 18, 1873 88,012 

Friday, July 35, 1878 HI, 941 

70, 880 



Friday, lug. I, ' s . 1 



.... 



I.OWlMt IIOO.M. 



Friday, 
Friday, 
Friday, 
Friday, 
Friday, 
l-'rnlaV. 
Friday, 
Friday, 
Friday, 



Maj 
May 
May 
June 

.lllll.' 

Juno 

.JlllV 

July 
July 



Hi, 187:;. 
•j:!, is?::. 
80, 1878. 
ii. 1873. 
18, 1873. 
20, 187*. 
11, 187:«. 
IB, 1878 
25, 1873 



9,090,842 
7,800.044 

111; 126,011!' 
18,844,270 
12,902,710 

10,771.1.'! 

■•,■71,617 
8,816,847 
11,088 
17,246,20:1 
17,018,740 
16,867,277 



753,122 151,490, 



5,276 
1,986 
5,221 

U.620 
5,414 



1,045,748 
::«.->, r>-".» 

I, OS 

1,818,506 

1,724, 
S13.012 

::, 143,771 
.41 J 

1,038 



.18,454 13,14], 



llfc'AI-lTri.ATIOK. 

d "in of upper boom 181 

Rafted out i»rli>\ver liooiu 13,191,983 



Total , 103.fr ' 

The Muiic y I. u ii QOt Counted in the operations at Williamsport 



LUMBER. 171 

MUNCY BOOM. 



f 

y for week EKDiXd. Xo. Logt*. No. Feet. 

? _ . 

" j 

1 Friday, June 13, 1873 ! 5,896 1,162,027 

! 2,115 895,032 

I 8,011 1,557,050. 



At this time last year the amount raited out of the boom was as follows : 
Logs, 560,914 ; feet, board measure, 109,839,974. Thus far the operations 
of 1873 show an increase over last year of 250,662 logs and 53,851,665 feet. 



W1LLIAMSPORT LUMBER SHIPMENTS. 

The following comparative statements furnish a general exhibit of the 
lumber trade from August, 1873, to July, 1874 : 

August 6, 1873 — The total shipment for 1872-3 when compared, show 
an increase up to this time of 48,759,642 feet. 

August 21, 1873 — The rains and freshets of the past week have operated 
against shipments. The river reached a height of thirteen and one half 
feet above low water, and it is estimated between six and eight million feet 
logs passed below. Such an event was expected, as the number of logs 
outside the boom was supposed to reach near twelve million feet. This 
loss falls heavily upon three or four of our lumbermen We understand 
but few logs were caught either at Muncy or Northumberland, the booms 
at those points failing to hold the logs. The loss will probably be two- 
thirds the amount escaping. 

September 9, 1873 — As compared with the week ending September 10. 
1872, there is an increase of 402,237 feet, the shipments, being as follows: 
€atawissa, 1,905,200 feet; Philadelphia and Erie, 1,011,560 feet, and the 
canal 2,339,003 feet. 

Lock Haven shipped from August 30 to September 6, 1873, 33 cars, con- 
taining 297,240 feet, a decrease of 19,240 feet as compared with the week 
ending August 30; from points east of Renovo there were 54 cars, contain- 
ing 468,440 feet, being an increase of 134,040 feet; from stations on the 
Northern Central there were 43 cars, containing 388,400 feet, an increase 
of 241,760 feet, making the total shipments over the Philadelphia and Erie 
road, from all points, for the week, 2,801,000 ; over the Catawissa, 2,479,080 ; 
by canal, 1,527,000; a grand total of 6,807,080 feet, and a decrease of 1,- 
115,260 as compared with last week. 



ITS 



LUMBER. 



October 8, 187a — The shipments from Williamspm-t for (he week ending 
October », am 314,680 feet in excess of the week previous, as follows : Cata- 
wissa gains 100,640 feet, thi> canal 67 1 ,000 feet, while the Philadelphia and 
Erie falls off 456,960 feet. 

For the week ending October 8, 1ST-, the Catawiaaa shipped 1,565,400 

i, tljp Philadelphia and Eric 685,400 feet, and the canal 2,058,000fbel a 

total Of 4 ,:UI3,800 feet. The week ending October 4, 1 873, shows the follow- 
Catawiaae 2,523,720 feet, Philadelphia and Erie 1 .327,800 feet, and the 
canal 2,540,000 feet a tutal of 6,391,520 feci, and a gain over Inst yi 
i rnicspoiiding week of 2,087,700 Ifeet. 

The total tdii|>iii.nis eve* the Philadelphia and Brie road, including Wfl- 
tiemaport, 2,159,040 feet; over the Oataarieea, 2.523,720 feet- a total bj rail 
of 4,(182,760 feet, and a decrease as compared with laat week of 152,120 
feet. 

For the iiiuiith nf September, 18T2, the following were the shipments: 
(Jatawisea 7,25lMou feet, Philadelphia and Eric 1,455,820 feet, and canal 
n 862.763fi.-ci ;. i. .till I'm- tin- jui.iitli of £l,57J»888 feet. In September, |8T3, 
the- total allipmenta from Willierasport were 26,565,000 feet, an Increase ovci 
1889 of 4,!>«7,017 feet, aa EoUotrb: Catawiaaa 11,754,680 feet, a gain of I,- 
195,980 feel; Philadelphia and Erie 7,048,320 feet, a gainq/ 2,592,500 feetj 
canal 7, 702, mm feat, a decrease of2,0A0,J68 feet. 

October 20 — Tlie shipments uf lumber from Williamaport fur the week 
ending October II, 1873, show a decrease of J,7l-.."i_n I'ci-t. as conipaijed 
with the previous week, there being a decline mi-r the Catawiaaa of 534,- 
760 feet ; over the Philadelphia and Erie of 189,560 feet, and i>.v panel pf 1.- 
el\(i00 feet. 

For the week ending October 15, 1872, the Catawiaaa shipped 1,539,800 
feet; the Philadelphia and Erie 653,320 feet, and the canal 2,689,478 feetr-a 
total of 4,832,51)3 feet. For the weekending October 11. 1873, the Catawiaaa 
"hipped 1,988,960 feet; the Philadelphia ami Erie l.l.!^,24n feet, and the 
canal 1,522,000— a total of 4,f49 4 20Q feet, and a low, «hen compared with 
the corresponding week in 1872, of 1 >.i, 303 feet. 

The total shipments tfC lumber over the Philadelphia and Erie rpad, Irpio 
all DOinta, passing- tltr«>uj;li Willhvmsport, and weighing at tins point, i* I ,- 

929,780 feet, ni iwei the Oataieiaaa l»888,86Q feet— a total oj •"■ ''IS720 
. and et oompared with leal week a decrease of 784,840 feet. 

The perceptible decline in shipment* tlie peel i«" weeks clearly slews 

tbeeffoot the financial crisis has hail npim nnr lumber interests, and yet, 

when i "inp.i'.cd with 1872, we ha^eaArpped 18,188/738 foal avea leal v ,;ll '' s 

new u]i to the same date, and will probably reach the buflaacas ef 1871, 

: the shipment- were 280,800,000 ftefe 



LUMBER. 



173 



Octnlwr 30 — Shipments limn I his city and joints above this still continue 
to decline. A few of OUT mill's are rutting down" in the [lumber of em- 
ployees, and the outlook for the winter is mu tin- most pleasaol to content- 
plate. 

For tin? week ending October 25. 1873, the lumber shipnciit-i lium Wil- 
import avi to 3,992,560 feet, showing & decrease when compared with t.: 
previous week, of 820,540 feet, us follows: The Gatawiaaa shows a decline 
of 428,340 feet, the Philadelphia and Erie, 274, TOO feet, and the canal, 117.- 
500 tret. 

! "i the week ending October 20, 1872, the shipments from Williams- 
port were 1,534,880 feet; for the week ending October 25, 1873, the ship- 
■ ii* cits are a total of 3.902.560 feet, and a loss, when compared with the 
corresponding week in 1872, of 592,320 feet. 

The shipments of lumber passing- through W'illianisport for the week 
ending October 25, 1K73, are a grand total of 4,601,540 feet. 

Nov. 28 — A few of bur mills are running, but generally they are closed 
up until tin' spring opening. Shipments by canal have virtually closed, 
HO boats having led this port since the 22d, although a few are "breaking" 
their way home to winter quarters. There will be BOine addition to the 
canal shipments from the outlet lock at Loyalsock, from August 1, to date. 

For the week ending November 22, 1873, the shipments from Willinius- 

port were 8,115,160 feet, a decrease of 217,840 feet, as compared with the 

l-n-viuns week, as follows: The Catawissa gains 143.450 feet, while the 

Philadelphia and Erie rIiowr a decrease of 123,320 feet, and the canal ol 

000 feet. 

Fur the week ending November 23, 1872, the shipments from Williams- 
port were — a total ol 5,818,440 teet. For the week ending November 22, 
1873 — a total of 3.115,160 feet — and a decrease when compared with the 
corresponding week in [812 of 2,703,280 loet. 

The total shipments of lumber passing through Williamsport for the week 
ending November 22, 1*73, were 3,585,480 feet, showing a decrease of 

I 86,440 feet a* compared with last week. 

lie,'. 8 — With the canal closed, the mills shut down, and the financial 
crisis upoti us, we can only look for limited shipments until the spring 
trade opens. 

The shipments over the Catawissa railroad from January 1, 1872, t.> I > - - 
Utter I, 1872, were (>7,«IH,342 feet; from January 1, 1*7:4, to December 

I I 1878, 101,787 ,926 feet ; showing an increase thus far over the year 1872. 

J, 91 9,578 f..,.|. 
From January 1, IN72, to December 1, 1*72, the Philadelphia and Erie 
railroad Shipped from Williamsport 44,229,058 feet, and for the same period 
in 1*72. 66,341,3211 feet, on increase ol 21,612.267 feet. 



171 



LlMHKn. 



Tin- rami! shipped in 1872, 12,886,868 feet, while in 1«73, the abtpDh 
ire 86,124,829 feet — slmwinr :< decp-ase. fur tlie yi'iir of i). 21,2, 328 R 

Por the week ending NovcTftttef 28", l s 7:;, the shipments from WiH'mm*- 
porf were 2,028,060 feet,s decrease of 1,08 1,200 feel m compared with last 
It, Tlii« decrease is largely owing to Ibe ciosfrifc of the canal. 

Par the week ending November 30, 1872, the shipments from Willi... 
port wen — a total of 2,575,610 feet. For the weekending November 29, 

l*7.'i a total ill '2, "2:5,1100 li-ct and a decrease as compared with the COf- 
rrKponding wcik in 1872, of fiii 1,080 feeti 

Hie total (umber shipments passing through WilKamsporl, [bribe week 
. ndSng November 20, 1878, were ae follows : Over the Cat&wisan. railroad, 
1,236,720; overlhe Philadelphia and Erie, t,2i0.4so feet— ft total of 2,607,- 
200 feetj and a decrease of 1,078,280 feet, as compared With leal week, 

Jan, 15 — Thus far the hOASuii lias been wry unfavorable t<i "iir luinbt 

iiM'ii, ;»mi I..- i" li, " ,, ' s li:iv '' been laboring under peat disadvantages 

iliis time it i ^ difficult to give Anything like an approximation to theai mi 

of logB thai "'ill be CUl and floated to this market — mueli depends upon 
"the weather" from this until the spring opening. As our lumbermen re- 
solved i" "i>m in -- ..iiiv about two-thirds of last year's stock, ii ia fa 
-uuh- iIk.i 200,000,000 i" 250,000,004 feet will pover thai item. 

I". I, 5— Shipments from this point continue largely im-xees*: nf previous 
yearaaJ this season. La January, 1878, then" wen? 519 cars forwarded 
over tin- Catawiasa railroad, eontaiaing 4^620,500 feel ; and over the Phihv 
delphia and Eric road 271 oars were forwarded, eontaiuing 2,576,740 feel 
total &ow WHUamaport of 798 cars and 7,187,244 feel of lumber. 

In 1X74, the shipments for the month of January . were 12,430,408 feot - 
an itlQTOaPP over 1873 of 5,288,160 led. 

Km' i he week ending January 34, 1874, Williwnsport shipped a total "i 
3,672,688 feet, [a 1878, for the week ending February 1, a total of 
L,840 feet, ami l.xio^io feel less than for the corresponding week in 
1874. 

Luck Haven thippod 48 ears up t<> January -± 1 , 1874, containing 141,240 
feel ; and for the week ending January :>i, 1*7-1, 15 pars, containing 148,- 
040 feet- a total for the year of »>l cms and 587,280 feel of lumber, 

From points east of Ronova then' have boon 50 ears forwarded in J,. 
, 1874, containing 465,480 feel of lumber; ofthesa then- were ]| cars-, 
• ■ >n tainiiier i(i:j,-jiii teet, [iir the week ending January 31, 1874. 

April 2 -The past, week has been DOS of mure than usual activity in the 

lumbar trade. 

The canal tir>t opened for the passage of light boats mi the 2Sd and on 
the 25th the firal Inmbet anipmeiitH wore made. 



LUMBER. 175 

Daring the week ending oip the 28th ult., the lumber shipments were 
brisker than the previous week, 6,748,039 feet having gone forward, which 
is an increase of 750,121 feet. This however, was caused by the opening 
of the canal, as the shipments by rail show a falling off, compared with the 
previous week, of 29,700 feet. 

On the 25th, 81 cars were shipped by the Philadelphia and Erie railroad 
from Williamsport, which is the heaviest day's work yeft done here this 
season. They carried 507,240 feet. 

April 9 — Owing to the low stage of the river during the past week there 
has been no rafting, and the log drives remain "hung up" in the tributary 
streams, much to the disadvantage of the lumbermen. There is probably 
less than thirty millions in the boom, and a rise in the river is anxiously 
looked for to bring down a sufficiency of logs to enable the manufacturers 
to run their mills on full time. More than half of the mills arc now in op- 
eration, working up the stock that remained in their pools over winter. 

Last year the first shipments by canal were made on the 2d of May, 
nearly one month later than this year, and the traffic of that week footed 
up 2,075,000 feet. 

May 7 — The shipments of lumber from Williamsport fbr the week closing 
on the second of May show a total of 8,583,952 feet, an increase of 3,006,- 
906 feet over the previous week 

The mills are nearly all running, and there is an abundant stock in the 
boom. 

June 19 — There is a slight improvement in the lumber market since our 
last report, the shipments for the week closing on the 13th showing a total 
of 6,290,063 feet, an increase of 1,888,629 feet over the previous week. 

Jnly 9 — -For the woek closing on the 4th of July the shipments of lumber 
from Williamsport, by rail and canal, foot up a total of 4,903,966, an in- 
crease of 211,135 feet over the week ending on the 27th of June. 

The total shipments during the mouths of May and June compare ao 
follows : 

Total shipments in May 26,123,655 

Total shipments in June 23,144,021 

Decrease in June 2,979,634 



176 



LUMBER. 



ANNUAL LUMBER REPORT. 

WUMXI OF LITS4BRB IN THK WIU.UUSpoRT MARKET, MKITABV I, 1874, A3 ro»- 
MHHK.D OFFICIALLY TO TIIK WEST BHUWCB MMBERMAN'.- EXCBAXS1 



YARDS. 



PISK. 



ILK.M LOOK. 



PH-KKT*. 



F.der, Hoiiscl A Deeinor 

TpnEyek. Emery A Go 

KoadiW, Kislver A Co 

P. B. Merrill A Co 

Tabor it Goodrich 

Burrows, Bowman A 00 

' t, \V. Ijlimri 

Filbert, Otto* Co 

Cnnaeld A Colton 

Thompson, Harper .V Co. 

IS. H. Taylor ,v Soil 

F. Coleman , 

r.on v o r M ills unci Hi in l>e r Coin party, 

.John 1 1 ii Hois 

Brown, Earlcv A Co 

Wolverten a- Titmman 

P. <i. Feiwter A Co 

Kin lev, Young A Co 

M'-ninofui A Foresuuio 

White, Lent! A White. 

Starkweather A Munwii 

Lutscher A Moore 

Dodge, .lumen A Stokes 

Hunt .v Edlei 

C. II. K rouse A Co 

S.N. \Villiiiiiis i ind..tliep«,onP. Her- 

dic A < o.h yard 

Stoaaker, Howard A Co 



6,647,002 
0,300,000 
7,000,084 
8,231.44:: 
1,100,000 
8,872,883 

3, WO, 000 

7,000,000 
& 700. 000 
0,986,382 
7,000,000 
2,375,274 
L0, 111,728 

1(», <NKI, (MMJi 

11,117,200 

8,100,000 

:k,ikib,711 

.;,;. ir,,o(H» 
10,272,508 
7,800,000 

•J7. i&'ass' 

1,278,216 
B, ISO, 000 

10,000,000 
$,700,000 



265,800 



::.-iH),000 



1,875, W0 

1,244,991 

l.(KHi.lKM) 



i, 300,-000 

550,000 



4,01X1, OOfl 

::. 112,980 

L 026, 673 

278, 000 



300,0011 



i,o.io,onn 

1.400,000 
1,200,000 

-."-. 

870, 000 
1,700,000 

4X0,000 

i.i7;.,oon 

800,(mii 
3,52H,.mhi 

■J.""". 

4,204,900 
3,829,600 
1,800,000 
2,131,000 
1,500,000 

800,000 

;. V.<i, h.«i 
1,50(1, iMXl 

2,700,800 

1,110,000 

ia.'oifi, no 
488, eoo 

2.008,700 
9,689,100 

1,000, (HH I 



i'soo 



124,000 

130,000 

159,000 

179, S00 
180,000 
148,300 

190.0OU 

871," 830 



180,000 
509,370 

'800,060 

949,045 

85,000 



IO0.«H»i 



'!'• it al, Wllliawnport 220, 981, 022 

Do. .LoOk Haven S4,H19,444 

Do Baitimoro 1,350,000 

Do. . Port bepoalt. 5,200, OoO 

Do, , Philadelphia 9, 027,948 



10.872,444 
S, 469, 652 



141, 100 

4,!HJJ,U0U 



3, 537, 068 
1,476,0011 



600,000 18)000 



Total, January 1. 1*74 ! 271,459.314 I 28,888,098 64.049,100 5,106.655 



COMPARATIVE 9TATEVEXT. STOCK OJJ HAND, JANUARY 1, 1873. 





PINK. 


HEM 1 .' 11-K . 


LATH. 


PICKK T>. 




137,949,907 

32,638,741 

2,000,000 

4,000,000 

10,818,090 


8,807,440 

1,030,000 


39,966,700 
5,163,000 


2,27 : 




1,503,000 


























1873. 








Total, January 1 
]>•, ...do 


187,407,*VS 
271,4.7.1. ;ill 


10,737.440 
23,333,096 


48,129,700 

64.046,100 


3,776,2flo 




.-, nw,. ■,.-,-, 










84, 001, 078 


12.598,086 


18.910, 400 


1, 332, 878 



LUMBER. 

STOCK OX HAND, JANUARY 1, 1872. 



177 



PINE. 



HEMLOCK. 



PICKETS. 



Williamsport 50,550,603' 2,832,500 12,687,600 1,687,815 

Lock Haven 7,179,000 710,000 i 410,000 

Baltimore 2,250,000 1 : 

Port Deposit.. 6,250,000 i I ' 

Philadelphia 13,486,280 i 1 472,890 



Total, January 1, 1872 78,715,883 

Do do 1874 , '271,459,314 



2,832,500 . 13,397,600 , 2,570,705 
23,333,096 164,046,100 5,108,655 



Dl fferonoe .. .... .._...._.. ._.„_._. ... . . 192,743,431 I 20,500,596 _50,648,50oJ 2,537,950 

8T0CK OX HAXD, JANUARY 1, 1871. 



PINK. 



HEMLOCK. , LATH. 



PICKETS. 



WiUlamaport 122,505,694 

Lock Haven i 22,312,000 

Baltimore ! 3,000,000 

Port Deposit i 950,000 

Philadelphia. j 10, 249, 971 



5,737,000 i 33,604,800 2,646,150 
2,289,000 720,000 , 



Total, January 1, 1871 
Do .do 1874 



159,017,665 
271,459,314 



XHfiforenco- , 



112,441,649 



5,737,000 
23,383,096 



17,596,096 



245,133 



85,893,800 \ 3,611,283 
64,046,109 5,108,655 



28,162,300 I 1,407,372 



STOCK OX HAXD,. JANUARY 1, 1870. 



HEMLOCK. I LATH. 



WHltontoport. 
Lock Haven . . 

Baltimore 

Port Deposit.. 
Philadelphia.. 



Total* January 1, 1870 
Do do 1874 



134, 166, 157 | 
58,500,000 

3,500,000 I. 

1,500,000 | 
11,000,000 ;, 



0,098,000 



208,666,157 
271,459,314 



6,098,000 
23,333,096 



27,627,300 | 1,66*085 



27,627,300 
64,046,100 



1,658,065 

5,108,655 



Difference 62,793,157 I 17,235,098 I 36,418,800 ! 3,455,590 



The above is a correct statement of the amount of Susquehanna lumber, 
lath and pickets in first hands, in the above named markets, on the first day 
of January, 1874. 

P. E. EMBICK, 
Secretary. 



12 Statistics. 



178 



LUMBEB, 



LUMBER IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

The following is tlie report of (3 W. Lentz, Esq., of VVilliamsport, of tt* 
Committee OH Lumber Statistics, made to the Lumbermen's Conveoliw. 
recently held in Saginaw It i.s the- result of careful investigate • 
shows the quantity of standing wliite pine, hemlock and hard (rood timber, 
and west of the Allegheny mountains, In this State : 

180,04 

15,01 
75.000, 

50. < 

150,00 



On Pine crock and its branches 

On Youngwoman'K creek 

On Kettle crook and its branches 

On Cook's PBfl 

(In Hunt's run 

' On First folks of the Siimemah.iiiing Mid branches 

On H«-i n !«■ 1 1 'k branch of the Sinneniahoiiing and branches 

On A nderapn'a creek ami branches 

(In Susquehanna rivet? and small branches 300 ,000, 

i ii> Clearfield creek ami brain' lies | 00 ,000, 

On .\I.i«li;Liui.in creek and branclies 

On Driftwood slid branches of Sinnemahoning 

I hi Musquito creek, below Cleai'lield 

(.In Wickoff nm 

On Baker and "tie i runs 

On Beech creek , &c 

Other small streams additional 




■I I'M ,00(1,0 
I 

225,000 
60.00(1 .o 
75,("'- 
50 .000 .0' 

.'.if. .000.0 



Total on streams eesi of AHeghenies - •_' ,000,000 ,0( 

Total on streams wes1 of A lla g h en i ea 1 ,000 ,000 ,000 



Making a sum total of ttaWMng WbilSj pine east and wesi ,,| 

the Allegheny mountain* . 3 ,600 ,000 ,000 



Total amount of hemlock in Pennsylvania 7 ,000 ,000 ,000 

Total amount ofburd wood in Pennsylvania, fit for saw-logs, 4,000,000,000 



LUMBER. 179 



CALIFORNIA LUMBER TRADE. 

The following review of the lumber trade of San Francisco, California, 
may be interesting : 

EXPORTS. 

The lumber exports from January 1, 1873, to January 1, 1874, were as 
follows : 



to Feet. ' Value. 

i 

Tahiti 1,756,841, $31,846 00 

Mexico 1,056,071 22,869 00 

Panama 748, 081 19,752 00 

(Antral America 1,625, 136 , 33,612 00 

Australia 2,481,920 57,259 00 

RnwlanABia 345,458 8,677 00 

China 1,106,808 20,250 00 

Iquique 1,*8,716 • 21,673 00 

Bten, Pent 154, 198 4, 400 00 

Callao 2,956,912 59,394 00 

Navigator's Island 460,680 7,803 00 

Honolulu 1,041,000 12,320 00 

Liverpool : 2,820 99 00 

Victoria 82,554 2,985 00 

Valparaiso 2,978,185 40,974 00 

Molendo 326,579 ' 5,720 00 

Japan 18,270 427 00 

Totals, 1878 17,415,287 350,024 00 

Totals, 1872 16,517,171 : 309,325 00 

Total s, 1871 ?ZL 6 ??i*>!_l S 12 - 570 °° 

RECEIPTS. 

Statement of receipts of lumber, &c, at San Francisco, from January 1 

to December 31, 1873: 

Feet. Feet. 

Puget Sound and Oregon pine — Rough 92 ,5G8 ,512 

Dressed 12 ,805 ,566 

Fencing 12,017,873 

Pickets 48,353 

117,439,804 

Spruce— Rough ; 7 ,793 ,197 

Dressed 342 ,274 

8,135,471 

Cedar, rough 2 ,262 ,333 

Laurel and maple 146 ,410 

Redwood— Rough 38 ,597 ,676 

Rough, clear 5 ,372 ,044 

Dressed, clear 21 ,430 ,775 • 

60 ,600 ,495 

» Carried forward 188 ,584 ,513 



I. I'M BE U 

Amount broaglil forward 188,684,513 

Redwood — Dressed, J inch :>77 ,308 

Siding, I. inch i ,881 ,458 

Battens, £ inch I is, 44-6 B. U 

LOSS. 605 

Pickets Roagh 978,380 

Eh-essed 616,892 

I ,49£;2T2 

Railroad ties S .107 ,849 

Telegraph poles 383,392 

2.110.741 

Sugar pine, rough 4,738,810 

Total 208 ,229 .14 1 

Total,, tame" time in 1*72 23H.siiS.H0O 

Feet, 

Foreign Bhi| tuts, made direct from milt |iorts, in 1872, rati- 

daf l>5,000.U0i» 

Agaiust same ia 1873 50 .000 .000 

BOKDEIKS. 

Sliin-li'S 60.22* ,T50 

Laths 2?,258 r 5u3 

Ship knees, pieces 1 ,553 

Files, lineal feet 545 ,253 

Redwood posts 730 .854 

Broom handles, pieces 183 .500 

Spanish cedai logs, pieces 5 ,355 

Railroad ties, rift, pieces 240 ,932 

Ship spars, lineal feet .: -7 

Ship spars, pieces , 7:; 

Poles, lineal feet 9 ,028 

Poles, pieces 136 

Lignum vita 1 , pieces 

Rosewood, pieces 261 

Rosewood, tons . 6H 

Primever wood, pieces 44 

i 



DRAINAGE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 181 



DRAINAGE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



DRAINAGE AREA OF THE SEVERAL COUNTIES OF PENN- 
SYLVANIA. 

The respective river basins, included in Pennsylvania, are of very une- 
qual extent. Delaware, Susquehanna and Ohio include an immense pro- 
portion of the whole State, and sub-divide it naturally into the eastern, 
middle and western river sections. 

The following table give the respective areas of each, and also the 
smaller sections of the Potomac, Genesee and Erie : 

Delaware river drains the counties of 



Berk* 

Bucka 

Carbon 

Chester, three-fourths 

Delaware 

Lebanon, one-eighth 

Lehigh 

Luzerne, one-tenth 

Montgomery 

Monroe* 

Northampton 

Philadelphia. 

Pike 

Schuylkill, three-eighths. 
Wayne, three-fourths. 



Susquehanna drains the counties of 



Adams, three-fifths 

Bedford, three-fifths. 

Blair. 

Bradford 

< 'ambrla, two-fifths 

Cameron 

< 'en tre , . 

< 'hester, one-fourth 

Clearfield, nine-tenths 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cumberland 

Dauphin 

Elk, one-fourth 

Franklin, one-third 

Fulton, one-fourth 

Huntingdon 

Indiana, one-tenth 

Juniata 

Lancaster. 

Lebanon, seven-eighths 

Luzerne, nine-tenths 

Lycoming 

M'Kean, one-fourth 

Mifflin 

Montour 

Northumberland 



Sq. miles., 


Acres. 


920 


588,800 


! 605 ; 


387,200 


400 


256,000 


550 


354,240 


177 


113,280 


38 


24,480 


364 : 


2-12,960 


140 


89,000 


47a 


303,080 


000 


384,000 


375 


240,000 


120 


80,640 


600 


384,000 


285 


304,000 


710 


460,800 


0^371 


4,203,080 


316 


202,752 


596 


381,696 


594 


380,100 


1,174 


751, 360 


268 


171,520 


407 


260,480 


1,075 


688,000 


184 


118,080 


1,070 


685,440 


924 


591, 360 


431 


275,840 


544 


C48, 160 


559 


357,760 


174 


111,680 


229 


160,000 


105 


07,200 


840 


537, 600 


77 


49,280 


351 


224,640 


950 


608,000 


200 


171,360 


1,260 


800,400 


1,080 i 


601,200 


280 


179,200 


370 i 


236,800 


148 j 


94,720 


457 ' 


292,480 





DRAINAGE OK PENNSYLVANIA. 

S ' 8 ifi'Kn.i si .\".\ — Oon Untied. 








Sq, i,n tea. 


Ai-i 

844,940 

129, 

188, MO 

187,020 

Sift, 

275,300 

714. 

186, ISO 

em, 

(,000 

i;i.iis.s,si> 

. I0H 

154, MM 

1,000 

9ftl, 00U 

ufi,(aoo 




(Wo 
01 


Potter. Ave i Ig til ha 
n [kill, ihr^e-eiu 








?w 

! ;: 

1. llii 

258 

900 

ao,eo4 

i:;s 

230 
8M 
538 

|M) 


























Potte flith 


droiat 


A<i:n»i>, | «..-iiii ba 


Potomac drains 


Bedford, iw-tifllis .. 




Franklin, two-third* 
Fulton, threoxfourthj 

'-.. .1 M ■■ I -. . ■ .1 l.'-M \ll\ 




./"; f« drains 


l,iW* 


1,023, i:ti 
240 




0fa*< rt'ui r oVa 


77.1 
030 
KM 
78S 

|Q9 

198 
000 

"-i 
..-1 
.177. 
884 

1,1 IH 

ate 

: ■ - 
sin 
1 161 1 

810 

s.l| 

1,068 


408,1 
298,240 

297,280 

. 180 

1,000 

1,700 

n| I 

340,000 

7.-7 . 

384,800 

I.'" 

an 

1IS,800 

1 1L1> 

. BOO 

l|i, .INK. 

171,800 
867,040 

I, -in 

. Hi' 
878, Owi 










Cambria, ihr -fifths 

i 'ii'.irtU'hi, one-tenth 










Elk, three-fourtha 




















Indian*, nlne-tenthi 










-M Kciiii. tbree-fourthi 










Homerael , in a-alxtha 
















9UIDMRY. 


13.191 

6.371 

S0 f QIN 

■ 

1,688 

LB, 1IM 


P.710,8* 


1^08,080 

9,841* 

- ,. 880 

1,00,433 

210,1 
0,710, 


>iis.|iii'li,nni:> ilninx 






















44. aw 





TANNERIES AND LEATHER. 



183 



TANNERIES AND LEATHER. 



THE FORESTS Q¥ PENNSYLVANIA. 

In speaking recently ill' the condition and pregieasrof American agricul- 
tar* we incidentally alluded to the vast extent of unimproved land in Penn- 
srtvania, and cited the number of seres of woodland in a few Boontiee. 
This subject is worthy i>t'a more extended notice. U bhfl public has been 
rtained of late with voluminous efforts to get. up a scare about the de- 
struction ofonr forests. Leaving 1 other States to look after their part of the 
to suit themselves, we confide our attention for the present to our own. 
The unimproved land in Pennsylvania is distinctly classified as that which 
is woodland, and that which is not. There is, therefore, bo room Fob guess- 
work. Taking first ill" comities along the northern border they show the 
owing number of acres of woodland: Wayne, 158,892; Susquehanna, 
148,18*; Bradford, 264,992; Tioga, 148,168; Potter. sT.S'JO; M'Kean, 48.- 
177; Warren, 131,214; P". i i •• Ii'ii,i;-J7. This is hut ■ single range of coun- 
ties extending along tin.' bonier of the great and populous Stan' of New 

Vork. 

Now let us look at the counties on or 068* the Ohio border: Crawford, 
1>1,J.HJ: Meroer, 11)5,2*.'.); Venango, 90,167; Lawrciirr, I '. t , /J00 ; Butler, 
157,247; BesVer. 71 ,84ft? Allegheny. NH.U50; Washinglon. 1 i:i,4ul : ©teeae, 
106,720. These Bounties adjoin what passes fur a prairie Slate. Next let 
us look at the southern border: layette, 136,027 ; Westmoreland, !.'>'.», olt»; 
Somerset, Ml ,829; lh di'o,-d. Pui^ou; Fulton, 87.551; Pninkliu, 7.". lbs; 
llnntin-dou, 179,1915 Cumberland, BSjflfiftf Adams. 50, 133; York, 110,1311 ; 
Lancaster, 65.4.13; Chester, 62,1 til ; Delaware, 10,105; Philadelphia, 2,1 17. 
It will be seen that even in the limits of tkis great city there arc over two 
thousand acres, of unimproved forest land. Turning over to the Now Jersey 
be we have the billowing array: Montgomery, £2,310; Pucks, 89*314 ; 
Lehigh, 32.367; Northampton, H,!I55; Carbon, 26,41)0; .Monroe, 65,470: 
Pike, 88,065; Wyoming, 57*840, This shows that the only line of conn- 
where the forest is greatly reduced is the one nearest New York city 
when- the operations of the tanneries of that city are carried on, and that 
beyond that line they appear to have known nothing at all of the forests of 
ili.' Commonwealth, yet have assumed thai the scarcity in their tract ■■ 
characteristic of the whole country, 

In order that it may be seen how unjust it is to assume that any such 
scarcity is general we subjoin a statement of the unimproved woodland In 



1*4 



TANNERIES AND LEATHER. 



various central and interior counties: Indiana, 159,181; Jeflerson, lo7,- 
425; Clearfield, 129,536 ; Clarion, 95,394; Cambria, 133,979 ; Armstrong, 
121 ,756 ; Cameron, (11.216; Juniata, 65,929 ; Columbia, 66,245 ; Dauphin, 
57,7sk; Perry, HU.240-, S, huylkill, 00,876; Lycoming, 110,689: Berks, 
;ii,1i32; Luzerne, 127.600; (.'nitre, 39,129. In fact there is no region an\- 
where better supplied with forest, than Pennsylvania, or were the wood- 
land is so well distributed or ho little likely to be exhausted. A very large 
part of this forest in so ragged aad monatainooe« end m severed with cooks 

Mkd stones that it . eaniiot be cultivated, and will therefore always reniain. 

The trees constitute a regular crop, and all that is required is that BOBW 
•'Hurt should ba made to guard against waste by desolating ire» 

The maintenance of so much land 10 a state of nature lavors the divei-i- 
Geation of pursuits. Thus, of the populiit \<>n of Pennsylvania, 356,240 me 
engaged Eo mining and manuluetures ; 121,253 in tradeand transportation : 
2*3,000 in professional [iin.siiits, and 260,051 in agriculture. We have 
thus the strange spectacle of 27.73 per cent, of t In - population being sus- 
tained by professions and only 25.48 by agriculture. In Massachusetts 
only 12.55 per oeat, are engaged in agriculture, and 50.47 in nanujacaurec 
The two pursuits sustained by the forests are tanneries ami lumbering. As 
uls the former, there are in the State about 900 establishments, with u 
capital of $12,1100.000, nod a pearl? business of $40,000,000. Their an- 
nual capacity is about 316,000 hides, and the products of last year amount* 
to about 300,000, two-thirds of the hides being domestic and one-third 
South Amelia*. The tanning eapacity of the State, however, judging by 
the general diffusion of the woodland, is far beyond these figures, an 
BOBjrceJj understood even fay its own people. Our belief is that the ta:i- 
eapacity of the State is fully e.pial to a million hides I yeai 

As regards the lumbering business we have only the report of the Sus- 
banna trade, and nope from any of the other regions. The Sitsoue- 
hanna stork on hand January 1. 1*78, amounted to IB?,48?^6S8 feet pine. 
UI.7.'i7,-IIO feet hemloek. I 5. 1 •_'!<. 7 no leet lath, and 3.770.2HO feet biofci 
Williains]iort is the great depot of trade. To show the diffusion ol the 
tanning and lumber interest*, we take from tlie censusof I6H0 the statis 
ol leather tanned and kunhet sawed in remote eoontiee, [riven in values: 



TANNERIES ANT) LEATIIKI!. 



185 



Leather 
tanned. 



Lumber 

geared. 



*4S, 081 00 

Allegheny 1.178,305 00 

Somerset n7,3*a on 

i'or.1 146,062 00 

Snllimn 210,000 m 

Susquehanna 1,170,890 i«i 

Erie 382. 042 00 

Ti«»i« 565, 020 00 

Warren nos, 135 00 

r nion 29,647 00 

Pike 206, S 

X, huvlklll , 180, MS mi 

Northampton :;m. urn im.i 

ScTtftamoeriand 181,960 m 

Petty ;«2,041 oo 

Hnntiiigdon 707,21*00 

Montgomery 108,807 oo 

tning 290,006 00 

vr'...iroe 1,140,014 0(1 

Mifflin 200,803 00 

Mercer 75,009 00 

I.iiwriK' 1,105,424 00 

Lehigh 474.324 00 

Lancaster 382,374 imi 

Jnnlata 1:4:5.706 00 



(201,000 m 
L, 667, 858 W» 

171.7 

7"4.iBS 00 
10, 100 <m 

110,3 
$85,705 00 

,V,ii,ftj«> <H> 
1. 115,800 «i 

IIIOIHI 

139,700 <«' 

067, - 

172,796 00 

895, 150 <»' 

59.277 00 

10,065 <hi 

S70 00 

5, 17;;.; 

366,956 "" 
81, 130 00 

325,090 00 

540 on 

100,080 00 

10,960 «ni 



TRAINING SCHOOL FOR TANNERS. 

At tlit: last Tanners' Convention, held at Baixiaburg, Pa. this subject 

; 1 <ti • "I >i'-<-<i, and seemed tu meet with favor, Before any definite action, 

ever, is taken, it Beams desirable tliai we get clearly before our mdnda 

11 t only the end we propose to attain, but (In- means which an to be used 

for its accomplishment, 

It will be conceded that there is need enough for instruction, but it may 

not be quite 00 clear that theoretic instruction will l f sen-ice. fur, m> 

:,t. it will be insisted thai all information obtained otherwise than by 
liciillv working in a tannery "mere theory," and is of doubtful utility. 
W'r all know that such yiews as dies,' have been entertained, and we must 
1 sped tu meet them again. Bat wo should remember, roc our encoure 

1 . chat only ;i few years ago "book learning" was rejected by our farm- 
1 -i>, while. iii>w, ii" fanner thinks <>f (jetting along without the aid of an 
agricultural journal, It is conceded that In lining is a chemical operation, 
by which hides are converted into leather. Why, then, should not the 
tanner be made acquainted, as far as possible, with the laws of tbia union ol 

gelatin ami tannin',' l! is no answer to say that tin- tanner (earns this 

practieally alter years oi experience. It Is desirable that tbeyowig man 
should start nut with this capita). II gives him justeo much the advents 
b professional career. Bat it is nut brae that tanners generally aeon 



TANNERIES AND LKATHEK. 



tho rc(|uiaito chemical knowledge by experience, There ib no iluiibiili.it 
tanners have considerable practical knowledge, and by t lie- Application ol 

tin's experience do make very .-n-^italile leather. But whetlier this foffftei 
] .reluct is made with as much KOTUtmy Bfi w.iiihl he possible, it a i" 

thorough and enlightened system prevailed, is quit.- another question, and 

which our Knft-lisli friemis would not take long to answer, if they should 
iiis|,( it uiirwaatfnl methods. Aa an illustration &f the advantages of some 
Blight chemical knowledge, it may iml In- a miss to stale a fact within th. 
knowledge of the writer. 

About thirty yean ago a tanner oi' this State, ol more than average 
Intelligence, was tanning a very large number of North Sea sealskins — in- 
deed, had turned his whole capacity into this description of stock. lie 
soaked and iinhaired these skins, lor more than two years, precisely aa he 
bad formerly done his calfskins. Almost by an accident he discovered thai 
warm water would greatly aid the process of freeing the skins from tin 
grease with which they were covered, and even this did not occur to him 

until he saw his men rBSOtthlg tfl uttnn water instead of rultl to (lean I In- i t 
hands, lint then he saw his men use S00p besides the warm water, and 

the farther thought occurred to him that, it he could employ soap, or its 

■ ■Univalent, possibly he could make a further Baring, and S little inquiry 

ami thought brought him into the use of the soda ash or potash oi com- 
merce; the result was that lie worked in hie sealskins with less than half the 
labor he had been previously using Just at this time, it' a proposition 
had come tn him to have his sou joili u class to study chemistry as applied 
In the tanimr's art. the writer ol this would have had nineli moiv reliable 
and valuable information to impart. 

A careful analysis of many of the improved methods of softening dry 
hides will show that au alkali oi some kind is used, the object and effect ol 
which is to cut the grease, and thus allow the water a freer access, to the 

[Mues of the hide. This is bo (simple that most tanners will say that {.hey 
have always known and have in their experience used an alkali ; but on a 
close inquiry it will be found that DO intelligent use has been made of this 

most useful I labor-saving chemical by our tanners. Much use h.i 

tats been made of vitriol in the process of plumping the hide while in a 
green stale: but. as compared with the English tanners, we make but a 
poor use of this acid. As our tanners have been and are now using this 
mineral acid, it is very doubtful whether we are benefited b> its use. 

With the aid of S moiv thorough iBBOWledge, both of the iieid used ami 
tin- gelatin to bfl operated upon, we may hope in the near future to so jtn- 
prore our methods as to use Raid* of some kind to plump our sole leather, 
but not th.- vitriol ,,|' commerce now so generally in us.- 



TANNERIES AND LEATHER 



181 



Many of the defects of BUI present system, such as the " Mack i"i." 
white .-pots," mid the general discoloration of grain by llie drying pro- 
tatty he avoided by proper study and reflection. Hut why attempt 
mmeratioii of the advantages to ba secured by ll ttwroug* koowiedgi 
•■■ " chemistry of tanning t" Without neb knowledge, orbhei in a pi 
ties! or theoretical lnnn, leather cannot be made. With chose forma ol 
knuv fined, a much better result can be attained. Then why shimM 

ore of America avail themselves of these help 
Tin- truth should ba acknowledged that, beyond ■ mere form at manipu- 
u into which our tanners ha/rti fallen, they know but little about tin' 
i.iiuii i ':- nt, and it is this deficieDOy which has made it difficult, if not im- 
possible, for us to contend with our English competitors. How shall this 
i action be obtained ''. 
No one auppoaea thai old and ao-called experienced tanners will fall away 
from their errora, and "got0 8chool." Bui they may have aona whom thej 

wish to have follow their profession, and they may imvc struggled so 

in the rough and unskilled methods as to be willing to scud their BOM 

COUTH) Of instruction which would Bhorteii up at least their road to the 

happy goal to which their fathers have arrived. 

Il was with this hope, and in thai belie!', thai the suggestion was made 

that a practical chemist should be employed, and, alter he had prepared 

-e|| fully to apply his chemical knowledge to the art of tunning, that a 

class of young nie u who propose to devote themselves to this calling should 
be procured, and a thorough and systematic course of instruction be given 
I, with micIi experiments and practical basil as would really occur to a 
■ 1 1 ti< instructor. 
Of course at the beginning there would he difficulties to overcome, both 
DCUring students and in securing the requisite teacher-, but as tiim 
difficulties would DO obviated, and possibly such a practical 
■mi> Mr. Cornell has inaugurated might adopt tanniag; sis one of 

the applied arts. For the preasnt it has been suggested that Harriaburg 
id be the location, and there seems an appropriateness in this location 
which will be generally recogui: 

Mr. Peter Cooper, many years ago. offered big institution and it- hill 
equipment bo teach Bhemistry, but it was thought then, as now, that there 
advantages in a country location that far outweigh those offered by Mr. 
i New York city. The class should be in the immediate tteigh- 
I of, or in actual oontaot with a tannery, irhere the practical experi- 
ments and their results could be observed. 

It is not unreasonable to anticipate that the day will arrive wbefl a small 
model tannery could be worked by the class. This course of instruct 100 
could be more or less complete, according to the advanced condition of tin- 






TANNERIES AND LEATHER, 



i"ii)pil >>n entering, 01 tin- disposition of the latter to make himself prouaient 

in his calling - , and, to a reasonably bxtfJUgjant and fairly educated youth of 
KteSfl to eighteen- years, a course of instruction lasting through a single 

term of three mouths would send liiiu boms with many useful ideas. I'mm 

which, if afterward applied — as no doubt would lie tli«' ease— j)i:titicall v. 

the most satisfactory results might be anticipated. 

\> B farther tneactf of renderin<r these investigations serviceable, thi- 
ll ! journal! would always be glad to publish the result of any ex p 
kts, and "'pen their ruliuiiiks' for the discussion of all topics which would 
l to throw light upon the different problems of the « t ;*<!<-. It mag I" 

tiiat tins whole Bcherae is chimerical ; if so, those whose interests are to be 
ted will diecoi sr it, and g»ver« themselves accordingly. 



BOOT AND SHOE BUSINESS OF PHILADELPHIA, IW3 

In reviewing the business of tin- past year, we Bud the most tmportnm 

its of interest oi which to make ntion have been tin- large demand 

lor children's and infants' shoes, a greatly Increased production of goods 

1 i men's imd boys' wear, and a much heavier business done by the suction 

8C8. 

MASCFACTCaBBa Of WOMEN 'fi ,\sn i 111 1 .1 > liurs '- > 

The trade ef the year among the manufacturers oi medium ami due 

ids I'm- Indies' and misses' wear lias been u variuble one. The year 
opened With encouraging prospects fur mi rally and fair demand, but as 
the season progre ss ed it became mm-eoi- less fitful ; si nue wanks ■ verj 

trade was tcali/ed, while others were far less encouraging. The 
eaoaes of the unsatisfactory trade during the spring were j the long oow- 
tinned winter, in which heavy bouts or rubber* bad beef) chiefly worn, 
thereby causing many goods adapted to the early spring trade to be still 

"ii hand ; a smaller vnlm i money circulating than during the previous 

year; a feeling thai prices ought to be lower; and the hiss tu a great 
teni of the Xrw Orleans trade, growing otrl ol the political kronbtss there. 
While the t'ai-ts named were prejudicial lo the manufacturers, there were 

advantages also which OS is an oftset. The first id these was a larger 

to iy traveled aver by their salesraen than ever before,, and new trade 

Bght iii. Second, an advaaae in prices of five to ben cdnta per paw bs. 

children's shoes. The cause of this advance was lhat goods had been sold 
low the vein belore, and manufacturers lelt that they should have le- 
ts, and while the advance BOStewhat curtailed the domain! 

i also made what remained more profitable. Then, again, the marked 



TANNERIES .AND LEATHER. 

kwardness of buyers in purchasing goods beyond their known «m:i(- 
ijr indebtedness, within very moderate limits, and resulted, U 
col thing, in prompt and satisfactory payments. \ -• i-« • 1 1 j ■ • i • 

than usually cautious in (heir sstfing pjvehaaes, it led to much ol the - 

il u| live pari of the manufacturers, and s( the otoea of the season, sb 

the stocks mi hand were light, tlicy were ready very early to gel | 
. and gv to work lor the autumn trade. 
Just here wi) would make mention of tlic fact that there is not now, aa 
■ ■Ay, i Kcason of a month or two, in the summer and also in tin- winter, 
wheB business is brought almost cutir.lv to a standstill, but iis noon us the 
spring trade is close <1 arrangements are made for the autumn, which keeps 
I uniformity in manufacturing to a good degree all the year round. The 
I rtunate panic which broke out in September, having its origin ill the 
0(0 of ;• private banking house located in this city, greatly paralyzed 
branch <>f the shoe trade, on account of the greater backwardneai 
purchasing by country dealers. A good many buyers* came to market, but 
re was no speculative feeling among them, and traveling salesmen found 

the same spirit generally existing throughout the country. lij>d the panic 

• month later, a much larger business would have been transacted 
this branch of manufacturers, for by that time the first orders we nil 
have been filled, and the goods in » mo&suiv sold ; but, coming as it did in 
the midst of the delivery of the first purchases, alid while dealers were get- 
ting ready lor the early autumn trade, they took but very moderate amounts 
of good*, and have since bought cautiously, exhibiting- as much anxiety to 
liquidate their debts as to increase their stocks. We have before spoken 
of the large demand for children's and in Cants' shoes. The makers" 
in ladies 1 and misses' wear how had their share in this trade, for baring 
the past year gone largely into the manufacture of small shoes in conic ■• 
tion with large ones, tln-v have participated in the increased demand, 
which has done much to prevent the disappointment that must ktfVS ' 
Bolted had it uot been fot the large call for Hmall shoes. The heavy de- 
mand for children's and infants' shoes proves this market to-be at the bead 
of the supply for that class of goods, and there are probably as many of 
them made here us in all the rest of the country put together, 

MK\'s AM) BOTB 1 COODS. 



As we have already said, the manufacture of goods for men and boys has 
greatly increased hen-, and had it not been for the panic the amount sold 
would probably have been nearly double what it was the previous year. 
The manufacture of clinching screw work has been introduced, and the 
maker looks upon his prospects as entirely sutisl-ict.o-y . 






TANNERIES AND I. E ATI IKK. 



THK JOWllXti TR-WiE. 

There has been a very ( osiderablc falling nfl' in the amount "i business 
transacted by the jobbers : lliis, in pari, has groVn Ant of lln' backward- 
ness ofthe spring-trade and ilie more than usual conservative spirit on their 
part. They ili'l rmt lay theiuserves Gu1 to do a large business ;• t the open- 
ing of tin- year, and liavr bought goods cautioner; both for the spring 

and autumn trades, and while at. all times they have had satisfactory I 
<i id incuts on band, both spring- and autumn markets have closed with BYQuh 
lighter stocks to carry over Co the netri season than [br a number of yearn 
port. 

IHS ACCTIOX 1:1 -l' 
The largely increased sales .if the unction Ionises is no ■ 1. ■ it I ■! uiie of the 

reasons why fewer goods bave been sold by the jobbers. As will be - 
liy tin 1 annexed table of the receipts of boots and shoes by sea and by 
railroad, there has been an increase of about ten per cent, over the pre- 
vious year, and as the jobbers have t tived fewer goods, the increase of 

course must have found sale in the auction houses, we have here seven 
Auction hous'ei devoted wholly nr in part to Hie sale of boots and shoes. 
They have generally been fully supplied with goods, both of New Eng- 
land and our own city manufacture. They, an a general tiling-, have been 
of a better quality thou usual, and notwithstanding there have been times, 
when goods have said very low, from the (act of their having been kepi so 
well supplied. And few failure- having taken place among those who have 
contributed most ofclty made [roods, we judge thai upon the whole, paying 
prices have been obtained. 

I VIM I Rl BBffl I..-. 

Tin- agantaod 1 1 <• ■ manufacturers of. rubbers have also done as aetu e trade 
through the autumn. The demand .~"i in early, and lor a lime the sail for 

■Is wus in excess "I the .supply at an advance of five Cfrllta per pair on 
sices, and twenty li\ >■ eenls mi booi- 

-'mm nw, 
Since the panic broke out there have been a few failures among city 

iiianul'ael urers doing moderate amounts of business, and by country dealers. 
Hie eases, extensions have I n asked, the result of which will not he 

known for a lew months yet. In summing up the year's trade we arrive at 

the conclusion that, if in all things it has not been just what ild be A 

I, it has been sufficiently good t" encourage hot.li manufacturers and 
jobbers to enter mi th<> year 1*74 with reasonably g 1 prospects. 



I WVKlilES AM) LEATHER 
w.- .uiii.\. 1 1 l . - usual lal.lr of receipts bum out-of-town places during the 

*•«•- rail'Satl. T " 



February. 

March 

June 

Inly. 

V QgUSt 

• leiolMar. 



Total 

Received in 1872 



.... 











ti. L'04 
7,237 
(1,924 
8,748 
:i, M9 
5, 650 
8,881 
B, 838 
111,2.59 

8,868 

., 734 



1,4241 
1,154 

2, m 

1,000 
1,527 

1,84(1 

ITH1 

1.300 

a, uo 

8,880 

4,wa 

1,074 



9,430 

SUM 

8,278 

0,337 
10,631 
10.746 

13,489 

11,270 

r,.wiv 



78,877 



32,837 101,914 
PI, 141 



Increase fa reoelpta during 18 78 over 1873 10,778 

Jan. 22, 1^74 — Then- passed through the hands of the inspector of leather 
for the city and count; ol Philadelphia, daring the year IS73, 544,448 sides 
• t leather, being an increase of 50,562 sides overf the previous year. 



WHERE AMERICAN SOLE LEATHER IS USED IN El'ROPE. 

A I. ■ xv years ago all the hemlock sole leather sent from here was used in 
Great Britain, but it bus now been successfully introduced in all parte of 
Germany, as well as Switzerland, Austria, Belgium ami Holland, while 
our BuccesB in obtaining premiums :it Vienna, and the favorable impression 

■ stock made on visitors there, will go tar toward introducing it in other 

kingdoms of Europe. 

The great preponderance in amount of leather aont to Liverpool, 88 
shown by the table of exports, is due to the hoi of that pert being the 
most convenient for shipments from New York and Boston, and consider- 
able leather goes there for reshipment toother pints. As art instance of 
this, one large firm in the New York Swamp have fiiiiii.-lii'd us with a list 
ol their own shipments, from which we note that 15,000 sides went to 
Hamburg via Liverpool, and 0,000 to the same pott via London, while 
•24, 000 sides were shipped to New Castle, Leeds and Manchester factors, 
1ml all via Liverpool and London. Among OUT shipments I" "various 
ports" were 8,000 sides to Rotterdam, and over 10,000 sides to Switzer- 
land via Prance. The new "Cardin" Line" took out several thousand sides 
to Manchester and Liverpool during the early spring, as they offered some 
advantages in the way of freights, Ac. We saw last week, in the store of 
■ Now York firm, quite a lot of sole leather haled np and marked for Riga* 
probably the first lot destined for a Russian port. 



1 02 



TANNERIES AND LKAT1IKI;. 



IMPORTS OV FOREIGN GOATSKINS IN TJ1E UNITED STATES FOR 

1873. 

'flic number of M'-xiran skins imported into New York for the past year 
does not vary materially from that of 1872. Fewer Cape and Calcutta skins 
have been entered tbiayear than IubL Imports of Mocha goatskins hi iw 
Bj»ve increased from 27^ bales in 1^72 to over 600 hales in L878. Only ■ 
few years ago nil the skins of this description came in at Salem, kfaass- 

cfruaetta. 

Imports at Boston have hecn principally ofcargoeB of Cape and Csjftnitn 
goatakins, brooghl direct from those countries. The receipts at BofltOD h.o r 
fallen off largely this year. In 1872 there were 5,521 bales Cape, 1,452 
bales Calcutta raw skins, and 1,000 bales of Mochas receive!, while in 1878 
only 8,000 hales Cape ami 8-1-1 hales Calcutta came in. 

In Philadelphia 243,349 Cape goatskins have hecn received, mostly from 
the Loudon Bales. None of this stock came there last year, but 1,000 halo 
of Calcutta skiii6 were received during that period, and there were no re- 
ceipts of that, stuck for 1873. 

The receipts at Baltimore of Cape skins from Loudon were I 7 18 bales, 
showing a large increase. 

Wo notice an inrreiise in the nuiiihcr of Cape skins coming to this coun- 
try, 5)31,871 pieces having hecn received in 1873, against 543,065 in I*""-'. 
The fact thai tins increase is almost entirely in the class of skins sold at 
London auctions should he a lesson to our importers, who are losing their 
direct trade from the miserable quality and poor assortment of skins they 
have brought into the country Cor the past few years. The morocco trie! 
who use all these goatskins complain that 1873 has been a very poor J 
in their business. 



l.Ml'OETS Of GOATSKINS INTO PHILADELPHIA 101! 1878. 

The Philadelphia Custom House monthly reports of imports of goat.-kin- 
for the year 1873 have been as follows : 



M h r«h:tl, for Uim- months, via Liver|Hx)l.l a|)L'Towiiskins,H;u Imle*. i.-.il,<i l'i 

April 80| Cape Town aklna 2,. 100 

May 81, Capo IVwrn skim. 24,fi80 

July 81. Capa Town aklna 18,890 

September w, Cape Town skin* 22,410 

Ni.v.mmIkt :i", «',,],(■ Town skins , 29,300 

December 91, Cape Town aklna 9,020 



Valnu. 



•178, 4».-J 
1,95m 

I7.35H 
80, 7M 
28,601 



Total. .. itf.W 270,701 



TANNERIES AND LEATHER. 



193 



EXPORTS OF HIDES FROM PHILADELPHIA FOR THE FIRST SIX 

MONTHS OF 1874. 



To 



Quantity, i yiW 
Bells. > J l«e. 



Liverpool I 18,843 ! $139,420 

Antwerp ! 4.120 I 30,916 

Total i 22,963 \ 170,336 



EXPORTS OF LEATHER FROM PHILADELPHIA FROM JANUARY 
FIRST TO JULY FIRST, 1874. 

SHIPMENTS TO ANTWERP. 



January 5 . 
March 5 . . . 

May 7 

June 25.... 



Date. 



Steamship. 



Vaderland. 
Vaderland. 
Vaderland. 
Vaderland. 



Quantity. 



30, 618 lbs 

15,500 lbs 

111, 624 lbs 

28, 533 lbs 



Value. 



$12,247 

3,100 

22,325 

5,701 



Date. 



SHIPMENTS TO LIVERPOOL. 



Steamship. 



April 2 Indiana 

April 23 Illinois 

May 28 ! Pennsylvania 



Quantity. 



100 rolls 
9 rolls 
10,800 lbs 



Value. 



$4,000 

370 

2,000 



13 Statistics. 



MINERAL STATISTICS 



OF 



PENNSYLVANIA, 



ORDERED TO BE COLLECTED BY ACT OF MAY 9, 1871. 



MINERAL STATISTICS 01-' PENNSYLVANIA. 



legislature l.y u'-.i of the 9th Ol tfay, 1811, passed the following- act, 

pamphlet laws, ].lijj.-.- 261-S, " For the collection of mineral statistics :" 

Section; l. I toted hy the Senatt sad ffotue cf^Beprese n tati/uea of tin 

:'i hi' rcnn*ijh-(>iiin in Ceueral Asfotnbly nicl , and it is hereby 

enacted by the amthority of the gome, That in addition to the information new 

required to be furnished to the And: ■ ral by the several railroad and 

cam! companies of this Commonwealth, each of said railroad and canal 

companies nrhen their railroad 01 oanal peases through any of tlio coal 

ana of tha State, shall report for the yaar 1871, and annually as aeon 

nllcr the lirst day of Janoaxy in each year* or the close of tha fiscal yea !■ of 

said companies, as the information can !"■ procured, under the oath of 

i| tin olli i iiinpany, !<■ the .A uditnr ' i-in-i.il, the .jtuintit\ uf'o.al 

of each kind, and of coke in tons of two thousand pounds each, received 

lur transportation at each station on every such railroad, and at each coal 
shipping point on said canal, distinguishing in said report the <|uuntitii-< 
received direct from the mlnea bom thai received from other railroads or 
canals, giving tin- nam.' of paid eCnneoting railroads or canals in BUCS a 

manner thai the amount of the production of oca] oo tha line of said Tail- 
read w canal may be correctly asc. riaiued, Zbc Monongahahi BlacJMr«tn 

igstion company, and all other slack-water navigation companies 
iged in COnrayiog coal or coke are hereby rei pi ired to make returns 
in t lie same manual as w hereinbefore required of railroad and ''anal com- 
panies. 

Secttos 2. It shall alao be the doty ol each off said railroad c..in|)iiiiie« !■> 
n the quantity of coal pui a mined for Chair own use in this 

Stats l.y tli. in dm : ' y.iii', ui.l which was produced along tlic line 

of said railroad, and stating at what phvoe Of places the same was mined, 
anil which WPS not included in the pepOTUJ of coal received for transpor- 
tation before mentioned ofBsid railroad, or of any other railroad w canal, 
Section" .';, It shell be the duty of nil cool mining companies or firms, and 



198 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



individuals working mines, and of all State ami county officers, to furnish 
to the Auditor General, in answer to Ins letters or circulars, all information 
in their possession in regard to the quantity of coal mined that is sent to 
market direct by auy navigable river, or need by any rolling mill, blast ftir- 
Bace, saltworks or otherwise, and which is not transported on airy rail- 
road, canal or slack- water navigation company, and also to inform bin) when 
and of whom correct information as to the coal production of any such 
Locality' can be procured; and farther to inform him of all accidents in 
mines in counties where there is no mine inspector appointed by law, and 
how the same was caused. 

Srcnos t. it. shall be the duty of the Auditor General, nil receiving said 
reports, and such other authentic information as ho shall collect, to collate 
said reports and information and make a report giving the results only in 
tabular form, showing the tpuuitity of OOal mined during 8800 year in 
each county, and metjoh important ooaJ producing region in ■ perspicuous 
form, separating the several kinds of coal into anthracite, semi-bituminous, 
bituminous and splint or Mock coal suitable for smelting iron, giving also 
from time to time the Statiatios I A each region from the beginning of its 
OOal trade M far as it can be ascertained ; he- shall also specially report the 
number of accidents resulting in death or injury in coal mines in 01 
oi unities where there is no mine Inspector, classifying them :>< cording to 
the cause thereof, whether occasioned by fire, explosions, lulls of loot's or 
coal in shafts or slopes or other causes under ground or at the surface. 

Scction 5. Tho Auditor Iomi' ral shall also, in the same manner, collect 
statistics, collate, classify and report, at the same time, the quantities of 
petroleum, salt, iron 0T0, zinc and other mineral productions of the Com- 
monwealth ; also the pig iron and merchant or wrought iron manufactured 
in the Commonwealth. 

Ski tiox 6. Eight thousand copies rrl tho said report of the Auditor «.on- 
eral, together with his suggestions on the workings of existing laws and 
his propositions as to new enactments, shall he published for distribution 
annually, as soon as it is prepared with the litle of the Mineral Statistics 
of Pennsylvania ; and one Copy thereof shall bo sent by mail, by the Au- 
ditor General, to each person who shall have furnished him with informa- 
tion as aforesaid and the balance shall be delivered to the Legislature for 
distribution. 

Section 7. Any railroad or canal, or slack-water navigation company, or 
coal mining company, firm or individual engaged in mining, or any count;. 
officer who shall neglect or reluse, for thirty days, to make report or give 
the information required by this act shall be liable to a penalty of one hun- 
dred dollars to be recovered by order of the Auditor fjenexal, in U action 

of debt in which the Commonwealth shall be plaintiff, by the district ittor- 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 






acy of the proper comity, the onc-hali thereof to go to said disti id -• < t - 

the other half for the use of tbe pom- of the proper poor district. 

J A MLS JI. WEBB, 
Speaker of the House of /represent"! >i 
WILLIAM A. WALLACE, 
Speaker of th 

A pi-ROVED — Tin.' ninth day olMu.V, A.m.. Domini i-irif thousand eight 

hundred and seventy-one. 

,I\0. W, CE.\i 

This by 3d section of the act of 1Mb May. [674c&m pampbl. 
l!U, was extended to the Secretary of Internal Affairs, 

Stolon 3. That hereafter the Seojretary of Internal Affairs, in lieu of llie 
Auditor General, shall send out the blanke repaired by tbe act of May 
niiiili, one thousand eight hundred and si'V.-hty-oiie, entitled "An Acl for 
collection of mineral statistics," and said perform 

nil the duties enjoined in Mid act in regard to the mlh'.-tiug, compiling 
and publishing a report of the same number of copies ordered to be pub- 
lished by the Auditor General, 

The act of Lltfa of May, 1874, si.'.' p<urq.hlct laws, page 13b, order. 
BwerB to be made to the interrogatories under penalty. 

Section 4. The Secretary of Internal Affairs shall exercise all the powers 

and perform all tbe duties which at the time. of entering upon bis •■■' 

shall appertain to the office of Surveyor General. Ilia department shall 
embrace a bureau of industrial statistics, the business of which shall bo to 
impartially inquire into the relations of capital and labor, in their hearings 
upon the social, educational and industrial welfare of all classes ol working 
I ■ 'pic, and to offer practical suggestions for the improvement of the Bl 

The said bureau shall further collect, compile and publish BUCU Btst 
in regard to the wages of labor and the social condition of the laboring 
classes as may enable, the people of the State to judge how far legislation 
can be invoked to correct existing ovils, and in order to facilitate the dntii a 
hereio imposed all corporations, lirms or individuals engaged in mining, 
manufacturing or other business, and all persons working for wages within 
this Commonwealth arc hereby required to furnish such statistical Informa- 
tion as the chief of said bureau may demand. The chief or duly authorized 
deputy, shall have power to issue subpoenas, administer oaths and take 
testimony in all matters relating to duties herein required of said Jnnvuu. 
Any corporation, firm or individual doing business within this Common- 
wealth who shall neglect or refuse lor thirty days to answer questions by 
circular or upon personal application, or who shall refuse to obey the sub- 
piiuia and give testimony according to the provisions of this act, shall be 
liable tn a penally of one hundred dollars, -to bo collected by order of the 



•Jllll 



MINERAL STATIST! 



Commissioner of Statistics in an action of debt In which tlie Commonwealth 
of Peniwrylvania shall be plaintiff. This bureau ihall also be required to 
collect, compile and publish annually the productive statistics of agricul- 
ture, mining, manufacturing, commercial and other business interests of 
the State, and the id bt 12th April, 1872, entitled "An Act to provide for 
the establishment of a bureau of statistics on the subject of labor, and for 
ntlin purposes," Is hereby repealed from and after the Bret Tuesday of 
tfay, is?:.. 

The Secretary of Internal Affaire shall discharge such duties relating to 
corporations, to the charitable institutions, the agricultural, manufacture 
milling, mineral, timber and other material or business interests of tin 
State as may be prescribed by law. It shall be his especial duty to exer- 
cise .1 watchful supervision over the railroad, banking, mining, manufac- 
turing and other business corporations of the State, and to sea thai Q 
confine themselves strictly within their corporate limits; and in case 
citizen or citizens shall charge, under oath, any corporation with transcend- 
ing its corporate functions or infringing upon the rights of individual . itl- 
::ens, said secretary shall carefully investigate such charges and may re- 
quite from said corporation a special report as enjoined in the OonstitUl 
of the Slate ; and in case he believes the charges are just, and the matter 
complained of is beyond the ordinary provincs "f individual redress, he 
shall certify his opinion to the Attorney General of the State, whose duty it 
shall lie, by an appropriate legal remedy, to redress the same by a proceed- 
ing in the courts, at the expense of the State: Provided, The Sec re tan 
Internal Allaire may, with the approval of the Governor, appoint for four 
years from the first Tuesday oi May, 1STJ. a chief of the bureau of indus- 
trial statistics, besides the other clerks of his Office allowed by law, whose 
salary shall be $2,500 per annum. 

Approved-— The llth day of May, A. D. tfitt. 

JOHN' F. HABTftANFT. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 201 



MINERAL PRODUCTS OF PENNSYLVANIA- 



The following shows the mineral products of Pennsylvania, the totals 
being given first: , 



No. cstnb-! 
lishments. 



Products. 



*76,208,745 00 

38,436,745 00 

13,921,009 00 

7,800 00 

2,944,146 00 

101,000 00 

24,000 00 

18,045,967 00 

618,229 00 

873,876 00 

235,555 00 



Total 3,086 

Coal, anthracite 229 

Coal, bituminous 369 

Copper 2 

Iron ore ! 186 

Marble 6 

Nickel 1 

Petroleum 2, 148 

Slate. ' 28 

8tone 126 

Zi nc , ii . .._..„...„. „. ........... . „ . ._/ __ _1 

The above mentioned -8,086 Pennsylvania establishments have invested 
a cash capitol of $84,660,276; give constant employment to 81,215 hands, 
to whom they pay $38,815,276 wages annually, and "use $6,069,917 worth 
of material in their mining operations. The mineral products of Pennsyl- 
vania is over seventeen times larger than that of the State of New York, 
and lacks only $182,214 of equaling the entire product of all the other 
States and Territories together. 



THE AGE OP COAL. 

It seems probable that vegetable matter may, under favorable conditions, 
be converted into coal much more rapidly than most chemical geologists 
are in the habit of assuming. At least, a curious instance of an approach 
toward such conversion within the historic period has been brought before 
the German Geological Society. In one of the old mines of the Upper 
Hartz some of the wood originally employed as timbering has become so far 
altered as to assume most of the characteristics of a new lignite, or brown 
coal. It appears that certain of the levels in the ancient workings of this 
mine are filled with refuse matter, consisting chiefly of fragments of clay 
slate, more or less saturated with mine water, and containing here and 
there fragments of the old timber. This wood when in the mine, is wet, 
and of a leathery consistence, but on exposure to the air it rapidly hardens 



202 



MINKKAL STATISTICS. 



to a solid substance, having must, if not all, the characteristics of a true 
lignite. It break with a well marki -i.l eonchoidal fracture, and the parti 
which are most altered present the black lustrous ap| liaracteristic 

i-f the German ' " jtitcli coals," M tin- same time, chemical examination of 
the same wood shows that it stands actually nearer to true coal than do 
some of the Younger tertiary lignites. This instance seems, therefore, to 
prove thai pine Wood, when placed under highly favorable conditions, ujay 
be converged into a genuine lignitf, within a period which, from what we 
know of the history of mining is Bartz, cannot have extended beyond four 
cental 



PROGRESSIVE STAGES OF COAL PRODUCTION, 

An interesting statistics] table was recently submitted to the French 
Society for the Advancement of Science, showing the progressiva • 

>:il production in the six leading industrial countries of the world. We 
make the following abstract : — (the figures used represent millions of tons.) 



• 


H 

■ 

s 
r 
— 


j. 
1 


a 

-. 

£ 

a 

--■ 

1 

4 

3 

33 


1 I 

— 

a 




> 
• 




20 
M 

.VI 

us 

132 


r 

SO 
18 


4 

8 

10 

14 

16 


3 1 

il 

15 










• i 






187*. 


8 



The I Q : i' 1 States is the only one of these coimtries which has vast n- 
sources of coal still undeveloped, and, indeed, unknown. Our production, 
oven as compared with that of other countries, gives I nit little indication 
of our productive capacity. 



CONSUMPTION OPCOAt bY V AIMOrs INDUSTRIES— ESPECIALLY 

THAT OF IRON. 

In England the Coal Commission lias ascertained the consumption ofooaJ 
by llto various industries of Great Britain, with the view of arriving at 
.in estimate of tlie probable time daring which coal-fields now known 
sad worked would supply cos] at reasonable p resulting 

figures given below show quite well the relative importance of the various 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 203 

industries. In many Branches of manufacture the products estimated by 
_'ht are very valuable, thus giving a high total value to their prodm 

luit it is also true that, as si rule, those, industries that OSS HW must coal 

i he greater amount of raw material, and that very nearly in proportion 

to tin 1 amount of coal used. Hence, directly and indirectly, these industri* IB 

.'iii|il'.y more labor and give rise to a greater interchange of products. 

They arc. therefore, both on account of population and creation « > I husii. 

the most important to a Commonwealth. Out of 1,000 tons mi 

rfeat Britain, the following industries use the amounts opposite tleu 

es : 

Ten-. 

'.' i- ■: manufacture.... 

1 '"['per, lead, zinc and tin smelting 8 

Waterworks 14 

Breweries and distilleries i — 18 

' 'lien. ii.-al works 18 

Railroads 20 

Steamships ... 30 

brick and glass worse and lime kibiB 31 

Textile industries. 4- 

Gasworks... 60 

Mining u" 

Exportation .. ,, \f2 

Miscellaneous, including steam engines I'll 

Iron and steel works 300 

W/e have unfortunately, no means Of compiling a similar table For this 
country. Few are as yet alive to the necessity of such figures as dearly 
show the demand of our various industries for raw materials, and the various 
bureaus of government collect commercial rather than technical information. 
It is only in ruses where the industry has been attacked and forced to defend 

itself that we have accurate data. The iron trade of this country has 1 u 

and is in this situation, and has bad since 1854 S very good system of 
collecting trade statisics. By its means the trade has been somewhat pro- 
tected from foreign misrepresentation and misunderstanding at home. 

i "l'l l:Ii much remains to be done to place it on a proper footing | We 

mast get together th unpad body of capitalists and experts required 

for the successful extension of an industry opposed by such accumulations 
of skill, experience and capital as Oreat Britain possesses. We must create 
OUT own system of development, and the better the hands into which this 
work falls the sooner will the desired result be attained. One of the first 
steps ol progress should bo for ail the older branches of industry, not as- 



204 



MINERAL STATISTIC- 



pecially that ol iron but of all maiiulact nves. to collect, either tin 
isting associations or otherwise, accurate technical data of their luisii. 
Not commercial, sucli astlie totals produce, tin.' numhor of hands employed, 
and the value of products, hut the figures showing tli«_- amount "I' raw 
material, labor, steam and water power, &c, used tor each unit of produc- 
tion. No injury could result from the exact determination of these its 
Binoe iln'v am practically common property already, and the tabulation ol 
the information would only put it into an exact form, ami would in itselt 
be a rnoBt eflicient stimulus to in i f >!■ > veuiciit . We are making rapid pro* 
grew, however, and need bare DO fear of the ultimate result. 

The importance of the iron industry is often underrated in purely cmu- 
mercial quarters. We can, however, show that En one point 
as regards consumption ofcoal, it is fully as important here as in England, 
that is in comparison with other industries. We Bnd tbal the United Bi 
produced in 1873 
2,290,658 tons pig iron exclusive of charcoal pig. 

721 ."775 tons iron rails. 

980,000 tons rolled iron of other kinds. 

128 ,S9S tons Bessemer steel rails. 
Hi ,000© tons east steel. 

We filld also that tin' total production Of anthracite and bitfttniuOOT 
coal amounted in 

ISTSto 25,567(492 tons antinbef) 

18T8 to. ^ ... 25,206,448 tons bftttittin 



Total 50,96'.'. 9 1 



For east steel we estimate only the coal required to convert from bat il 
The tons used are all those of 2,000 pounds. 

The amount of east steel for 1*73 i- stated on the authority of the manu- 
facturers before Congress, The amount of coal is taken from Miners Jour- 
nal Register, For the Other figures wean- indebted I i report of the Ameri- 
can Iron and Steel Association. X<_.\v, having these figures we are enable 
to work backward, by knowing the ratio ol coal used to tha ton of iron of 
different kinds, and to the ton make the following estimates, 
based on i ace and cfl ktion 1 ver waste, loss on coal in 

coking, &c. 

Ono ton pig iron requires '_' 25 tons coal. 

One ton rolled iron, other than nils. 2.40 

on iron rails, including Bteel-h . . . . li • " 

One ton Bessemer rails i «■ 

One ton cast steel .............. 5. " 



\L STATISTICS, 

isidered Blightly low, certainly fair); rep 
.lie whole country. They refer, oi course, to the fin- 
d merchantable product in sach ae Multiplying one set of figo 
by the other, «re ban i 

Xsus. 

TOM pig iron 2 .2H0.65SX2. 25=5 ,153,888 

Tons iron raila 121 ,776 2. =-1,143,550 

Tons rolled iron HSO/iO-i 2 I =2 ,352 ,000 

BofBeede r mils I28,'26fi 1.88= 230 

Tons of cast Btecl _ 5. =£,0011 

Total fens coal i> .380 .408 



Taking these totals we find that the manufacture of iron in the United 
Be required no loss than t8| pet cent. of the coal milled in the country. 
This is merely for the production of the metal, Dot including the transpor- 
tation of the i v -l per tent, of the entire coal, nor the power used in mining 

it. 

Our estimate includes iron, excepting rails, only as a raw material lor a 
second series of industries. The pig iron goes into castings say to one-third 
tin'- amount produced, mid Llje plate and bar iron goes into a vast variety 
of products. The foundries, forges, mills, and mcehanical and locomotive 
Rhops form a most extensive scries of industries, perhaps rivaling the orig- 
in importance. Hut they all depend on the original production of iron, 
as given above, and this industry alone uses nearly one-fifth of the entire 
COftl mined in the country. 

We cannot compare Our estimate with the English figures as they include ' 
all Che other industries mentioned, while we are unable 1 to make an estimate 
of them. It" however, England mined last year 1 30,000,008 tons of c. ml 
and used 39,000,000 for all her iron and steel works, we make a good show- 
ing with over I'J million tons need solely to produce the iron itself, 

When we consider tin • facts involved here, we see how vast an industry 
represents. Coal forms but a small part ot its needs; its demand for 
peoples portions of our country? an d i* 6 need of limestone, lin- 
k, machinery urn I manufactured products of all kinds, gives rise to an 
snormoae interchange of products. Very few have any idea of the trans- 
portation required to effect this exchange. It is easy to see why such an 
industry should be protected. We can judge of its value to England by 
the sacrifices she makes and the efforts she puts forth to break up our trade 
and retain the markets of the world. It is worth as much to us as it is to 
her, and it is incumbent on us to use every means in our powei to supply 
onr own wants and transfer hither as much of her trade as we can. 



MINERAL STATISTIC-. 



ANALYSIS OF ANTHRACITE COAL AND COKE FOR BLAST FUR- 

\ Al '!•:-. 

We arc enabled to present herewith BOBIfl information concerning minora 1 
fuel 1"»" blast furnace use which will be found of interest and value, and 
which may be accepted as entirely trustworthy. Iron masters using an thru - 
iii coal or coke in their furnaces, have, as the rule, looked too little to the 
quality of the fuel. In many instances one coal is Considered practically as 
good as another, and the cheapest and most accessible fuel has been, all things 
Considered, the best. We do not need to tell metallurgists that this is 
often a serious and costly mistake, and that only careful scientific in\ •-.•>! ig-;i- 
tion oan be relied upon to determine with certainty whether a coal or coke- 
is lit for use in iron making, 01 whether l"u<l brought from a greater distance 
and if need be, at greater cost, would not be in the end cheaper and m 
profitable. It is, of course, impossible within the brief compass of this 
■!■■ to discuss the quality, for iron making purposes, of the various fu< Is 
ployed to different sections of the country. This must be separately 
determined in each instance, but as a guide to the intelligent examination 
of fuels we present the following analysis of anthracite coal and coke, tin- 
result of which may be taken as average standards by which the value .1 
other fuels may be determined. The analyses, now given to the public for 
die first time, were made by Mr. J. Illodget liritton, the eminent metal- 
lurgical chemist of Philadelphia. The experience of this gentleman in the 
examination of coals for iron making purposes is large, and the fact that 
he is the authority for the accuracy of the following analyses entitles them 
In Careful and intelligent consideration by iron makers : 

Average results of analyses of nine Bur average samples of good authra- 
- ite from Wyoming Valley : 

Moisture 1 . 38 

Volatile combustible matter 3. 5U 

Ash 3.24 

Fixed carbon 91 . 86 

100.00 

;;:!fc:::::::::::::::::::.::: :£■} »—«»* *«• 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 207 

Average results of analyses of six fair average samples ot good anthra- 
cite from the Schuylkill region : 

Moisture 1 . 35 

Volatile combustible matter 8.78 

Aah 5.81 

Fixed carbon 89. 06 

100.00 

ffifc '.: :::::::::::::: : : S } M - ded in "* *«■ 

Average results of analyses of nine fair average samples of good anthra- 
cite from the Lehigh Valley : 

Moisture 1 . 30 

Volatile combustible matter 8. 05 

Ash 3.54 

Fixed carbon 92. 11 

100.00 

ISfi;;,: SS \ Included in the above. 

rnosphorus 005 j 

Results of analyses of a sample of Gonnellsville coke — an average of 
forty-nine different pieces : 

Moisture 490 

Ash 11.322 

Sulphur 693 

Phosphoric acid (phosphorus, .013) 029 

Carbon 87 .456 

100.00 

Results of analyses of the ash of the coke : 

Silica 47.90 

Alumina 47 . 76 

Sesquoxyd of iron 1 . 43 

Lime 1 .48 

Magnesia 53 

Sulphur trace. 

Phosphoric acid (phosphorus, .09) 21 

Potash and soda: 49 

Undetected matter and loss 20 

100.00 



208 



MINERAL BTATJ8THJ& 



Not a few of the anthracites, sent to market contain a- high pec cent, rjl 
sulphur and a great deal of asb and slaty matter, entirely unfitting then 
for blast furnace use. The bent of them are only second to charcoal for 
metallurgical purposes. The Connellsville coal is inferior to no other in 
coking quality. The coke is bard, bast good mctalie ring when struck. 
bears much handling without breaking, docs not materially deteriorate by 
keeping, but loses Bome of its sulphur It is an elegant blast furnace fuel, 
ami may be recognized as a standard. A purer coke, however, ifl afforded by 
some other of our bituminous coals. 



AVU.YSIs Of On I . 

UV find in Johnson's "Analysis Of American Coals," the li^ures show- 
ing the average number of cubic feet in the ton of anthracite coal to bo 
18.16, tints: 

Lykens Valley 40 . 13 

Lackawanna 45. S'2 

Old Co.'s Lehigh ft. 49 

Teach Mountain R. A 41 . lit 

Forest Improvement Co 41.71 



THE COAL TRADE. 



A COMPARISON Of I'KKrfKNT AMD PREVIOUS PRICKS. 

The aosJ trade just bow is unusually active, impiiiios i>y mu- rep. 
of |.ron>iii.-nt dealers and shippers show that while these ifl ■ brisk demand 
the supply is large. Vowels, arc very scarce, and the prices of the mines 
have advanced from $3 to $3 l' r v F«.r the Schuylkill region notice has 
been given by circular advancing thfl ptieJB Of pod for the city and line 
lia.le: lump, steamboat, broken :nel OAfl stunt. 15 OSntl) a tOAf egg, 10 
.•cuts : st.ve, •_'.') cents, which, of cnursr, necessitates a corresponding ad- 
vance on tJie part of the retailers, Apr. .pus, of the present and prospective 
bigh prices <>, anthracite the fokfowing table exhibiting the average annual 
price per ton per cargo at Philadelphia Bws L8M to i860, will be of in- 
terest: 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



209 



1834 

1835 

1836 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848, 

1849. 



THE PRICE OF COAI. AT CERTAIN' PERIODS. 

$4 84 1850 



4 84 


1851 


6 64 


1852 


6 12 


1853 


5 27 


1854 


5 00 


1855 


4 91 


1856 


5 79 


1857 


4 18 


1858 


3 27 


1859 


3 20 


1860 


3 46 


1861 


3 90 


1862 


3 80 


1863 


3 50 


1864 


3 62 


1865 



$3 64 


3 34 


3 46 


3 70 


5 19 


4 49 


4 11 


3 87 


3 43 


3 25 


3 40 


3 39 


4 14 


6 06 


8 39 


■7 86 



In 1869 the average prices of coal at the mines was $3 20£ per ton ; in 
1870, $2 45; in 1871, $2 60$; in 1872, $2 14$; and now, as stated above, 
it is $2 35 to $3 50, or higher than the average for four years. Last 
August the price was $1 92^ 



COLLIERIES. 

Collieries in their simplest form, as now seen in the Allegheny coal-field, 
where the strata lie nearly horizontal, and generally in the hills or moun- 
tains above the level of the streams, or common water level, employ little 
or no machinery ; but at the deep and extensive mines of the Pennsylvania 
anthracite fields, and in the older mining districts of Europe these estab- 
lishments are of immense proportions, employing hundreds of hands and a 
vast capital. Primitively, the process of digging coal and other minerals 
consisted in simply removing the surface earth, and quarrying the coal on 
the outcrops of the beds, and this was continued even to a late day. 

The most notable instance of modern surface coal mining was at the old 
Summit mines of the Lehigh, where the great mammoth bed was uncovered 
to the extent of 30 acres, and produced 2,000,000 tons of coal up to 1847, 
when it was abandoned. The great bed which was nearly 70 feet thick at 
this place formed an anticlinal with the axis near the surface where the quarry 
was opened. A tree which had grown over this spot and extended its 
14 Statistics. 



198 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



individuals working mints, and of nil Statu and county officers, to furnish 
to the Auditor Geiier&I, in answer to li is letters or circulars, all information 
in their possession in regard to the quantity of coal mined that is sent to 
markel direct by any navigable river, or need by any rolling mill, blast fur- 
nace, saltworks or otherwise, and which is not transported on any rail- 
road, canal or slack-water navigation company, and also to inform him when 
ami Of whom correct information as to the coal production of any such 
locality can be procured •. and farther to inform him of all accidents in 
mines in counties where there is no mine inspector appointed by law, ami 
how the same wan caused. 

Section i. it shall be the duty of the Auditor General, on reoeii ing aaid 
reports, and such other authentic information as lie shall collect, In collate 
said reports and information Bad make a report giving the results only En 
tabular form, showing tiie Quantity of coal mined during each year iii 
each county, ami in each important coal producing region in a perspicuous 
form, separating the several kinds of coal into anthracite, semi-lntuniiiious, 
bituminous and splint or block mat suitable for smelting iron, giving also 
from time to time the statistics of each region lioin the beginning of its 
eoal trade so far as it can be ascertained ; he shall also spucially report the 
number of accidents resulting in death or injury in coul mini's in those 
counties where there is no mine inspector, classifying them acoordong to 

the cause thereof, whether asionod by fire, explosions, hill of POOffj or 

goal in shafts Of slopes or other oadsBS under ground or at the suriiicc. 

Skction 6, The Auditor General shall also, in the same manner, collect 
statistics, collate, classify anil report, at the same time, the quantities of 
petroleum, salt, iron ore, zinc and other mineral productions of the Com- 
monwealtti ; nlSO the pig iron and merchant or wrought iron manufactured 
in the Commonwealth. 

Section (j. Fight thousand copies 0< the said report ol the Auditor Gen- 
eral, together With his suggestions on ihc workings of existing laws ami 
his propositions as to now enactments, shall be published lor distribution 
annually, as soon as rl is pre par ed wfth the title of the Mineral Statist 
of Pennsylvania ; sad one copy thereof shall be sent by mail, by the Au- 
ditor General, to each person who shall have furnished him with informa- 
tion as aforesaid and the balance shall he delivered to the Legislature for 
distribution. 

Section 7. Any railroad or canal, 01 slack-water navigation company, or 
I mining company, linn or individual | in mining, or any county 

ofiicer who shall neglect nr n lusc, fur thirty days, to make report or give 
the information required by this act shall be liable to a penalty of one hun- 
dred dollars to be recovered by order of the Auditor General, in an act 
of debt in which the Commonwealth shall he plaintiff) by ths district sttor* 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 






ney of the proper county, the one-hall thereof to go to said di6ti icl attt 
and tlie other half 1 o r the use of the poor of the proper poo* district, 

JAMES 11. \vi:bb, 

Speaker of the Hcv.~e of fitfprw 

wii.liam \. WALLACE, 
Speaker of the 9t 
Atpeoveb — The ninth clay oi May, Anno Domini one thoueoj) 
hundred and seventy-one. 

,i\0. W. GBARY. 
This by 3d Bectioil of the act of 15tli May, 1874, see pamplil. I page 

194, was extended to the Secretary of Internal Affairs. 

Section 3. That hereafter the Secretary of Internal Allah's, in lien of the 
Auditor General, Bhall send out the blank 8 required by tbi 8£ny 

ninth, one thousand eight hundred and seventy -one. entitled "An Act for 

n of mineral statistics, '' mid said secretory Bhall do and perfi 
all tin- duties enjoined in said act in regard to the collecting, compiling 
and publishing a report of the same number >.( ' copiofl ordered t" bfl pub- 
lished by the Auditor General. 

The act of I lth of May, iK7t, sit pamphLd laws, page |38, order* 
swers to be made to the interrogatories under penalty, 

Section 4. The Secretary of Internal Affairs shall exercise all the powi 
and perform all the duties wliii-h at the lime of entering upon hlB ollice 
shall appertain to the office of Surveyor General. His departmenl shall 
embrace a bureau of industrial statistics, the business of which shall bi 
impartially inquire into the relations of capital and labor, in their hearings 
upon the social, educational and industrial welfare of all classes ■ l working 
people, and to offer practical suggestions for the improvement of the same. 

The said bureau shall farther collect, coin pile and publish such stal 
in regard to the wages nf labor and the social condition of the laboring- 
classes as may enable the people of the Slate to judge hew far legislation 
can be invoiced to correct existing evils, and in order to facilitate the duties 
hi-rcin imposed all corporations, linns or individuals engaged in Dining, 
manufacturing or other business, and all persons wm-king for wages wiinin 
this Commonwealth are hereby required to furnish such statistical informa- 
tion ss the chief of said bureau may demand. The chief or duly authorized 
deputy, shall have power to issue subpoenas, administer oaths and take 
testimony in all matters relating to duties herein required of said«bureau 
Any corporation, firm or individual doing business within tbis Common- 
wealth win- shall neglect or refuse fur thirty days to answer questions by 
circular or upon personal application, or who shall refuse to obey the sub- 
poena and give testimony according to the provisions of this act, shall be 
liable to a penalty ol one hundred dollars, to be collected by order of the 



MI SERAI, ST, 



Jg 



to a doubling together of the strata, the Ream being- actually •'-•"• feel 
thick measured ul right angles, of which more than 10 I, ot was of the vory 
best quality of coal. In nil, 850,000 tons of coul were thlU taken OUlj BO 
that rvciv i»\,iilal>le acre af land produced 86,000 tons of excellent coal. 
This mine is now on (ire, and lias been homing since the >'.•■■■• 1851 

Tin- retl wonder of this famous Pnttsville region is the great Mammoth 
bed of coalj which is often as much be SO, 40, and in some places even .in 
feet in thickness, and which lines the Blopea of these bleak, bantu hill.- 
Millions "1" t (?ns of the finest coal have been mined from it above watel 
level. The mining in the older mining districts is now done by slOpea and 
shafts below water-level. 

Both the west and the east ends of this great Schuylkill coal basin, ter- 
minate in elevated mountain valleys, each with its two mountain rims co- 

alescing, the one high above the Lehigh, at Maucli Chunk, and 1 1 thei 

high above the Susquehanna, at Dauphin. 

The entire area of the various parts of the Schuylkill coal-field is estima- 
ted as follows : 



Length la Square 

mill's. miles. 



Miiurii I'liunk in Tanuqua 

Tiiriiin inn t<i Pottsville ... 

PotUvillo to tlit' forks of the l-aniii. 
North Pork, or Lykens Valley Prong. 
smith Fork, or Kniipliiu PronR. ... 

Aran ol Schuylkill luwin 

M Ins Hill hasiii. . . .' 

T'-t'il -irfii "l in- il-tiel.l ... . 



14 


lii 


in 




M 


5S 


17 


IS 


■17 


ia 




138 


1.1 


B 




1-irt 



skoonii co,\r.-piKLn. 

The names by which these two large and important fields arc ccnuMalj 
known are derived from the two creeks, by which they are almost exclu- 
sively watered, The eastern district, s.-uth of the dividing ridge, called 
Locust mountain, is drained by Mfthnnfty creek, which empties into the 
Susquehanna river at Port Trevorton, and is called The 3fahan»y Region. 
It is 2& miles in length, with a mean breadth of leas than two miles, and 
contains il square miles. 

Its southern boundary is the Mahanoy and Broud mountain, and on the 
nOXth it is bounded by the Big or Head mountain, Itt- western extremity 
is bounded on the north bv the Locust mountain. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 201 



MINERAL PRODUCTS OF PENNSYLVANIA- 



The following shows the mineral products of Pennsylvania, the totals 
being given first: 

Total 3,086 $76,208,745 00 

Coal, anthracite 229 : 38,436,745 00 

Coal, bituminous 369 : 13,921,069 00 

Copper 2| 7,800 00 

Iron ore 186 1 2,944, 146 00 

Marble « 101,000 00 

Nickel l\ 24,000 00 

Petroleum 2,148 ! 18,045,967 00 

Slate 28 i 618,229 00 

Stone 126 j 873,876 00 

Zinc ' 1 _ _285,55500 

The above mentioned ■3,086 Pennsylvania establishments have invested 
a cash capitol of $84,660,276; give constant employment to 81,215 hands, 
to whom they pay $38,815,276 wages annually, and "use $6,069,917 worth 
of material in their mining operations. The mineral products of Pennsyl- 
vania is over seventeen times larger than that of the State of New York, 
and lacks only $182,214 of equaling the entire product of all the other 
States and Territories together. 



THE AGE OF COAL. 

It seems probable that vegetable matter may, under favorable conditions, 
be converted into coal much more rapidly than most chemical geologists 
are in the habit of assuming. At least, a curious instance of an approach 
toward such conversion within the historic period has been brought before 
the German Geological Society. In one of the old mines of the Upper 
Hartz some of the wood originally employed as timbering has become so far 
altered as to assume most of the characteristics of a new lignite, or brown 
coal. It appears that certain of the levels in the ancient workings of this 
mine are filled with refuse matter, consisting chiefly of fragments of clay 
slate, more or less saturated with mine water, and containing here and 
there fragments of the old timber. This wood when in the mine, is wet, 
and of a leathery consistence, but on exposure to the air it rapidly hardens 



21 1 

WIhic tlic genuine Lehiglicoal cannot bo procured for foundry porp 
rln will,! anil softer varieties of anthracite are substituted, and where i 
iiv nil "I reach, coke from bituminous coal is used. 

General Qeologioai Snutare of the Third Uoal-JkUi. — The general coa- 
li-mailiHi Ml 'the Wyoming basin is a wide and shallow trough, deeper in 
the middle than ft! thfl Bides, yet deepening so gradually toward the eenti' 
as to be, if we regard t lie subordinate undulations of the strata, approxi- 
mately Hat. 

This prevailing levoloeBsof its bed or ih.ni-, notwithstanding the consid- 
erable angles iif (ii|i, lri-i|in'nily mi ue than BO deg., is at once apparent win ' i 
we compare I he great width of the valley, four or live miles in its middle 
district; with the tfery moderate depth of 1,200 or J, 500 feet, ot periapt 
1,800 fret. 

The total production of ike Wyoming and Lackawanna valleys, orthe Third 
coalfield, in the ye«f 18T1j was (1 ( 4n 1,171 tons, carried by nine railroads 
ami one -anal, or 48 per cenl of the whole production, which, by Mr. Ban- 
nan'* .-.latisti.-s, was i4-.%j,jui tuns of anthracite. Since the opening o: 

the trade this region has produced 78.y0fi.Sll . and all of the regions 810 

981,040 tone. 



COAL .SKM1-B1TI 8ON0US. 

A lini' drawn on the map of Pennsylvania and Maryland, through the 
Blossburg region, in a south-western course, would pass through or near th" 
Broad Top and Cumberland, as well as two other immediate semi-bitum:- 
nmiis coal regions at Snow Shoe and Phillipsburg, in Centre county. I'. 
aylvauia, all of which produce the same species of coal. 

The- production efthe soinidiituminoiiB regions in Pennsylvania, in 1871 

w :is an follows : 

Tana. 

1. Blossburg*, three coal companies. ... 818,070 

2. .M'lmvie. one coal company 106,130 

3. Towanda, two coal companiee • . 37$, 335 

i. Snow Shoe, one coal company 82 ,-t'j - 

5. Phillipsburg, sixteen coal companies .342 ,S9'i 

>\. . I •ihnst'iwii. m Cambria iron works, one coal company 283,472 

7. Cambria con nty, on Pennsylvania railroad, ton coal companies, -06 ,792 

- Broad Top, nineteen coal companies. , 319,61* 



Total 



2 ,714, TOO 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 215 

James Macfarlane, general agent of coal companies in Tioga and Brad- 
ford counties, furnishes the following : 

COAL SENT TO MARKET, 1873, TIOGA COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA. 

Tun* 

Fall Brook coal company 312 ,466 

Morris Run coal company 357 ,384 

Blossburg coal company 321 ,207 

Total, Tioga 991 ,057 

LYCOMIXU COUNTY. 

M'Intyre coal company 212 ,4(52 

BRAPKORO COUNTY. 

Towanda coal company 252 ,329 

Pall Creek B coal company 85 ,315 

337 ,644 

Total of the three counties 1 ,541 ,163 

As compared with 1872 : 

Tioga county, (increase,) 141 ,695 

Lycoming county, ( increase, ).\ 41 ,035 

182,730 
Bradford county, (decrease,) 45 ,198 



BLACKSMITH'S COAL. 

In the New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, and other Atlantic 
markets, no other coal is sold or used for blacksmithing but Cumberland, 
Clearfield and Broad Top ; while in the interior of the State of New York, 
in Western Canada, or Ontario, and in all the western or north-western 
States, every blacksmith uses Blossburg coal, which is the generic name 
by which all this kind of coal from northern Pennsylvania is called. As 
an instance of the distance to which this valuable fuel is carried, it may be 
stated that 75,053 tons were shipped in 1871 from Oswego and Buffalo to 
Canada, and our own western States. Chicago alone took 21,248 tons be- 
fore the great fire, and had an insufficient supply, much of which was re» 



216 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



sold ami shipped off by railroad westward and QOfth-wewtenBd. SotM oi 

it was re-sold as far as Omaha, and shipped still farther westward. The 
blacksmiths of Salt Lake City, Utah, us«! Btossburg- coal, and it is even 
carried in sacks over the plains, and over the mountainH through the gold 
ions of our western territories, to sharpen the tools of the miner. This 
ie owing to the fact that the western coal does not possess those peculiar 
.|H;.UtHs required for this business. 

All the puddling and heating furnaces from Troy, New York, to Buffalo, 
use Klossburg coal in very large <juantities. But the largest demand for 
Blossburg and other semi-bituminous coal is for the <jei\ei'aliii'j ••/ .<(fam in 
loCOBtOttve and stationary boilers. 

The following is a summary of the total joint production of coal from the 
Blossbnrg, M'lntyr*' ami Towanda coal regions for 18*0 and 1871 ; 



I ii M. REGIONS. 



vsn. 



18TO. Iiirrense. 



r.ln-^liuii; region, S companies. 

M'linyrt', 1 company 

'r>iWiui(iii, J oompaulea 



815.079 
108, ISO 
878, 836 



733, OS.'. 

17, 80S 

373, 335 



■ 
10.-i.00U 



Total Unm 1,286,644 ll,034,17B 975,1100 



The coal produced in 1871 was used as follows: 

For locomotive purposes 

By rolling mills 

By Onondaga salt company ' 

By stationary engines, steamboats, &c, . 

By blacksmiths 



«il9,054 
242,142 

170,142 
168 ,286 

W ,852 



Total as above 1 ,299 ,544 

The total production of these three districts since the mines were opened 
is 6,453,222 tons, of which 5,8*1, "50 tone were from the Blossbnrg rag 
proper. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



til 



ML.MI-BITIMI.MUS- BROAD TOP MOUNTAIN. 



Tlir Broad Top mountain coal region is strictly and geologically au in- 
dependem or isolated coal region, situated forty miles east of the declivity 
t the Allegheny mountains, which form the eastern boundary of the BlSt 
bituminous coal basin. Farts of it are situated in Bedlurd, Huntingdon 
..ml Fulton counties, and the outlet to market for its coal is by the Hunt- 
ingdon and Broad Top .Mountain railroad to Huntingdon, tliirly-.sk miles, 
and from thence to Philadelphia, two hundred aad three miles, trough 
Creek valley, Plank Cabin valley und Wells' valley, in Huntingdon and 
Bedford counties, form a trench aiound the Broad Top mountain, with its 
coal basin, and Brush Creek valley is attached to the ring at its BuutliTu 
This ring or circular valley is a deep depression worn out ul the red 
B by the Juniata river and other water courses, one thousand feet deep 
hetow the i' rest of the enclosing mountains. It is usually but one Or two 
miles wide, but at its northern end forms a triangular opening six miles 
al its base and eighteen miles long, rising to the top of the knob of 
mountain, overlooking the county of Huntingdon. In the centra 
• ■! this ring rises tin- mountain mass of tin- Broad Top, ooutuiniiii;- eighty 
square miles of coal measures, disposed in six parallel basins and crowned 
With a contra! peak, the " BfQ&d Top," rivaling in height the summit of 
the Allegheny mountain, forty- mile* distant. New the BUQttit of this peak 
remains a small, round patch of the 1'tttsbnrg or Westmoreland gas coal 
bed, a few acre 8 in extent; the sole ,eli<- of vast deposit of this famou> 
bed remaining in all the cm. try between Cumberland, iii Maryland, on the 
south, Blairsville, in Indiana county, on the west, and Donaldson, in the 
I 'ttsville basin of the anthracite coal region, on the east. 

The Huntingdon and Broad Top Mountain railroad was completed ill 
1856, when the first coal was sent to market The total production of the 
n bM been 8,942,008 tons in sixteen years ; that of 1871 was 319,625 
tons, and the average hu been about 300,000 tons per annum for the past 
twelve years. The specific gravity of Broad Top coal is 1,880, and of 
Fittebarg cod 1 ,'-'85. 



MINERAL STATISTIC*. 






RJ'll'MINnrs L'n.VL REGIONS OF WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. 



THE LOWER OOAL-MKASUBES 

The Pennsylvania bituminous coal-field may be considered as agroal '" |i1 
complex basin, for. sncli it really is. lit* boundary oil tltQ east ox south- 
« ast is very well defined by the abrupt declivity of the Allegheny mountain, 
-t and north-west of this loog utruight rim of this v,i,-t basin, ifea this 
coal-field, which is only the north-eastern extremity of the trough-shaped 
plain or tabic- laud which range.-; thener uninterruptedly smith-westward b 
tie- <'iiti'- "f Alabama. The courses of the streams show that the geoi 
surface ascends gradually toward the north where the Allegheny rivet 

drains it throughout. It mac through a deep and c patatively uarruM 

trench in the uoal-busiti. 

Prof. Rogers accounts for its changes ol course, from south-easi I •■ 
south-west, by the action of two great currents of eroding natn, when the 
• oatinont wan elevated, the main one Bowing south-westward from the Al- 
legheny mountain, and the other south-eastward from the region of tho 
lakes and cutting valleys at right angles to each othei . 

From the summit of the Allegheny, the country declines both ways, bul 
it is. only with what lies west of it that Iffij are concerned. 

This district, west of tin- Allegheny water-shed, is not a simple slope, 
but is B great, irregular trough, the >..utln-i n portion being, in fact, I series 
Of parallel troughs, mused by the ridge* "I Negro mountain, Laurel Hill. 
and Chestnut Ridge, rising up, sometimes K'-OO feet high, within thesouth- 
eaetern part of the coal-liold, the Conciuaugli and Youghiogheny livers 
croasiug them, and cutting gaps down through them to their base. Around 
tie- north-western borders of the basin, where the waters emptying i ■ at • » 
tin- Allegheny. separate from those Bowing into Lake Erie, tin- elevation is 
about 1,200 G 

The northern part of the hasin is also geologically undulated into si.\ 
coal-basins The north-western tract of the coal-field, the fifth and sixth 
basins, gradually subsides in level toward the south-west, and the strati 
also decline in the same direction, but at a somewhat faster rate than the 
surface does, and hence the south-western portion of the State contains ;» 
greater thickness of coal-measures than the north-eastern, Indeed, in Pot* 

ST, il'Kean, Warren and parts of the counties south of them, the table- 
land is almost entirely destitute of the coal-producing parts of the forma- 
tion, and is only ovsrsproad by the conglomerate and other older rocks 

hiwii to underlie any workable coal bed. 



22C 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



THE PITTSBURG SEAM. 

It is seldom that a Mam pf coal is so well defined and bo easily followed 

. - tliis Pittsburg sea in. It may be observed at the full. > wing- elevation 
above tin- Monongahela in descending the stream at different places, viz,: 
MuigaiitMYvii, West Virginia, 1SU feet; at Greensboro', thirteen miles be- 
and i w r , miles below the Pennsylvania line, 200 feet. Below Browns- 
ville it dips nearly into btte river, lint rises again regularly as We g 
the river, tillat Monougahela <"ity it is l.Vn !'.-cj : at Elizabeth town ■jnu feet 
and at Pittsburg 800 feet. Below Grecnsbon.' the elevations arc appToxi- 
UBte Only hut febOTe that place they are actual measurements. 

The seams of coal at the lower coal-measurea have been reached in boring 
' r sail water at Pittsburg, Gkeensboro' and at various other plai 

The depth Of the first two scums at I'ittsburg w.-ir ]-IO and 180 feel below 

the Ohio river. 
The Mouongahels rivt r i utSfi miles from the Virginia State line 

to Pittsburg, possesses every important advantage for the production <>t 
i oal. It is, therefore, not surprising that the annua] tonnage of this dis- 
trict is larger than that Of any Other bituminous coal region of the United 
States, The coal is of an excellent quality for iron making, for generating 
steam, for gas and for domestic purposes. It is found in unlimited quanti- 
ties in the hills mi both sides ol the river, at short distances only from the 
water, the coal being often run from the mouths of the mines by slides or 
incline planes into the boats. The seam is of a good, workable thickness. 
IV.urand a half feet and upward, of pure coal. The facilities for mining 
- \celle[,t. and the transportation being by water, is cheaper and for 1" 
distances than that of any other* coal region in the United States. The Mo- 
wr is made navigable, at all seasons of the year, by dams, 
with locks large enough for Steamboats and the largest coal boats, each car- 
iving BOO tons, and barges carrying 440 tonB. A large portion ofthe tfo> 
.longahcla river coal is run down the Ohio Bad Mississippi to market, the 

baace Groin Pittsburg to New Orleans by river being 2,000 miles. There 
e i 54T.609 tons of cod shipped in the year IflTl by the Monongahcla 
gation alone. 



MINERAL STATISTICS 



MI-KCHR COUNTY BLOCK LOAI. 



iMatli tin' conglomerate we find a small group of coal measures, which 
comes in under tliu great eonglotnente in the cwmtpy, between French 

creek mill tin; Oliin lint-, containing' a valuable seam, 

Tin's is tin' Rharon coal, in Mercer county. It )g b ipi < i>\- of semi-canne] 
J, with a slaty structure and a dull, jetdilack lustre, with a thickness Ol 
from three to four feet, li sinus ut extraordinary circumstance that the 
moat important coal region in north-western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio 
as reapaetl tin- present production and the quality of its coal, should be al- 
ii outside of what was regarded as the coal region and below trie coal- 
• iii'-. Tie' so-called splint-seam, producing block coal, belong* tea 
group m| una] strati which, although appertaining to the true coal feu 
tloo, were long ago recognized as being beneath the main body of the con- 
gfonnratr 

Though the bed is frequent^ ■ mixture of coal and slate, as its name im- 
plies, it produces the must valuable coal in the Uiiitoil States, and it oin. 
braces one and sometimes twu important beds. 

One of the most important uses to which mineral coal baa been applied 
ne smelting of iron or the manufacture of pig or cast iron from the Ore 
The qualities required fur this purpose are. sufficient hardness in the me- 
lical Structure of the coal to bear the pressure ol ■ charge and the high 
t e mpe rat ure required in the blast furnace, the absence of all the melting or 
caking property, which would Stop the draught in the stuck, freedom from 
sulphur, iti order to produce iron ol good quality, ami sufficient beating 
power. There ceere nearly 500.000 tons of block coal produced in Mercer 
. .unity in 1871, and twenty-tlin-e blast furnaces, in the district above men- 
tioned, were running on this coal in that year, with others in the BMiRM of 

struction. There are about the same number of furnaces on the ©hi 
aide of the line. 

The principal locality where this peculiar coal is produced is along the 
line of * small branch of the Brio and Pittsburg railroad, at Sharpsburg, 
seventy-five miles Bouth of Erie. The mimes are in Hickory- township, ami 
in the vicinity of Sharon, Wheatland and Middlesex, in the south-western 
part of Mercer county, and the area is quite limited. 






MINKKAI. STATISTICS. 



THE C0NNE1J.SYILLE COKE Ki:<ilu\ 



Throughout the lint trough or basin wrest of the Chestnut Ridge, which 

,.,v now bo properly called the Conneilsville basin, the superb Pittsburg 

bed, the great coke-scam, occupies the middle of the bold, and appear* 

along two parallel lines of out-crop which range from half a mile to two an. I 

a hall miles asunder, that being the width of the basin. 

In oQBue neighborhoods the bed as it dips into the middle of the trough 

descends to a eon gide ruble ilepth below the lowest water course, while in 

■iii'-r places the bottom »l ilie basin which it forma does not reach lh< 
water level. This is the now celebrated Conneilsville region, 

Conuellsville coke has beeoine very celebrated nut only about Pittsburg 
lnil throughout the western .States, where it is extensively used for foundi J 
purposes in melting pig iron, selling in competition with Lehigh coal. It 
la used in blastfurnaces for smelting iron from liii' ore, and is sometimes 
mixed with western coals. 

It is also an excellent fuel for locomotive use. Its freedom from sulphur 
ha? given this coke the representation of being the best known. The Pitts- 
burg and Comiellsvillc railroad is a large transporter of the coal ami cok< 
of this region, while a portion id" it produced near the month of the Von 

iogheny finds its way to market by the Moi tjahela river slaek-watei- 

uavigattou. 

The South-western Pennsylvania railroad which leaves the Pennsylvania 
CeqtraJ at (iroensburg. and passes through Contiollsville and DniontOWd, 

and tlieuee in course ol 'construction to the ChSSi river is designed to pt 

brats this coke region, and will afford increased facilities lor the shipment 
o| coal and coke. 

Conneilsville coal weighs eighty pounds to a bushel, and when properly 
coked a hundred bushels of coal produce one hundred and twenty-live bnsh- 

• Is of ooke, and the coke weighs forty pounds to a bushel ; that is, a given 
■ luantity of the coal gains oue-.|uarter in bulk, and Loaeathtee-eighsbs "fits 
weight, or one hundred pounds of coal makeR sixty-two and a hull* pounds 

• I I oke. 

At the Dunbar furnace seventy bushels of aoke pre4used Iroiu two gross 
i.ms .if coal, smelt, a ton of pig iron, hut the Pittsburg furnaces use eighty 
to eighty-five bushels, the difference being owing, probably, in part at least, 
to the kinds of ore and limestone used. 

I regn-1 not to have been able to procure approximate statistics of this 

coke trade. The manufacturers, dealers, ami even coke exchange are all 
nsy to famish statistics. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 223 



THE COUNTIES WITH AM) WITHOUT COAL 



Of the sixty-six counties in Pennsylvania, the following twenty-live con- 
tain no coal whatever, viz : Philadelphia, Delaware, Chester, Montgomery, 
Bucks, Northampton, Lehigh, Berks, Lebanon, Lancaster, York, Adams, 
Franklin, Cumberland, Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Snyder, Union, Montour, 
Monroe, Pike, Wayne, Snsquehanna and Erie They are all situated in the 
south-eastern part of the State, except Erie, which is in the north-western 
corner. The anthracite coal of Pennsylvania is situated principally in tin- 
four counties of Dauphin, Schuylkill, Carbon and Luzerne ; with smaller 
quantities, the borders of the basins in Northumberland and Columbia coun- 
ties, and there ie a semi-anthracite coal in Sullivan and a little in Wyom- 
ing county 

Six counties contain detached fields of* semi-bituminous coal, Bradford, 
Lycoming, Tioga, Huntingdon, Bedford and Fulton. The following twenty- 
seven counties in the western and north-western part of the State contain 
bituminous coal, a portion of which along the eastern margin of the field 
is semi-bituminous, viz : Somerset, Payette, Greene, Washington, West- 
moreland, Cambria, Indiana, Armstrong, Allegheny, Beaver, Lawrence. 
Butler, Clarion, Jefferson, Clearfield, Blair, Centre, Clinton, Cameron, Elk. 
Forest, Venango, Mercer, Crawford, Warren, M'Kean, and Potter, or in all 
forty-one coal producing counties. Of so vast a coal region with a very 
intricate structure, only a general account can be given. Its total area is 
12,222 square miles, besides eighty miles in Broad Top, and 472 in the an- 
thracite fields, making a total of 12,774 square miles of coal of all kinds in 
Pennsylvania. 

The geological report of Prof. Rogers, in three volumes, is the basis of 
onr knowledge of the coal-fields of Pennsylvania. Fuller and detailed re- 
ports upon special localities have since added largely thereto. The latest 
work which appears to be a full and accurate compend, "The Coal Regions 
of America," in one volume, by James Macfarlane, has been the source- 
from which we have condensed our sketches. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



225 



PENNSYLVANIA COAL TRADE 



OFFICIAL STATISTICS. 

Of the anthracite coal trade, and alio of the bituminous coal trade moved toward 
the seaboard for the year 1873. 

In 1872 the quantity of anthracite coal sent to market was 18,932,265 
Ions; and the estimated quantities consumed in the coal regions were put at 
3,100,000, making the whole quantity mined 22,032,265 tons as follows : 



Sent to Home I -Total 
market, consump'n. ___j„„, 
Official. Estimated. V*odwst. 



Schuylkill 4,135,908. 875,000 1 5,010,908 

Northumberland I 1,221,827 170,00» ' 1,391,327 

•Columbia j 319,220 16,000' 344,220 

Dauphin 450,328 30,000 480,328 

Wyoming I 9,194,808 1,500,000' 10,694,808 

Lehigh 3,610,674; 500,000 4,110,674 

18,932,265, -3,100,000, 22,032,265 

The whole quantity mined and sent to market, together with the estima- 
ted quantity consumed in the coal regions, in 1873, we give as follows : 



Sent to Home 

market, consump'n. . )rodupt 

Official. Estimated.. l ,roauct - 



Total 



Schuylkill ' 4,252,043 880,000 5,132,043 

Northumberland ' 1,234,070 170,000 ; 1,404,070 

Colombia 358,741 25,000 383,741 

Dauphin | 449,915 30,000 479,915 

Wyoming I 10,047,241 1,675,000! 11,722,241 

Lehigh 3,243,168: 463,000, 3,706,108 

_' 19j585, 178 M**L°9°J. „^» ®*?il 8 

The total supply of anthracite coal sent to market in 1872 and 1873, sums 

up as follows : 

Tons. 

In 1873 19 ,585 ,178 

In 1872.. 18 ,932 ,265 

Increase in 1873 652 ,913 

15 Statistics. 



MINERAL STATISTIC-. 
The whole production, including the consumption bathe regions, foot* 

up ae follow ; 

Tons. 

In 1873 22,828,178 

Inl812 . 22,082/ 



Increase in product ion in I s ":;. 



7!m ,!•!:: 



Tin.' whole supply ill" bituminous ru;il embraced in -mi tables, and BttOI sd 
towards tlic seaboard wob : 

t..,.-. 

In 1873 5,615 .7-1 

In 1S7-J 5,281 ,098 



isc iii 1873. 






The above increase of 283,7.*«i tuns bituminous ■u:il. added to the In- 
tra of 652,013 tons anthracite, makes the total increase for the J 
986,896 tons. 

The following table gives the officio] i|ii.'intity of coal mined in the dif- 
ferent ei ml. regions, with the production of each separated ami credited to 
each region. The quantity anderthe headofthe Schuylkill region, embraces 
all the coal sent from Schuylkill county, and also the quantity mined in Oo- 
luiubia and Northumberland counties sent tn market via the Schuylkill Yrd- 
loy ; and all the coal from the Schuylkill and Wyoming regioOB, sent bo 
niarki't via the Lehigh Valley is also reported and credited tothe paooei 
regions, 

OmCUL TABII.A11 STATEMENT. 

Of >lw whole product uf anthracite coal, ami i/mi porMm of bitwninotu cnaf 
moved toward Ota seaboard, in ls*;j, compared with 1872. 



S< III \ l.KII.I. BK'IIOK. 



ism. 
Tons. 



Tons. 



I nareaae. I tool 
Tons. Tins. 



l.-:*<li lis mil mini 

Schaylkftl ouutl 

Lehigh snd Mabsnoy 



U u Bliamoaln reported double. 



lii.-roase in lSTM, . 



i,(m,:A0 "4,340,821 247,781 



888, mi 

370,215 



5,3O0,»M 
194, 49S 



B, 100,451 



74:1.796 !. 
488,843 138,127 






5,577,459 

1,803 178,908 



5,Liit», i.--; 

5,100,451 



870,006 



iVs.-j-i.-; 



103,706 102,705 



•The total rial toiuiatjto of the PhiUtMphiA itml Reading railroad In tt 
i>.."(-Ki,.w.. Including 086,328 tons anthnutlt tnd 888,851 tons bituminous «*»l n 
at Harrlaburg una other points! 




MINERAL STATISTICS. 227 

Official Tabular Statejikxt — Continued. 



lehigh region. J, 872 ' ! J, 873 " Increase. Decrease. 

i Tons. Tons. , Tons. Tons. 



Lehigh Valley, railroad I 3,492,608 I *3, 734, 797 i 242,189 



Lehigh and Susquehanna railroad j 1,727,611 

Lehigh canal I 767,094 



fl, 959, 111 , 231,500 

736,252 : 30,842 



' 5,987,813 I 6,430,160 I 

Less Wyoming and Schuylkill ! 2,370,639; 3,180,992 ] 810,353 

! 3,610,674 I 3,243,168 ' 473,689 , 841,195 

i 8,243,168 ; 473,689 



Decrease in 1873 ■ 367, 506J i 367, 506 

WYOMING REGION. 

Pennsylvania canal company 321,311, 295,399 25,912 

Pennsylvania coal company 1,213,478 1,239,214 1 25,736 

Lackawanna and Western R. R., north.. 846, 107 I J986, 619 i 140, 512 

Lackawanna and Western R. R., south..; 1,994,478 : J2, 149,737 155, 259 j 

Delaware and Hudson company , 2,516, 565 ', 2,472,449 ! ' 44, 116 

Lackawanna and Bloomsburg 296,445 1 210,173: 80,272 

Via Lehigh..... ' 2,006,424 J 2,693,650 687,226 | 

9,194,808 ! 10,047,241 1,008,733 : 156,300 
i 9,194,808 I 156,300 i 



Increase in 1873 ] 862,433 j 852,433; 

shamokjn REGION 569, 689 ' 635, 383 05, 694 

509,689 j 



Increase in 1873 ' 65,094 65,69 4 ! 

LYKBNS VALLEY REGION 450,308. 449,915 ! ; 413 

449,915 | I 

Decrease in 1873 : 413 ' ! 413 



Total anthracite 18,932,265 19,585,178 ,. 

I 18,932,265 ■ 



Increase in 1873 __652,913 .„ . . „_. . . .| 

BITUMINOUS. 

Broad Top 318,372; 474,178 155,806' 

Penn'a Central and Phila. and Erie 2, 067, 524 § 1, 940, 771 120, 753 

OheMpeake and Ohio canal 816,103 778,802 1 37,301 

Baltimore and Ohio railroad I 1,517,347 1 1,745,429; 228,032' 

Via Pennsylvania Extension..... • 22,021 | 114,589 92,568 | 

4,741,367 j 5,059,769 . 476,456 ] 158,054 

Imported coal 490,631 | 450,015 ! 34,616 

5,231,998 5,515,784 i 476,456 192,670 



Anthracite , 18,932, 265 



Total all kinds 24, 164,263 

Total increase in 1873 



19,585,178 1 192,670:. 



25,100,902 , 283,786 
24,164,263 



936.699 



•The total coal tonnage of the Lehigh Valley railroad in 1873, was 4,144,340 tons, 
including 28,028 tons of bituminous coal. 

tThe total coal tonnage of the Lehigh arid Susquehanna railroad was, in 1873, 
3,089,606 tons. The balance is reported by other companies. 

J Net tons— all the others are gross tons. 

§ The total coal tonnage of the Pennsylvania railroad was 4,527,501 tons, of which 
1,173,960 were anthracite and 3,353,541 bituminous. 



2M 



MINERAL STATISTICS 



The supply of anthracite ccml sent to market in I8T2 and 18?8 was fur- 
nished M lolloWS : 





1872. 


l-:::. 


l!UM'i:i-i'. 


Decn . 




1.1 

1, 221,327 

9,320 

ISO, 328 

9,184,808 

8,600,874 


4,252, 

1,234,070 

868)741 

142,916 

10,047,241 

8,248, L08 


[16,188 

12,74:: 

,521 














418 




652,488 














18,032,205 


19,565,176 


1,020,682 


897,919 




052,913 


852,913 





Below we give the quantities >>i coal sent to market since 1880, (torn the 
three principal regions, tin • Schuylkill, the Wyoming, and the Lehigh The 
coal credited to the Lehigh is the quantity mined in what is termed the 
Lehigh district. The Schuylkill embraces all the coal Bert to market from 
Schuylkill county, and also that uiined in Northumberland and Columbia 
countios sent to market via the Schuylkill Valley: 



V.:.r. 



1850 
1861 
1802 
1868 
1864 
1 B8E 
L866 
1 867 
L868 
1 889 
1870 
L871 
1872 
is;:; 



.sriiiiylkiii. Wyoming. 



:i,^*,.-.lf. 
2,607. 
2,890,896 
8,444,266 
6,612,216 
8,785,608 
4,63:;.4S7 
1,884,620 
1.41 i 
1,748,980 
8,720, 108 
5, 124,760 
I . 161 
I \ 168 



Loliigh. 



:,!M1.M7 
1,065,140 
. 145,770 

;.i'.-.i:,k;,s 
1,786,618 
,328,322 
,, 090,818 

. 191, li I 



1, 821,771 
1,788, 177 

1,713 
2,054 

■j, 128,667 
2,0S4,44fl 
2,507, 
1,929,083 
1,040, 
2.24J 
8,010,674 
I ;. I6N 



THE OONBUMFHON Of OQ&L IK THE UNITED STATES. 

Taking the official retains of the production of anthracite eoal in thi- 
Dnited States in - ether with the official returns of the Bitumtc 

eoal produced and sent towards the seaboard), and from former data, esti- 
mating the balance,, wi jive the following as tin- total coal production in 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 229 

Anthracite sent to market 19 ,585 ,118 

Anthracite consumed in regions 3 ,243 ,000 

Total production of anthracite 22 ,828 ,118 

Bituminous coal sent towards seaboard, embraced in our 

tables 6 ,085 ,222 

Estimated production of bituminous coal not embraced in our 

tables 16 ,500 ,000 

Total production in 1873 45 ,413 ,340 

Foreign coal imported 456 ,015 

45,869,355 
Exported 584 ,633 

Total supply for consumption in 1S73 45 ,284 ,722 

It will be seen by the above figures that the quantity of anthracite and 
bituminous coal produced were nearly equal, as follows : 

Total anthracite .' 22 ,828 ,118 

Total bituminous 22 ,585 ,222 

Total 46 _> 4 i^'3 40 . 

In 1865 we commenced estimating the quantity of bituminous coal pro- 
duced in the United States from the regions not embraced in onr table, and 
we have put down the production of coal in this country, as follows, since 

1864: 

Tons. 
1864 22 ,500 ,000 

1865 24 ,400 ,000 

1866 28 ,855 ,918 

1867 28 ,361 ,847 

1868 31 ,479 ,114 

1869 83 .761 ,010 

1870 36 ,622 ,131 

1871 37 ,861 ,415 

1872 42 ,749 ,243 

1873 45 ,413 ,340 

This shows an increase of upwards of 100 per cent, in the production 
of coal in the United States within the last ten years, and if the same ratio 
of increase should continue for the ensuing ten years, the consumption in 
1888 would reach 90,000,000 tons. 

The investments in the coal business to produce 45,000,000 tons of coal 
annually, and to carry the same to market, is immense, amounting in the 
aggregate to not less than probably five hundred millions of dollars, and to 



230 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



produce thin additional quantity, and to transport it bo market In the e 

. tin: reader can form some idea r>f the additional capita] thai 
will Lo required to famish that quantity for COQBumpti 



S(JI1UYLK.ILL CAXAL. 

Tonnage and distribution of coal shipped via Schuylkill cans] bom Do- 
comber i. l ■>:•_'. to November 80, 1878, inclusive: 



Schuylkill Haven 

Aul.iirn ... 

Port Clinton 

Hamburg 

rsritte and Shoemakers 

Lecei»ii'l ar>4 Duncnn Canal 

Felix and Kie&isger'g Dam, . . 

Reading 

v «1 - Landing 

Birdaboro' 

Mo iu-y.. 

Pottatywn Landing 

Springvillfi and Lawieiu-rvillc. . . 

Royer'a ford 

Black Bock 

PhcanixviUe. . 

Brewer's Landing 

Norristown 

Conshohocken 

Spring Mill--.. 

Manayiink 

Salem 

V'w paatle and Newport 

Brandywine and creek 

Wilmington 

Marcus Sooh 

Chester and Chester Creek.. 

Gloucester ......', 

Darby and Darby creek 

Philadelphia ami vicinity 

NcW Ynrk and vicinity 





80S 


7 


LO 


o,185 


3,841* 




3,-103 


33 ,223 


337 




S .So,") 


42! 


1 ,!-:• 


I f T8fl 




1,567 


7 


534 


I ,006 


18,707 


25,764 


l ,242 


5,673 


8,800 


26,325 


1,077 


14,IOi. 




1 ,013 


269,101 


303 ,120 



713,7% 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 231 

. Of the above quantity, 117 ,016 tons were delivered on the line short of 
^Philadelphia ; 54,550 tons were sent south of Philadelphia, and 803,120 
■tons east of Philadelphia. 



PHILADELPHIA AND READING RAILROAD COMPANY. 

Points of supply and distribution of anthracite and bituminous coal on the 
Philadelphia and Beading railroad and branches for the year ending Novem- 
ber M, 1813: 

Amount of coal received from various lateral railroads in coal region : 

Tons. Tons. 

Schuylkill Valley railroad 50 ,843 

Mill Creek 170,746 

-Mahanoy and Shamokin 1 ,520 ,972 

Total at Port Carbon 1 ,742 ,561 

MourrtCarbon branch at Mount Carbon 145 ,646 

Mine Hill and Schuylkill Haven road at Schuylkill Haven,. . . 1 ,443 ,135 

Lebanon and Tremont branch at Pinegrove 366 ,007 

Xittle Schuylkill railroad at Tamaqua 642 ,972 

4,340,321 

^Received at Harrisburg and Dauphin 222 ,006 

.Received at Allentown and Alburtis 8 ,876 

iReceived at Oreland and Willow Street wharf. 80 ,082 

■Summit, Catawissa and Rupert 344 ,259 

655 ,223 

4 ,995 ,544 
.Bituminous received at Harrisburg and Belmont 323 ,354 

Total as per detailed statement below 5 ,318 ,898 

♦Coal passing over laterals for shipment by canal. . . 735 ,074 
•Coal shipped West via N. C. R. R. and Williams- 
port branch ' 301 ,838 

<Coal consumed on laterals 190 ,771 

1,227,65 

Total of all, tons 2,240 lbs 6 ,546 ,553 




168,999 W,87] 907,836 

199,650 112,697 BIS, 

189. Ml 182,660 B22.2U 

, ,828 155,750 894,078 

1854. 1,312 106,940 Ml, 160 

187,470 481. 

820, 191,180 829,498 

313,178 198. .Ml. it: 

1858 285,577 305.580 441,109 

341,001 218,178 r>r,4.77 1 

885,800 288,017 

1801 878,047 158,678 485,890 

416,866 l.'MKiii 846,918 

548,766 L22.E 071,888 

884,074 U4.SW ■48,468 

[865 659,876 87/260 746,028 

174.407 1,01(1, 

- 985,0W 178,182 l, 1ft 

597,808 08,014 : 10,917 

1868 823,504 113,549 I.OSi 

-To 1, 072, 460 1W,7«M 1,180 

:s71 1,188,227 M.813 1,223,040 

[873 1,357,208 1 14.1213 1.471. 4:41 

1873... » l.» - .7(). lWi 1 17,01(1 1.787.305 

Showing an increase of &15,11i tons over 187*2. The increase in 1872 
o*oj 1 V T1 was 248,391 tons, making an increase of 664,105 toils in die Ctoa- 

sumption on the line in two ycare under the poltcy inaugurated by I' 
deal Gowen, in protecting the line trade. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 233 

LEHIGH CANAL COAL TRADE. 

The following is the quantity of coal transported through the Lehigh 
canal during the year 1873, and the distribution of the same, and also the 
points from which it was received : 

Tons. 

Received from Mauch Chunk 235 ,486 

Received from Beaver Meadow 131 ,535 

Received from Mahanoy 20 ,891 

Received from Hazleton 199 ,891 

Received from Upper Lehigh 29 ,907 

Received from Wyoming 118 ,542 

Total' ' 736 ,252 

The above coal was distributed as follows : 

Consumed on lino of Lehigh canal 81 ,395 

Passed into Morris canal to tidal points 2 ,614 

Passed into Morris canal to local points 28 ,233 

Passed into Delaware and Raritan to tidal points 257 ,798 

Passed into Delaware and Raritan to local points 13 ,566 

Consumed on line of Delaware Division canal 39 ,662 

Passed through to Bristol and Philadelphia v . . 312 ,984 

Total 736 ,252 



LEHIGH AND SUSQUEHANNA RAILROAD. 

The coal tonnage of the Lehigh and Susquehanna railroad for 1873, was 

derived from the following sources : 

Tons. 

Wyoming region 1 ,812 ,021 

Upper Lehigh 200 ,301 

Beaver Meadow 346 ,752 

Hazleton 207 ,723 

Mauch Chunk 522 ,821 

Total 3 ,089 ,698 

Total in 1872. . . . : 2 ,527 ,069 

562 ,629 






MINERAL STATISTICS. 



BELYIDEEE AND DELAWARE RAILROAD COAL TONNAGE, 

The following- is the quantity of coal transport sd oVCt this road, received 
from the Lehigh region In tlu- following years: 



Yeai 


Through. 


Way. 


Total. 


In ISTS 


789, -lo 

877. 

HB. 

as 

465,684 

269, 73* 
174,608 

202,781 

181.-- 


am, 142 

57,JBfl 

00,884 

U.M0 

71,638 

10,0 

!<-, 

11,086 

13,1 


1. 11 












714,277 




538, 22 1 


in im 

fn IMS 


■ 
188, Oft! 


in 1866 


214, 846 




174,833 
110, i"i 











129, 153 








146,907 








185, SOE 

mi.wxi 




















123.21* 



Of tin- above 1,155,882 tuns of coal transported, 944,818 tons were de- 
rived from the Lehigh regions, and 210,518 tons from the", Wyoming re- 
giou. Of the through coal 827,465 tons were shipped at Goal Port, and 
I 'i-, 77*i at Smith Amboy. The balance, including 71,649 tons itacd by the 
company, was consumed on the line of the road*. 



LATERAL ROADS IN SCHUYLKILL COUNTY 

The following was the coal tonnage of the lateral railroads in Schuylkill 

county in 1872 and 1*73: 





i-;j. 


is::. 


ImTlM-x-. 


Dm** 


Mi no Hill ami Schuylkill Haven 


0,688 
1,816,384 
$27,714 
181, 
186,051 
5, 120 
180,857 
152,113 


2,080,518 

1,72b, 590 
888, 055 
110,978 
•J3<», rt«r_« 
7;2,8(J7 
248,891 
[44 


U-n. VMI 




Miilumoy and Broad Mountain 


B8yTW 
95,659 










44,651 
88,084 






i62,"«3 












5,827,847 
1,972 


5,880,327 






Lehigh and Matasnoy 








. 




6,714,810 
1 152 


(1, 083,020 
. 840 













This shows an increase Of 369,210 tons over the lateral transpwtati 

] ft a 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



235 



MORRIS CANAL COAL TRADE. 

This company has been leased and is now worked by the Lehigh Valley 
railroad company. The following is the annual tonnage of this canal since 
the year 1845 : 



Year. 



I.KIIIOM COAL FROM 



Canal. 
Tons. 



Railroad. 
Tons. 



Total. 
Tons. 



Scranton 
coal. 

Tons. 



Total. 



1845 

1846 

1847, 

1848. 

1840 , 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1858. 

1859 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

I860. 

1867. 

1888. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 



12,567 

41,152 

01,951 

82, 159 

103,482 

98,100 

137,237 

180, 189 

222,582 

267,864 

290,730 

284,828 

227,652 

281,949 

255,405 

270,947 

272,616 

108, 431 

208,397 

194,097 

217,814 

205,351 

171,266 

181,828 

78,787 

69,991 

44,821 

29,146 

30,592 



808 

13,047 

5,350 

5,780 



1,401 

45,738 

48,234 

37,644 

74,171 

112,790 

107,208 

108,981 

134,504 

205,467 

201,429 

242,445 

522,371 



12,567 
41, 142 
61,951 
82,159 
103,482 
98,100 
137,237 
180, 189 
222,582 
267,864 
290,730 
285,636 
240,699 
287,299 
261,185 
276,947 
274,017 
152, 169 
256,631 
231,745 
291,984 
318,141 
278,472 
268,809 
213,291 
275,458 
240,260 
271,591 
242,763 



17,764 

43,599 

55,426 

89,146 

127,517 

140,922 

172,128 

145,815 

151, 122 

124,204 

141,034 

146,359 

78,736 

67,896 

84,385 

09,350 

70,392 

55,785 



12,567 
41,142 
61,951 
82,159 
103,482 
98,100 
137,237 
180,189 
222,582 
267,864 
290,730 
303,400 
284,298 
342,725 
350,331 
404,464 
414,039 
324,297 
402,446 
382,866 
416, 189 
459,175 
424,831 
347,545 
281,187 
359,843 
315,610 
341,983 
298,749 



I 5, 789,868 1,555,3661 6,315,234' 1,781,582 1 8,126,816 

Of the above quantity 156,532 tons reached tide, and 142,216 tons were 
consumed on the line. 



LYKENS VALLEY COAL TRADE. 

Shipments from Summit Branch railroad company and Lykcns Valley 

coal company, for the year ending November 30, 1873 : 

Tons. 

Summit Branch railroad company, Williamstown colliery 301 ,326 

Lykens Valley coal company, Big Lick colliery 107 ,585 

Lykens Valley coal company, Short Mountain colliery 50 ,248 

Total 459,160 



280 MINERAL STATISTICS 

Shipped as follows i 

By canal south from btilleraburg 54,798 

til east 31« ,su 

By rail sontfa 175 ,838 

By local sales :> .::\ • 

* Total . 45«t . 1 80 

The heaviest shipment ever made trom :' single colliery in a year, in tins 
itry, was tlie product from the Williamstowo colliery, which it will be 
reached 801,328 tons, in 1872 the shipment from the same colliery 
WM 8.69,774 tons, giving an increase in 1*73 of Bl ,552 tons. 

neuts from Mineral railroad and mining company, Sbamokin, fa. 

rona 

Cameron colliery 101 

u«ke Fiddler colliery . ... M ,035 

lickut-y Swamp ii'lliiTV TS ,451 

kory Riilp- colliery - ,710 

Total -21- ,:i" 

Shipped as follows: 

Uy lli from Siiiilniry '2i ,81-1 

By railroad south 134 ,78? 

•;ist 58,W»1 

railroad «^t 29 

Total 247 ,877 

These shipments are from November 30, J87U', to November 80, 1878. 



NORTHERN CENTRAL RAILROAD. 



following ii the coal tonnage of the Northern Central railroad suuth, 

fe] the following years, which lias been furnished us by Mr. S. Little 
Auditor: 



War. 



Baltln 






. 177,864 Kxuiu 278.1M 

. .. ".hi 148,810 453,275 

-l.v,,:u., 17.',, KM 080,870 

414,638 1*0,6*4 501,198 

"Is 

1871 708,618 

618, II 878,694 788.068 

T-; 607,081 I, in 7i77,ii7:; 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 237 

The coal was received from the following points iu 187*2 and 1873 : 

7 



Lykena Valley 

Shamokin 

Lackawanna and Bloomsburg railroad 



1872. 


1873. 


381,621 
108,514 
307,888 


389,924 
137,741 
239,408 


708,056 
767,073 


767,073 



Decrease in 1873 30, 983 



In adddition to the above there were 28,376 tons of bituminous coal 
transported over the road, received from the Pennsylvania railroad, mak- 
ing the coal tonnage for the year, 795,449 tons. 



LEHIGH AND MAHANOY RAILROAD. 

The following is the quantity of coal sent over this road by the different 
operators, from December 1, 1872, to November 30, 1873 : 

Tons. 

Pine Creek 16,069 

West Buck Mountain 4 ,338 

Malvern, (Coxe, Bedford & Co.,) 17 ,682 

Coplay, (Lentz, Bowman & Co.,) 79 ,696 

Glendon, (J. B. Boylan,) 39 ,380 

Primrose, (old and New) ,67 ,212 

Lehigh' Colliery, (Hill & Harris, ).• 5 ,969 

M'Neal Nos. 1 and 2 50 ,717 

M'Neal No. 3 26 ,744 

M'Neal No. 4, (late West Lehigh, ) 11 ,940 

Philadelphia Coal Co., (Shenandoah,) 68 ,532 

Philadelphia Coal Co., ( Lehigh Colliery, ) 66 ,809 

Middle Lehigh 35 ,354 

Beaver Run 2 ,544 

Black Diamond 10 ,457 

Other shippers 354 

Total '. 503 ,802 

. The above- shipments are all from Schuykill county except 10,460 tous. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 

NORTH PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD OOAL TRADE. 

Quantity transported over this road from the Lehigh regies in the fol- 
lowing years : 





Ton>. 


'I'l igb. 

'I'llllS. 


TbtaL 


In 1858 






715, 1J1 






HI. 327 










88,886 
108,947 












In ISM 




123,47.'. 






129, 096 








lll.MI 








1 10, 8 U 








1 


... 




ioo, ao7 

884,967 
108,402 
170,084 
280, 


225,8411 


In 1870 

In 1871 


M,8M 
119,087 


128, 1 58 

227, 44'i 






427,481 


Increase 1873, 86.456 tons. 









PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 

Tlic Following is a statement of coal tonnage forwarded Jo all points by 
Pennsylvania railroad 'lining 1873: 



Prom 



West Philadelphia. 

coiumtiia, (received by canal, (.... 
Rookville 

Mnry-\-i lli- , , 

Aqueduct, (received by oanal, 

"uinliury ". 

1 »ther point* . . 

Huntingdon and Broad Top 

i 'iinilierlHiiil 

Bald Ragle Valley 

Boon Shoe.. 

Tyrone and • 'leacneld 

Allegheny 

Weei Pennsylvania railroad . . 
Soulh-West Pi-tiiiAvlviiiiin railroad. 

QOal 

Pitwbn rg coal 

i uIkt point* 

Totals 



Anllinii-ilc. HitimiinOua. 

Tons. Tons. 






28,772 

■-■«.. -)7li 
4-.-7.S4S 
:wi,r,i<» 

18,249 
177,l5l»l> 
118,840 



1,178,980 



257,010 

124,807 

11,614 

76,042 

593,860 

878,9 1 1 
068,611 



iS,84l 
1,178,908 



Total coal tonnagn in IK73 4,R27.. r .ni 

We did not have the whole coal tonnage of the road in 1872 and cnnn"t 
therefore give the increase in 1873 over 1872, but presume it will reach a 
million of tons of both kinds. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



239- 



BLOSSBURG, TOWANDA AND RALSTON COAL TRADE. 

The following is the quantity of coal sent to market annually up to the 
present time : 



Years. 



Blossburg. 
Tons. 



Towanda. i 
Tons. 



Ralston. 
Tons. 



1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1858 

1859 

1860 

1881 *... 

1862 

1863 

1864 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 



4 

13, 

6, 

14, 

29, 

16, 

29, 

33, 

32, 

23, 

25, 

20, 

45, 

70, 

73, 

70, 

M, 

41, 

48, 

76, 

112, 

179, 

235, 

384, 

394, 

411, 

481, 

002, 

715, 

733, 

815, 

849, 

991, 



235 
966 
164 
268 
234 
836 
509 
807 
763 
095 
161 
000 
000 
507 
214 
204 
669 
314 
894 
593 
918 
712 
334 
843 
977 
642 
759 
318 
328 
094 
035 
079 
262 
057 



2,295 

0,265 

17,560 

30, 143 

27,718 

40,835 

52,779 

54,635 

62,058 

73,167 

99,453 

74,739 

73,665 I 

180,610 

271,335 I 

378,335 : 

382,842 , 

387, 664 J 



2,168,038 
•33,567 



1,722,069 
Increase in 1873..... 141,695 

* Decrease. 

The total supply from the above three regions was as follows : 



17,808: 
106,130- 
171,427 
212,462. 



507,827 
41,035. 



Tons. 



In 1813 1 ,541 ,763: 

In 1872 1 ,403 ,530 



Increase in 1873 138,233. 



The total supply since the opening of the trade foots up 10,397,914 tons. 
The coal sent to market from Blossburg in 1873, was mined as follows :. 

Tons. 
Pall Brook coal company * 312 ,466; 

Morris Run coal company S57 ,384- 

Blossburg coal company. . _. 321 ,207: 



Total 991 ,05,1 



-in MINERAL STATISTICS 

Since the commencement of the trade the coal was furnished from the 
following points : 

Total tone Worn Old Blossbnrg mines 1840 to 1850 533 ,746 

Total tone from Pall Brook, I860 to 1878 *-' ,401 ,7(>0 

Total tOBS from Morris Run, 1853 to 1873 8 .517 ,726 

Total tons from Bloeebarg cotffpany, 1868 to 1873 1,172,888 

Total T.72S - 

• 

The coal from the Townada region waa Inrniahed is 1878 aa (ollou 

Tone. 

Towandacoal company 252,829 

fall Broo k bituminous coal company. ,815 

Total 837,644 

From the commencement the Bupply has been aa folio* 

Barclay coal company, 1 656 to J St>7 430 fi&Q 

Towanda coal company, 1855 to 1873 1 ,832 ,68 I 

Kail Brook bituminous coal company, 1866 to 187S 484,707 

Total 2,168 I 

Tin- Blossburg, M'Intyre (Ralston) and Towanda coal produced in 1878 

has been used as follows: 

In locomotrpaa "u railroads 881 ,821 

In rolling mills 28C ,95? 

In manufacturing Ball 149,789 

In blacksmtthing 181 

In steam and other purposes . s;i,i:;3 

Total - 1 .541 ,168 



The above bituminous regions produced, as will be seen by 1 1 • * - li 
over and above a half million tons of coal in 1873. A cubic yard of coal 
in the ground will produce our ton. If this one and a half millions of tone 
had been all mined from a gangway six feet wide in a seam four and a half 
feet thick, the gangway or tunnel thus formed, produced one ton | 
would have measured 284 miles in length, or nearly from Oorniog to New 
York oityj or calculated by the acre it would require all the coal in 201 
acres of land of 'In 1 thickness mentioned. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



241 



COAL TONNAGE OF THE CENTRAL RAILROAD OF NEW 

JERSEY. 

The following is a statement showing the number of tons of coal trans- 
ported over the Central railroad of New Jersey, during the year 1873 : 



Years. 



Lehigh. Lackawanna. 
Tons. Tons. 



Total. 
Tons. 



1856 33,325 98,670 131,994 

1857 84,881 209,960 294,791 

1858 122,923 417,726 540,549 

1859 180,054 461,430 641,487 

1860 i 263,885 590,862 854,647 

1861 254,367 ' 568,869 823,285 

1862 311,296 502,375 816,571 

1863 435,729 613,594 1,049,686 

1864 474,221 675,748 1,149,963 

1886 599,619 494,687 1,004,304 

1866 511,076 779,178 1,290,249 

1867 513,383 854,520 1,369,903 

1868 765,657 853,189' 1,618,846 

1869 733,496 822,567 1,556,062 

1870 997,504 1,054,680 2,062,184 

1871 1,244,998 632,086 1,877,064 

1872 1,538,590 689,626 2,228,217 

1873 1,980,619 485,460 2,466,069 

: 10,053,602 10,806,134 , 21,763,135 

Tons. 

Received from Lehigh 1 ,980 ,619 

Received from Lackawanna 485 ,600 

Total 2 ,466 ,219 



MORRIS AND ESSEX RAILROAD. 

The following is the annual tonnage of this road from its commencement 
Sn 186t : 



Way. 



Through. 



In 1867 

In 1868 

In I860.--- 

In 1870 

In 1871 

In 1872. 

In 1873 

Increase in 1873, 733,442 tons. 
16 Statistics. 



99,559 


183,662 


146,820 


300,519 


192,216 : 


360,300 


191,209 i 


655,292 


202, 052- 


652,954 


137,708 . 


794,648 


313,414 : 


1,352,385 



Total. 



243,321 
446,039 
552,282 
846,500 
855,006 
932,356 
1,665,799 



2*2 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



N0K1TU MBKKI.AM' COUNTY GOAL TRADE. 

The following is the quantity of coal mined and Milt to market From 
X(iii1iiiiii1h-i-I:iik] county in L&t8, by the diffbroal operators; 



Collieries. 



■ ipemton. 



Tonnage. 
1878. 



Mineral Railroad and Mining Co Cameron.. 103, ft 

Mineral Railroad and Mining Co Hickory Bwamp 88,678 1 

lira! Railroad iinil Mining Co Luke Fuller i!7,.'«] j 

Mineral Ilailroud a ml Mining Co Hickory Ridge .',78<iJ 

Isaac M»v A ' '■> Bunudue 77,726^ 

May, Aude<nried A Co 11m. k Ui I 71,488$ 

Wm. Monteliw StomrtvUIe 

<;. W. .lolms A ltro Monitor 

Alex. Fulton Ilcnrv I "la\ 

A. A.. Helm A Goodwill BearvnlleV <!7,700 ) 

A. A. Ilcini .V E Goodwill Goo-HalM.... 8,678) 

'I'. Bouingardrie* .v I '• i Reliance .... 

Patterson, L. & Co Big Mountain* 

Bxaelrior Cant Mlnrng Oa Kxoelaior 

Phils, and Reading Coal and Iran Co ... . Trevorton 00,788 j 

Philn. anil Heading Coal and Iron Co. ... Locust Spring • 1.018 > 

Philn. mid Reading ' 'oal and Iron Co.... HelfalstaUl 608) 

I'ntity A' i^niinuiirilncr.. Ban Franklin. 

Murton Bro. A in, Coal Ridge 

prise Coal Co Entarnrim lii.WO i 

rprise Coal Co.. Mar. Franklin -21,104* 

Qdlterman A Gorman Groenbank 29, 188 J 

unit or man A Gorman Bmdv 120 ^ 

Wm. Brown Dun. 'Webster H,U4*j 

Win. Brown Ijimbort 11,906 

Win. Brown Franklin »,687 5 

Tim-.. Morton a Bro Morton 

Weaver A Martin. Shamokua 

.1. Longdon k Co Hickory Itidge 

BobwenkftCo Black En nd 

Smith A Reiser. , Lanaaeter. 

Reese & Bros ,.. Marshall 

Ureeber. Kemple A Co. Locust Qap 

Tillot A Urn. Roya 1 ( Ink 



850,700 

70,101 
77,879 

81,800 

80,811 
38,140 

IH,007 
16,881 
16,830 
H8 
_. B7 '. 
8,144 
700 



1,070 
Total In 1878 1,881,887 



1 1 1 .-•.-.■—■ ■ in I '-7:'.. 



12.74S 



Of the above quantity of coal, (17b. i -I. "J tuns Avere sent east via Philadel- 
phia and heading railroad, 10,460 via Lehigh Valley, 567,006 sent wi 
and 3,76li tone via Trevorton and Susquehanna railroad. There were ||ao 
23,072 tons of bituminous coal transported over the Shnmokin Branch of 
tin- Northern Central railroad, in 1878, which passed over the Lehigh Val- 
ley railroad to mat kit 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



243 



a 



a 

Z. 

o 
I 



i 

o 

as 



73 



M 

75 



o 

a 
o 
as 



<: 

o 



Average 
value at 
colliery, .i 



Value of 
product.. 



3 I 



2 Tons pro- 

5 duced. ... | 

sj ; 



^> Value of , 

materials | 

8 furnished,' 

•I 
s Wages 

« , piw 

"3. 

s '_ 

%. 

4 ! 



s 



Capital in- 
i vested . . . 



I Number of | 
boys 

I- 

: Number of ; 

I men 



Power of 
engines...' 



© 

«- -- 

2 .Number of! 
«♦. ! engines...! 

©* l_ 

3 >Iumberofj 
g , colleries, 
«> : — — • • — ' 
„ . Numberof 

« I counties. 



s- 



>1 ~. 

— r.. 



tir- 






eota 






CO -J 



2 K 



i* 






gfe a i -'£ j; -'|§§23b§* §§3*2 



£ £§*£§& ts££|f ssfsa - *" s £ ■* 

tf^f* 

— o{ •* ■*• o ifi 56 — • * c. nsrf- Nfonov 
-TcTci'cc'cc'ao'-^'cc'^rio © < 



^■^"sftCts'ap'-H'w'trio'peftCV •"Trfesw's? 



-h wooes us •H*rt--<<fOC>eiSttW o 
» ~« rf •»■ Si » 2: -a N -> -< *1 






i»lo»Ssxvnot.S»i 






jssesssass&gssv 



g 5 



geTn cf 



22 



SIS 



§g§?i$S2gfc= < =S" T,J " i — '-" 

jj r- ao n oo si » « is o -r >« si — si — n — i si si 



J 



Si c 



v « >, 



£8-2 

a 



c 
c 

£ 
— © 



2 
c 



illmllls. 



5 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 245 



IRON PRODUCTION. 
\ 



CONDITION OF THE IRON TRADE. 

In consequence of the panic which swept over the country a year ago, 
the iron industry of Pennsylvania is at present very greatly depressed, 
and in view of the great reduction in the price of iron abroad an increase 
of duty is loudly called for to infuse new life into this important indus- 
try and to enable our manufacturers to successfully compete with foreign 
rivals, and to fully re-gain and maintain supremacy. 

That the marvelous growth of the iron industry of our country has been 
mainly the result of the policy of protection which the peoplo through 
their representatives have adopted and enforced cannot be denied — but 
what the people want is ample protection against foreign interests. With 
prices beaten down to the lowest possible cost of production ; with many 
thousands of iron workers and miners out of employment, and thousands 
of others working at reduced wages ; with idle furnaces, and rolling mills, 
and foundries in every iron district and manufacturing city of the country; 
with large stocks of unsold iron in almost every iron market, it is a proper 
time to consider whether it is wise longer to encourage the importation of 
foreign iron by continuing the reduction of duties which Congress has 
twice authorized during the past four years. This reduction it has been 
abundantly proved did not reduce the cost of iron to consumers, while the, 
government lost the revenue on imported iron to the amount of the reduc- 
tion. If the reduction is continued, encouragement is thus given to the 
foreign ironmaker to send to our shores, as has been the case within the 
past twelve months, many ship loads of iron which could have been as 
cheaply made in our own country. But for the heavy importations of 
foreign iron after the demand for American iron had commenced to slacken, 
there would be more general activity in the American iron trade to-day, 
and employers and employees would be in better heart 

The aggregate value of our importations of iron and steel, and manu- 
factures thereof, during the twelve months which ended on June 30 last, 
was $59,000,000. Wo now see that these importations were not needed, 
and have done immense harm to the home iron trade and all dependent 
upon it. 

An increase of the duty on pig iron and upon other classes of iron and 
steel, would be a wise measure of relief for Congress to enact immediately 
after it assembles. 



■Jlli 



MINKK.U, STATISTICS. 



PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON" IN THE DNITED STATES IN I 

AM» 19T8. 

COMPUTE BETGKftS FIMM i;vki;y STATE, 

\\ o present ii.irwifii lull uii.i accurate statistics oftae production of pig 
iinii iii the I'nilcil States in J 872 and 1x73, derived from returns made 
direetly to tlic ottCfl of the American [rOB ami Steel Association by the 
makers and by the regular enrreBpoiideiits Of the association. Tliis exhibit 
is the most complete of the kind thai bai sw been given to (be country, 
and its {(reparation alone bus cost tin 1 association thousands of doUan 
\\ e brieflj summarize the lending tacts sot forth in tin detailed state me nt - 
which follow, premising; them by remarking that our tables do not include 
idoncd furnaces ! 

Whole number of stacks, December 31, 1 87 1 631 

W'hoV number of stacks built in 1872 U 

W'holi' Dumber of stacks. Deeembav 31, 1872 612 

Whole number of stacks built in 1873 BO 

Whole number of stacks, December 31, 187'i 

Whole number of staeks in blast, January 1, 1874 lie 

Whole number of stacks out of blast, January 1, 1874 252 

Whole number of stacks completed ill Swl 911 BIOntlM Of 1974 11 

Whole number Df finished stacks, July l, 1874 

Whole number of stacks building, July 1, 1874 53 

Whole number of stacks projected, July 1, 1874 til 

Total production in 1872, tons of 2,000 pounds , - - 2 ,854 ,558 

TOtal production in 1873, tons of 2,000 pounds 2 ,8f.s .27- 

Estimated annual capacity of all finished stacks, net tons, .... 4 ,500 ,000 

Number Of States having furnaces 26 

Number of States making pig iron in 1872 21 

\ linl.er of Slates making pig iron in 1873 22 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



247 



PRODUCTION OP PIO IRON IN 1872 AND 1873 BY STATES. 



STATKS. 



f 



| 

3 

I 



9 

S 



I 



t 



I 
% 

c 

B 



? 



S, o-o:® 2. 2. ofi 
? •* -* . ST . ST ffl -» «• 



o* 
E 



3 



3 

O 



- - 5-, b | 



2S 

CO 







2S 

I 



1-4 S 3 



2 

SB 



25 

O 



1 
1 

8 

8 

43 

6 



3fadne 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Connecticut 

WewYork 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 166 19 14 

Maryland 17 

Virginia 13 2 8 

North Carolina 3 1 

South Carolina 

Georgia .... 2 

Alabama 7 3 

Texas 

Wert Virginia 5 j 1 . 1 

Kentucky. 16; — 

Tennessee : 11 1,1 

Ohio 651 6 5 

Indiana 2 :.. 

Illinois 1 , ; 2 

Michigan 19 4 6 

Wisconsin 7 13 

Minnesota ' — '... 

Missouri 10 ' 1 

Oregon '... 



Total 410 I 41 



1 1 1 780 

2 " 2 2 2,000 8,100 

6 6 6 17,070 21,186 

10 10 10 22,700 26,977 

49 53 53 4 3 291,155 296,818 

12 13 13 4 1 103,856 102,841 

248 262 268 , 18 16 1,401,497 1,889,578 

22 22 28 .... 2 63,081 56,986 

32 35 86 4 1 21,446 26,475 

7 8 8 12 1,073 1,482 

8 81 8 '........'.; 

6 8 , 9 I 3 ; 1 ' 2,945 j 7,501 

8 11 12 1 4 3 12,512 ' 22,283 

1 1 2 1........ 619 1 280 

5 ' 6 6,3,3 20,796 ; 23,066 

25 25 27'....: 2, 67,396 69,889 

19 20 , 20 2 7 42,454 48,184 

88 88 88 8 9 399,7a i 406,029 

8 8' 8 1....,....; 89,2211 82,486 

8 10 ' 10 i 2 ,....: 78,627 i 66,796 

27 38 1 84 .... 6j 100,222 i 128.606 

10 13 i 14 ......... 65,036 74,148 

i l I I ! ■ 

14. 18, 18 1....! 5: 101,158 < 85,552 

1 : 1 1 ....'...J ' 



50 612 ' C62 ' 673 - 53 61 ! 2,854,558 2,868,278 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



249 



BITUMINOUS OOAI. AND COKK. 



'P 


? 


?l 


33 


o 





o 


o 

— 


i 


I 


01 

i 


? 


' & 




6f 


o 

*-* 


a 


ff 


— 




c 


s 


= 


ST 


1 


»• 


■**• 






3 


B 




w 


*— 


— 


ES 


, p 

— 


3 


SI 


<-* 

23 


M 








1 «< 

















i 

2. 


E 


p 

; o 


p 

o 


*• 

o 


a 


a 




-«l 




f 

2. 


p 




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■ 1 

1 

o 

*• 

"O ■ 


3 

ti 

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2, 



as : 

CO I 



Z . -' s 



— i* 



a 3 



2S - 



as 

CO 



Pennsylvania : ' 

Shenango Valley 15 ' 5 2 

Allegheny eonnty ill! 4 ... 

Miscellaneous i 18 

Maryland I 1 

Virginia i... 

North Carolina 



29 

11 

1 I 31 

4 



31 
11 

32 

4 



31 

11 

32 

4 



West Virginia 2 

Kentucky j 2 

Tennessee • 1 

Ohio : 

Hanging Rook ] 5 

Mahoning Valley ' 14 

Miscellaneous I 11 

Indiana. I i 2 

Illinois ' I'... 

Michigan I :.. . 

Missouri I 2 ! 1 



2 
3 
2 

6 

27 
13 
8 
8 
3 
7 



160,188 

110,599 

117,224 

12,079 



160,831 

158,789 

111,014 

5,264 



3 
3 

7 
28 
16 

8 
10 

3 

9 



28 

10 

8 

10 

8 

9 



19,846 

27,697 

8,300 

23,169 
200,785 
80,167 
39,221 
78,627 
13,382 
55,560 



21, 106 

1 27,670 
8,602 

I 28,601 

157,888 

119,042 

32,486 

55,796 

795 

46,016 



Total ! 83 I 20 13 



J54 167 16 8 22 26 : 946,913/ 933,900 



ANTHRACITE. 



SS 

o 



© OO S, i £ I 2. ' 9 ' O 

I 



23 



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X 


p 


o 


o 


o 


A 


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7 


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sr 



23 
« 



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CO 

I 



Massachusetts ■ 1 

New York , 29 

New Jersey I 6 

Pennsy 1 van ia : | 

l^ehigh 30 

Schuylkill 26 

U. Susquehanna,' 14 

L. Susquehanna, 24 

Maryland 4 

Virginia 1 

Total 135 



1 ! 

3» : 

13 I 

47 ' 
40 I 
25 ! 
37 

4 I 

1 ! 



1 '. 

36 ; 

13 I 



47 6 
41 I 4 
25 ; 1 
37 i 1 

5 «.... 

1 I.... 



4,250 
271,843 
103,858 

449,663 
232,225 
127,260 
159,305 
21,908 



5,432 
267,489 
102,341 

389,969 
236,409 
129,304 
167,408 
20,407 
4,000 



13 



13 ' 191 : 204 I 206 I 20 



16 ' 1,369,812 1,312,754 



MINI: I! A I, STAOflSTHJS. 

Pennsylvania, with 262 stacks, makes very nearly one- half of all the pig 

iron made in 1 lie country. Ohio somea next, mating ODS-MVOIlttl of tli..' 

whole product with ■ Vork, with 53 stacks, makes 

- i!K-t«ii t h of the whole prodiirt. These three States ami New Jersey make 

■■■ than three-fourths of the total product Wvc western " prairie" 

States, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Missouri, msda thirteen 

ami one-h.'di" per oent. of all the pig Iron produced in 1*72, and twelve ami 

v.th per cent, of all node in i v t:;. It la ■ singular fact that South 

I lent baa eight charcoal furnace*, and that not one of them was in blast 

IB ItffS or 1873. The lark ot capital to operate them mid the need ol re- 
pairs are assigned as the reasons fiw their long suspension. Kuel and ore 

x eel lent (juality are : 1 1 . 1 1 .■« l:i nt in tln-ir vicinity, and it is scarcely 

possible that they will all remain touch Longer out of blast. Two othea 
Lthcm States, Ala hama and Georgia, are making rapid progress hi the 

manufacture Of pig iron, for which tiny possess truly wonderful facilities 

The production Oi Charcoal pic iron increased nearly 75,000 Lous in 187:; 
overtfae product oi 1872, while there waa a decrease in the production of 
Loth bituminous nml anthracite pig iron. In each year named the quantity 
of anthracite pig iron produeed was nearly one-half of the total product. 
The average annual product of the fasnaaes of the country, in net tons, Ib 
ab follows : Charcoal, 2,024 Lour; bituminous coal and coke, 6,592 tons : 
anthracite, 8, 185 tons. 

There nevei baring been any record kept oi the quantity of pig iron an 
hand and unsold in this country, from year to year, it is obviously impos- 
sible to ascertain accurately the consumption ol pig iron in any given 
:, but a very close approximation can bo made by adding the produc- 
tion in that year to the quantity imported. Observing this method, arc 
the following results fcr 1872 and 1873: 

Home production of pig iron in 1*72, net tons 2,854,658 

Kg iron importeil in 1872, net tons 295 ,!»67 

Total consumption of pig iron in 1872, net tons. . . . , '•> ,150 

Home production of pig iron in 1873, net tons 2 ,868 ,278 

Pig iron imported in IH"3, net tons 154 r T80 

Total consumption of pig iron in 1873, net tons 3 .023 ,058 

In 1872 and 1873 our exports of pig iron to all countries (principally I 

Canada) were as follows : In 1*72, 26,380 cwta.; in 1873, 180,436 cwts. 
A year ago much, was snid in public journals of alleged shipments of pig 
and bar iron to Great Britain, hut the most diligent inquiry fails to show 
that such shipments were ever made, although, as has heretofore been 
remarked, it is not improbable that English and Scotch founders will yet 
require large quantities of our charcoal iron for ear-wheel purposes. Thi- 



MINERAL STATISTICS 

want, however, will not be created mitil the American method nf making 
car-wheels becomes more popular in Great Uritain than, it now 18, The 
Kritish ear-wheel, as at present Constructed) MJ not COmpOBedj tB whole or 
in part, of charcoal ptg iron. 

Appended IB ■ (able thowiQg the production of the various kinds of pig 
in tin- L'niti'il StStln IV. 'lit 1864 to 1S73, both years inclusive. It i- 
compiled from statistics procured by this association. Prior to 1854 no 
agency existed for the collection t>f the statistics of the iron trade, but 111 
1*55 this association was organized, nnd since then it has regularly c>l- 
•<1 and published these statistics. All that is definitely known of the 
progress Of the iron industry in this country prior to 1854, is embraced in 
.i statement prepared by the Hon, Henry <'. Carey, in L84£, and this statc- 

::. ,ll Wi- 111.-' 

riiOiM i.ii..\ oi MO MOM »'it"U 1854 to 1873. 



¥i are. 



Anthracite. I tiATCoal. 





561,1 

-••■■. #48,: 

1857 900,1 

1858 861,' 

471.1 

I* - -" 519,! 

AW.'. 

1862 170,! 

677,1 

1*54 884,1 

I7(i,: 

748,1 

1867 798,1 

888, 1 

.. 871,] 

1870 980, « 

1871., 996,1 

1*72 I. 169, J 

i.sia,* 



842,3 

870, 

385, 1 
2*1. < 
378,! 
185, J 
188,1 
212,1 
241, ( 
-' 8, : 

844.: 

392, I 
;m ;."■,( 

•800,1 



nil Inoaa 

coal and '-"k.-. 



84, 188 

02,390 

. 77, 451 

84,841 
132, 228 
127,087 
130,687 
157,981 
210,125 

318,647 

S-IO.ihio 

570,000 
670,000 
(984, i.v.i 



Total. 



J, 218 

7s*, 178 

'., 1ST 

. 1 57 

705,084 

840,027 

919,770 

781,544 

787,682 

mr.iHM 

1,136, 

!'::i,S8S 
1,850,848 
I. 161,020 
1,608,008 
1,816,841 
i 888, 006 
1,812, 
i'. B5 1 . 
8,888,278 



lit, CUIEY's Plfl IKON STATISTICS. 

In 1810 the whole number of Enrnaees in the Union was 153, yielding 
>4,un0 tons of metal. equal to 10 pounds per hand of the population. 
In 1821 the manufacture was in a Btate of ruin. 

In 1 828 the product had reached 180,000 tons, having little more than 
doubled in eighteen years. 

In 1829" it was 142,000. Increase in one year, nearly ten per cent. 

• Include* 2-1 tons of peat pig iron- 

| ini'iii'ii .- 87,246 ions of mixed anthracite and oofcie \i\)i Iron. 
; Includes .".("i tons of mixed peal and eharoo il phj iron, and 2,400 inns »f mixed 
charcoal and bituminous coal nig iron. 

[ndude« 44.4Mii (on* of mixed anthracite nnd coke pig iron. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 253 

In 1880 it was 165,000. Increase in two years, more than twenty-five 
per cent. 

In 1881 it was 191,000. Increase in three years, about fifty per cent. 

In 1832 it was 200,000, giving an increase in three years of above six ty 
per cent. 

In 1840 the quantity given by the census was 286,000, but a committee 
of the Home League, in New York, made it 347, TOO tons. Taking the medium 
of the two, it would give about 315,000 tons, being an increase in eight 
years of fifty per cent. 

In 1842 a large portion of the furnaces were closed, and the product had 
fallen to probably little more than 200,000, but certainly less than 230, 000 tous. 

In 1846 it was estimated by the Secretary of the Treasury at 765,000 tons, 
having trebled in four years. 

In 1847 it was supposed to have reached' the amount of not less than 
800,000 tons. 

In 1848 it became stationary. 

In 1849, many furnaces being already closed, the production of the pre- 
sent year cannot be estimated above 650,000 tons ; but from the accumula- 
tion of stock and the difficulty of selling it, it is obvious that the diminu- 
tion will be greater. 

In the twenty years ended with 1873 the growth of the pig iron industry 
of the United States as compared with that of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain was as follows. The ton used in the statistics of the United King- 
dom is the gross ton of 2,240 pounds ; that used in the statistics of the 
United States is the net ton of 2,000 pounds. 

Year I U> Kln K* • V ' State8 ' ' Year V ' Kin »- u - 8Utes - 

Year " | Ton*, i Tons. " ar - Tons. . Tons. 



1851. : 3,0fl»,83H 736,218,1864 : 4,767,901, 1,135,990 

1855 ! 8,218.151. 784,178-1865 4,819,254 931,682 

1856 i 8,680,877 883,137,1866 4,523,897, 1,350,343 

1857 1 8, (WW, 477 I 798,157 l! 1867 ' 4,761,028 1 1,461,626 

1858. | ^,4f>6,0«4 ! 705,094 , 1868 4,970,200. 1,603,000 

1859. ! 3,712,904, 840,627 I 1869 5, 44*, 757 • 1,916,641 

I860. I 3.M28.752 I 919,770 i' 1870 1 6,963,515 1 1,865,000 

1861 11,712,390 ; 731,544 '! 1871 ! 6,627,179 l 1,912,608 

1862. j 3.iH3,4(3v* 787,062 I! 1872. ( 6,741,929; 2,8*4,558 

1 863. I l, 51(i,C40 947,604 ji 1873 ... ..; 6,850,000 i 2,868 ,278 

Th value of the pig iron product for any year can be approximately as- 
certained by multiplying the average market value throughout the year of 
each kind of iron by the year's product, and adding the results thus obtained. 
In this manner we have carefuUy calculated the value of the pig iron manu- 
factured in this country during the years 1872 and 1873, and find it to be 
as follows : 

Value of 2,854,558 net tous of pig iron produced in 1872 $132,649,621 

Value of 2,868,278 net tons of pig iron produced in 1873 118,243,308 






MINERAL STATISTICS. 



In L854 ihf production nfantixBeoite pig iron overbook that of charcoal. 

■i i Hi in 1869 the production of charcoal pig iron m again overtaken by 

I of bituminous coal and ooke Since 18a* anttoacritoJiM bees the Itead- 

I 'i ; i r i «- It Of OUr |iig imii industry, .in. I since I Silli ch;tiv<ul li;is hern thi- 

productive of all branches. 



BLAST FURNACES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

I.KIIIMI » I I.I.I-', .WrilKACITE. 
\l|ent-nv:, i.-,.i, w.irks. Allelil.'WIi ir ' ■ • ' ■' |»:.i i V . A ll.-litf) Wll, Lei 

i.v. Office, 106 Walnut street, Philadelphia. Btve itackai qua 45x12, 

one 45x14, two 62x46, and Bno BAxll ; weekly capacity, 1,050 tons. 

Alloiitowii rolling mill company, Alleiitown, Office, 903 Walnut street, 

Philadelphia. Two stacks, each 65x18. JVm.viv owned by Rohwts iron 

i '. . ■ 1 1 , s « • 1 1 . - 1 1 1 ii-.ni wnrb, HcJiiK'iii-iM ii'Mii cinpiiiiv, Bethlehem, Kortherop 
ton Bounty, Three stacks •, built In 1868, 1881 and 1808 ; distensions, •■■_■ 

5 inches xl5, 15x16 find 50x14 feci 5 in !• Tl stacks build 

of which, ii-.w almost Finished, will mtiko spiegeleisep from •/•it"- resi- 
'Imuiii. 

Carbon iron Works, Oarhon Iron company, Parryville, Garnet county. 
Three *tSel*/52xl2,S2»18and'85el8i built in 1866, 1884 ami I860, reepoe - 
■ ly. 

Ooleraine iron works, W T, Darter & Co , Coicr-aim- iron - 
ingtoh, Northampton county, Office, 188 Walnut street, Philadelphia, 
Two stacks, ''iicli tidxi" ; mm built in 1869, the other in 1872; combined 
" kly ca&ftOity, f>00 tons. 

Crane iron works, Craus iron company, Oatasaaqna, Lehigh county. 
Office, 224 Booth Fourth street, Philadelphia. Six stacks, 45x11, 45x18, 
65x16, 55x171, 65x17] and 60x171 ; bnilt in 1840; 1842, 1846, 1860, H 
and 1867, reapeotively. 

Durham ironworks, Cooper, Hewitt & 0o., Btegftlsville, Bucks cminiy. 
Office, K Burling Slip. New York. Three stacks : two, 16x18 and 60x15, 
built in 1848 and 1851 ; another stack, 75x20, building in 1874. 

Kmaus furnace, C. II. Ninusmi, lessee, Allcntnwn, Lehigh county. One 
slack, "0x1(5 ; first put in blast October 10, 1872. Owned by Bmaiis Iron 
company, S. tiross Fry, president, 258 South Third street. Philadelphia. 

Olendon ironworks, fJlendop iron company, John C. Lowell, president, 
Wm. I'ii nist - 1 in ■. Buperintendent) Easton, Northampton county. Five 
-tacks, 50x18, 56x12, 50x16, 50x18, and 72x18 : buili in 1848. 1844. 1850, 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 255 

1852, and 1869, respectively. No. 1 was rebuilt in 1849. These furnaces 
are at Glendou, near Easton, except No. 4, which is situated at South Easton. 
No. 2 and No. 4 are blown by water power. 

Keystone furnace, Keystone iron company, (E. "H. Green, of Easton, 
president,) near Glendon, Northampton county. One stack ; in course of 
erection. 

Lehigh iron works, Lehigh iron company, Allentown, Lehigh county. 
Two stacks 55x16 and 60x17 ; the second stack was first put in blast in 
October, 1872. 

Lehigh Valley furnaces, Lehigh Valley iron company, Coplay, Lehigh 
county. Three stacks, 60x14, 55x10 and 55x16; built in 1853, 1862 and 
1868 respectively. 

Lock Ridge furnaces, Thomas iron company, Alburtis, Lehigh county. 
Two stacks, each 55x15 ; built in 1867 and 1869. 

Millerstown iron company, A. A. M'Hose, superintendent, Macungic, 
Lehigh county. One stack 65x16 ; completed in June, 1874. 

Northampton furnace, Bethlehem iron company, Freemansburg, North- 
ampton county. Office at Bethlehem. One stack, 65x16; built in 1872 1 
went in blast July 18, 1873. 

North Penn furnace North Penn iron company, Bingen, Northampton' 
county. One stack, 63x18. 

Saucon iron works, Saucon iron company, Geo. \V. Whitaker, president,. 
Hellertown, Northampton county. Two stacks, each 50x16 j built in 1868 
and 1869. 

Thomas iron works, Thomas iron company, Hokendauqua, Lehigh coun- 
ty. Six stacks, two 60x18, two 55x18, and two 60x20 ; four were built, 
from 1855 to 1862; No. 5 first blew in on September, 15, 1873, and the- 
sixth is nearing completion . 

Uhler iron works, Peter Uhler, Easton, Northampton county. Furnace 
at Glendon. One stack, 65x14 ; built in 1871 This was formerly Easton 
furnace. 

SCHUYLKILL VALLEY ANTHRACITE. 

Anvil furnace, Pottstown iron company, Pottstown, Montgomery county. 
One stack, 50x16 ; built in 1867. 

Bechtelsville, Berks county. One stack; building in 1874. 

East Penn iron company, Lyons, Berks county. Building two stacks, 
each 48x12*. 

Edgehill furnace, Edgehill iron company, Fitzwatertown, Montgomery 
county. Office, No 43 North Water street, Philadelphia. One stack, 65x 
16; built in 1872. 

Hampton furnace, E. & G. Brooke, Birdsboro', Berks county. One stack,. 
30x8 ; built in 1846. Changed recently from charcoal. 






.MINERAL STATISTICS. 



Iltiny Clay furnaces, Eckert & Bro., Rending, Berks county. Two 
stacks, 45x12 ; built in 1844 ; total weekly capacity, 300 tons. 

Keystone furnaces of Beading, Keystone furnace company, Reading, 
Berk* county. Two stacks; one, 50x15, built in 1870; the other, 50xU, 
built in 1872-3, blown in during June, 1873. 

Keystone furnaces. E, ft G. Brooke, Birdsboro', Berks county, fhiee 
stacks ; two, 43$xl2 and 55x15, built in 1853 and 1871, respectively ; one 
stack, 60x16, built in 1*7:;, lias % capacity of -'25 tons per week. 

kut/.Uiwn furnace, Kutztown iron company, Kutztown. Berks county. 
Thomas Wren, president, John Humbert, secretary. One stack, 54xl.V. . 
now building and to be completed in 1674. 

Lcesport furnace, Leesport iron company, Lccspurt, Berks county. One 
.stack, 45x14 ; built in 1853 ; weekly capacity, 200 tons. 

Lucinda furnace, Sehall ft ''"., N«>rrisio«-n Montgomery county. One 
.stack, 89x12; built in IBM. 

Mcrioii furnaces, J. B. hfoorhead & Oo,, Conshohnckcn, Montogomery 
COUQty. Office, IS6 Smith Third street, Philadelphia. Tw'i stacks ; Melton 
furnace, 40x12 J ; built In 1847; Elizabeth furnace, 50*16, built in 1872, 
went in blast October 24, 1872. Capacity abmit !550 tons per week. 

Minersville furnace, Minersville coal and iron company, Jacob S. Law- 
rence, president, Frank Hcialcr, secretary, Minersville, Schuylkill county. 
One Btack, 55x15; built in I8T2-8; blown in September 5, 18*8 j bell-and- 
liopper top ; iron stack ; weekly capacity, 200 tons. 

Monocacy furnace, Wright, Cooke & Co., Monooacy, Boiks county. 
Office, 214 Walnut street. Philadelphia. One stack, 50x14; annual enpa. 
7,000 tons 

.Montgomery furnace, Montgomery iron company, Port Ken.. \ , Mont- 
gomery county. Office, 228 Dock street, Philadelphia. One stack, 50x 
14 ; built in 1854. 

Mosolem furnace, Moseletn iron company, Nora, Berks county. OS 
228 Doek street, Philadelphia. One stack, 18zl2| ; rebuilt in 1872. 

Mount Laurel furnace, W. IT. Clymer & Co., Temple, Berks COO&ty. 
One stack, 50x11 ; changed from charcoal to anthracite. 

Xorristown iron works, James Hooves ^ Sons. Norristown Montgom- 
ery county. One stack, 55x16 ; built in 1869. 

Philadelphia furnace, S. Bobbins & Son, Beach and Vienna rtffeeU, K. u- 
sington, Philadelphia. One stack, 58x14 ; built in 1S73, 

Phoenix iron works, Phoenix iron company, Plnmiix I ille. Chester count*. . 
Offiee, II" Walnut street, Philadelphia. Three stacks, 48\14, Sfixlfi, and 
50x14 : two built in 1845, and the third in 184'.'. 



MINERAL STATISTICS 



257 



Pioneer furnaces, Atkins & Bro., Pottsville, Schuylkill county. Three 
stacks, 50x12, 50x13, and 55x15; built in 1853, 1866 and 18T2, respec- 
tively. 

Plymouth furnaces, S. Fulton & Co., Conshohocken, Montgomery county. 
Ufficc, 242 South Third Btreet, Philadelphia. Two stacks, 41x15 and Vl\ 
15 ; built in 1845 and 1864, respectively. 

Port Carbon furnace, Schuylkill iron company, Port Carbon, Schuylkill 
county. One stack, 52x13$ ; built in 1872 and put in Mast in September. 
1872. 

Reading furnaces, Seyfert, M'Manus & Co., Reading, Berks county. 
Office, (131 Chestnut street, Philadelphia. Two stacks ; one, 55x16, built 
in 1854 ; the other, 55x15, first blown in on October5, 1874. Tin? old Stack 
was refitted in 1870. Both stacks have bell-and-hopper top. 

Ringgold iron and coal company, New Ringgold, Schuylkill county. ( I 
stack, 55x14 ; built in 1873 ; blown in February 28, 1874. 

Robesonia furnaces, White & Ferguson, RobeBonia, Berks county. Tu 
stacks, 30x9 and 88x13 ; built in 1845 and 1858, respectively. 

St. Clair furnace, James Lanigan, Pottsville, Schuylkill county. Office, 
329 Walnut street, Philadelphia. One stack, 55x16 : bell-and-hopper top. ■ 

Swede furnaces, James Lanigan, Swedeland, Montgomery county. Tu' 
stacks, each 60x16 ; built from 1850 to 1855. 

Topton furnace, ToptoO iron company, Levi II. Leiss, president, Reading, 
Berks county. One stack, 55x16 ; built in 1873, 

'£• mple furnace, Temple iron company, Temple, Berks county. One 
st a. -k, 45x13} ; built in 1867. 

U'm. Penu furnaces, D. 0. & H. B, Hitucr, Conshohocken, Montgomery' 
county. Three stacks, 35x12, 50x14, and 40sl2* ; built in 1844, 1845, and 

I-ROJECTEO. 

A joint Stock company has been formed for the purpose of erecting a fur- 
nace at Ruyer's Ford, Chester county. 

Warwick furnace, Warwick iron company, Pottstown, Montgomery 
county. This company own a rich mine of magnetic ore in Hereford town- 
ship, Berks county, which they call ''steel ore,'' and they propose to erect 
a furnace 52x16, of 15,000 tons capacity. 

One stack is projected at Fleetwood, Berks county, and another at Moi- 
gnntown. 



arras bosqusbajins anthracite. 

Bloom I'ln-nnee, Wm. Neal & SOBS, BloOl OolUflkbis Cu'inty. One 

stack, .'Oxl l i built in 1354. 

17 Statistics. 






MINERAL .STATISTICS. 



I'lml.iskv furnace, Waterman & Beaver OhuIaBky, \orthum1ioi , lund coun- 
ty. Oho stack, 42xlfi ; built in 1846, 

Columbia furDftCGs, ilmvc Brothers. Danville. Montour county. Tun 
-lacks, 39x14 arid BOxl I j built in 1840 End 1800, respectively. 

Dunoannea furnace, Duneanuon iron company, Buncarrnon, Perry county. 
Office, 122 Bace street?, Philadelphia, One Mad,, 40x14 ; built in 1- 

IriMnliile furriacrs. Bloomsburg iron company, Bloomaburg, Columbia 
county. Office, 122 Race street, Philadelphia. Two slacks, 36x11' ; built 
in is 1 1 and 1846. 

Juniata furnace. Williamsburg manufacturing company, Williamsburg, 
Blair county. One stack. 2tf.xK; built in 1 S;"»7 ; annual capacity, 2,600 tonB. 

Lackawanna iron works, Lackawanna iron and coal company, Edward (J 
Lynde, secretary, Scran ton, Luzerne county. Five stacks j one 1'uilt in 
18T2; two arc 5u.xls -. on.- 80x18, and ono 50x1 9 i the now stack ia 
Poet high with 2Mool boshes, 

Lewistown furnaces, Glamorgan iron company! LewistowUj Miiiliu conn 
ty. Office, 180 Walnut street, Philadelphia, and 2f.:> South Fourth •beet, 

Philadelphia. Two stacks, 4:'>.\12 and 54x1 1 .1 : fine, luiilt in I S.'.ij, .me l.uill 
in 1872, put in blast in December. 1872, 

M nsliall fiirnaco, Marshall iron company, Newport, Perry county. One 

■stack, BfecU ; built (a 1ST2. 

Mansfield furnace, Shoaber'A Johqson, Reading, I'a. £Hirnaea at Kami' 

Hold, Tioga county. Part ofTioga iron works, \V. a. Lutz, supetinteadeUt . 
tack, 86x10 \ built in 1*54. 

Marsh. Jm S. A Co., Noilliiiwiln-i-lai.il, Xinlliuiiiliciluinl c. unity. 0110 
-tack, lilxl*, in course ol erection. 

Matilda furnace, B. B, Thomas, Matilda furnace, Mifflin county. Ono 
stack, 18x10] built in If 

Pennsylvania iron works, Waterman A Beaver, Danville, Montour coun- 
ty. Office, HIT Library street. Philadelphia. Three stacks ; two, 50x1 
and ouo 34x14 : built in 1842. 

Rebecca furnace, Johnston & Hemphill, Martinsburg, Blair county, 
slack, 30x$i ; built in 1820 

Union furnace, Beaver, Marsh ft Co., Wiofield, Dnion county. Ono stack, 
15 ; built in 1851 ; annual capacity, 7.1)00 tons. 

Union furnaces. Fowler ft Itrebe, leaseee, Danville, Montour county. 

Owned by Hancock steel and iron company. Two stacks, 38x14 and liOx 
18 ; built in 1867 ; estimated annual capacity. I lyOOO tons. These furnaces 
were formerly known as the Dan\ ille furnaces mid afterwards as the National 
iron company's furnaces. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 259 

PROJECTED. 

Wistar iron and coal company, Wistar, Clinton county. Dr. E. Eld ridge, 
Elmira, N. Y., president. 

One stack is projected by MosBrs. Cruikshank, Freeburg, Snydor county. 
Another is projected at Mansfield, Tioga county. 

LOWER SU8QUKHANXA ANTHRACITE. 

Aurora furnace, Wrightsvillc iron company, Wrightsvillo, York county. 
One stack, 38x14 ; built in 1867. 

Baldwin furnace, Pennsylvania steel company, Steel Works P. 0., Dau- 
phin county. Office, 216 South Fourth street, Philadelphia. One stack, 
60x14 ; built in 1872-3 ; put in blast in October, 1873. 

Bird Coleman furnace, R. W. Coleman's heirs, Cornwall, Lebanon county. 
One stack, 52x15 ; built in 1872-3. 

Cameron furnace, Cameron furnace company, Middletown, .Dauphin 
county. One stack, 35xl3§ ; built in 1857. 

Chestnut Hill furnaces, Chestnut Hill iron ore company, Columbia, Lan- 
caster county. Three stacks. 

Chiques furnaces, E. Haldeman & Co., Chiques, Lancaster county. 
Two stacks, 15x12 and 45x13 ; built in 1845 and 1854. 

Conestoga furnace, Thomas & Peacock, Lancaster, Lancaster county. 
Office, 430 Walnut street, Philadelphia. One stack, 38x10 ; built in 1846 ; 
weekly capacity, 110 tons. 

Cornwall anthracite furnaces, R. W. Coleman's Heirs & Co., Cornwall, 
Lebanon county. Two stacks, each 38x12 ; built in 1850 and 1854. 

Dauphin furnace, George Malin, 228 Dock street, Philadelphia; furnace 
at Dauphin, Dauphin county. One stack ; re-built in 1872. 

Dock iron works, Gillard Dock & Co., Harrisburg, Dauphin county. 
One stack, 30x7 ; built in 1873-4. 

Donaghmore furnace, R. W. Coleman's heirs, Lebanon, Lebanon county. 
One stack, 38Jxl3J ; built in 1855. 

Donegal furnace, Benson & Cottrell, Marietta, Lancaster county, ad- 
dressed at Columbia. One stack, 36x12 ; built in 1848; daily yield, 16 
tons. 

Harrisburg furnace, Price Bros., Harrisburg, Dauphin county. One 
stack, 39x12 ; built in 1844 ; formerly Porter furnace. 

Kauffman furnace, C. S. Kauflraan, Columbia, Lancaster county. One 
stack, 36x12 £ ; built in 1855. 

Lebanon furnaces, G. D. Coleman, Lebanon, Lebanon county. Three 
stacks, 50x14, 36x12 and 55x16; built in 1846 (reconstructed in 1868,) 
1847 and 1872-3, respectively ; the new furnace was put in blast in August, 
1873. 



2ii« 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



Lebanon Valley furnace, J. &. R. Bfefly, Lebanon, Lebanon county. One 
stack, 38x12: built in 1868. 

Locbiel furnace, Lochiel rolling mill company, A.J. Dull, manager, liar- 
risburg, Dauphin enmity. One stack, 52x14 ; built in 1873 ; put in blast iu 
April, 1873 ; weekly capacity, 150 tons. 

Marietta furnaces, H. M. Watts & Sous, Marietta) Lancaster county . 
Two Btacks, 45x12 and 47x12; built, in 1840 and 1850. 

Middletown furnase, Meily & Nutting, Middletown, Dauphin county 
One stack, 40xl2j ; built in 1853. 

Mussclman furnace, II. Musselman A: Sous, Marietta, Lancaster county, 
One stock, 40x13 ; daily capacity, 20 tons. 

(forth Cornwall furnace, Mrs. M. C. Freeman, North Cornwall, Lebanon 
county. One stack, 52x15 ; built in I s T ."J I. 

1'ax ton furnaces, M'Cormick & Co., Ilarrisburg, Dauphin county. Two 
stacks, 43x14 and «S0xl4 ; one built in 1872; weekly capacity, 300 tons. 

Safe Harbor furnace. Safe Harbor iron company, Samuel M. Wright, 
superintendent, Safe Harbor, Lancaster county. One stack, 45x14 : built. 
in 1818; annual capacity, B,000 tons; not in blast since 1 *(>.">; not to be 
put in operation until the Columbia and Port Deposit railroad, now being 
made, is completed. 

Sheridan furnaces, Wm. M. Kaufman & Co., Sheridan, Lebanon county. 
Two stacks ; one, an old furnace, and the other, 55x16, built in 1874. 

Stanhope furnace, Wyukoop Bros., Pine Grove, Schuylkill county. One 
stack, 33x10. 

St. Charles furnace, C. B. Grubb & Son. Colutubia, Lancaster county. 
Addressed at Lancaster. Two sink-. :;*>x 1 1 and 42x14 ; built in 1845 and 
Tlie smaller stack was formerly called Henry Clay furnace. 

Union Deposit furnace, Henry Land in, Union Deposit, Dauphin county 
One stack, 3*4x11 ; built in 1954, 

Wister furnace, J. &. J. Wister, Ilarrisburg Danphin county. One 
stack 45x1 I : I.uilt in 1867. 

PROJECTED. 

• rstown, Lebanon county. P. L. Weimer, Lebanon, promoter. One 
stack each is projected by C, B. Grubb & Son, and Columbia steel and iron 
works, at Columbia, Lancaster county. 

(' W . Aid & Sons Intend to build one stack, fiOx 15, weekly capacity. 
150 tone, iron frame and jacket, at Boiling Springs, Cumberland count \ 
Another furnace is talked it. it Mechanicsburg, Cumberland ooiTQty 

SH&KAXO0 VALLEY — BITUMINOUS COAL OB COKE. 

Allen furnace, Henderson, Allen Si Co., Sharpsville, Mercer county. One 
Stack, 50x12; built in 1*70 ; annual capacity 9,000 tons. 



MINERAL .STATISTICS. 



261 



Clara furnace, Crowther iron company. New Castle, Lawrence o unity. 
Coke. One stack, 60x16 ; annual capacity. 10,000 tons ; built in 18T2 : put 
in blast in May, 1872. 

Douglas furnaces, Pierce, Kelley & Co., Sharpsville, Mercer enmity. 
Two stacks ; one stack, 50x12, built in 1871 ; one stack, 69x14, built in 
1872 ; combined capacity, 20,000 tons. 

Eric farMCe, Hawk-, Noble & Co,, Erie, Erie county, On-- *t;uk, 16x12, 
built in 1869 ; annual capacity, 9,000 tons. 

Samuel Kiinbcrly, Etna iron company, New Caetlo, Lawrence county, 
Two slack*, built in l *u*, each 50x12 j combined animal capacity, 18,000 
ions. 

• Fannie furnace, Wheeler iron company, Wert Middlesex, Mercer conn* 
ty. One stack, 61$xl8| ; built in 1873 ; put in blast October IS, 1*7:: : an- 
nual capacity, 0,000 tons. 

Keel Ridge furnace, Samuel Kiinbcrly, Sharon, Mercer connty. One 
stack, 55xl3§ ; built in 1869 ; annual capacity, 12,000 tons. 

Middlesex furnace, Middlesex furnace company, Middlesex, Mercer- coun- 
ty. One stack, 40x12 ; annual capacity, 6,000 tons. 

Ml. Hickory furnaces, Mt. Hickory iron company, Sharpsvill.-. M 

county. Two stacks, each f>0\ 12 ; built in ISO!* ; combined annual capacity, 

b-'.UOO tmis. 

Neshannock furnace, Nesliannock iron company, Sew Castle, Lawrence 

county. One stark, 60x14 ; built in 1*72 ; annual capacity. 12,000 tons. 

Onoadago furnace, Onondagn iron company) x<-w Castle, Lswruncc aoaft- 

ty. One stack in course of erection ; to be completed in 1974. 

Ormsby fumacc, Ormsby iron company, Sharpeville, Moreer county. 
One stack, 50x12 ; built in 187*2 ; blown in February 15, 1873 ; annual ca- 
pacity, 0,000 tons. 

Sharon furnace, Hoyce, Bawl.:- A- Co., Shanm M.-iv.-r .-..nnty. On-- stark, 
46x10*! ; built in 1*45 ; annual capacity, 9,000 tone. 

Sliarpsvillc furnace, James Pierce & Sons, Sharpsvillo, Mercer county. 
One stack, 50x11 ; annual capacity, 9,000 tons. 

Shenango furnaces, Shenango furnace company. Middlesex, Mercer coun- 
ty. Two stacks, each 46x10, built in 1860; combined annual capacity, 
17,000 tone. 

Shenaugo iron works, Sophia, Little Pet and Boweua furnaces, Reis, Brown 
& Berg-er, New Castle, Lawrence county. Three stacks ; two, 65x13, and 
10x9, built in 1872 and 1853, respectively ; one, 77x20, completed in I B12, 
went in blast in June, 1873 ; combined annual capacity, 40,000 tons. The 
Sophia, now 65x13. will shortly be enlarged to 15-foot bosh. 



MINERAL STATIST 

Spearman furnaces, Sp< a final) irnn company, Sharpsvillo, Mercer county . 
One stack, 50x24, ;iiuin;il capacity, 10,000 gone, built in 1872; 011c stack 
now building. 

Stewart furaaoesj Stewart iron company, Sharon) Mercer eouirty Form- 
erly \"nllcv lnniiici's. JFprO stacks, 000 51x12, built in 1*70, m 
56x14, built in 1S72; Combined annual Capacity, 20,000 tons. 

Wampum furnace, Wampum furnace company, Wampum, L»" 
county, out stack, 50x18 ; annuel oepncity, 8,000 tune. 

Westerman furnaces, Westerman tron company, Sharon, Mercer county , 
two" stacks, each 50x18, but 1 1 in 1865 and 1866 ; combined annua] capacity, 
18,00(i tons 

James W Va Sons & C>>.. Wheatland, Mcie.-i 

count} | foui . l>uUl h*om I860 to L8Q5, one 16x0, and tin 16x12 i 

ibined annual capacity, 80,000 tona. Firm La insolvent, One stack has 
beau Leased by Rimberly, i 8t Co., and the other three steaks hav< 

bi-cii leased : a, Old & COu who have run them from March, 1873. 

rnoj£CTi:i-. 

\\ .'.Mijiiiin Eurnaee company, Wampum, Law rencs comity, Intend to build 
another slack in 1S74. 

M.i.r.i.ni^v BOUHTT. — QQJUt, 

Clint tec, Graff, Bennett ft C<>., Prttaborg, Allegheny county 

One steak, (5x13, built in 1650, Annual product, 12,000 tons. 
Eliza furnaces, LiMjiiiii's A (jo, , Pittsburg, Allegheny ocanty, Vwo 

l.s, hulk in L£61; originally 45x12, but in 1873 and 1871 they Were 
enlarged to 60x17, with a yearly capacity -if 30, 000 tons. 

Boterpri ■-, Enterprise furnace c paoy, ( I', O. Pittsburg,) HHe's 

station. One stack, trail! in L872, born down, and now rebuilding, 

IsiItII.i I'liMiac •-, Isabella furnace company, Etna, Allegheny county. 

Tw.., si,,-. i; is i>7l*; one 26x18, .""I the other J6x20{ annual 1 1 

• iiy. 56,000 bona. 

I furnace, Kloman ft. Carnegie Bros., Pittsburg, Allegheny county. 
One stack, 75x20; Brat pat in blast in M.>\ . 1872; annual capacity, 28,000 
tons. 

Shoei Shoenbergof, Blair ft Co., Pittsburg, Allegheny 

county. Two stacks, 4TJxl3, buill in 1864; annual capacity", 30,000 tons. 

Suljn furnace, Mo'.'i-hcail, .M'Clcanc & Co,, Pittsburg, Allegheny county. 
One stuck, 65x18, built in 18T2; put in Must in November, IS'72; annual 

capacity, 22,000 tone. 

Superior furnaces, Uarbaugh, Sf nfhiae & Owens, Woods Kan, Ulcgheny 
county, Addree ttsburg. Tw.. stacks, 45x12 ; built in C86SPS; 

annual capacity, 22 |l " 11 lows, 



MINERAL STATISTIC- 

PROJECTED. 

MCKeesport, Allegheny county. One stack. 

RAW HITCMI.VOI/s I HAL OB COKE — Fl 

Allegheny furnace, S. C. Baker, Akoooa, Blair county. Ookc. (jiu 
«tack, 32xi); built in 1811. 

Bennington furnace, Blair iron and coal company, Benuington furnace, 
Blair county. Addressed ui EoUidajabatg and at she Philadelphia office 
218 South Fourth street. One stack, 40x11 ; built in 1866. Coke. 

Blair iron and ooal coB8aay, Hollidayaburg, Blair county. Coke. Two 
«tack6, 43x12 and 88x1 OJ ; built in 1850. 

Uraily's Bend furnaces, Brady's Bend iron company., Brady's Bend, Arm- 

ong' county. Foiu 1 4: \!», 44x10 J, 50sl-i and 50xl8|; built from 

1842 to 18 

Cambria iron works, Cambria iron Company, Jbhustowh, Cambria county. 
Office! -IS South Fourth street, Philadelphia. Coke. Four stacks at Johns- 
town; three 18x12 and one 70x15; built from 1852 to 1854 ; one stack ai 
n'liiaugh elation, 15x12; built in 1857. A large furnace "5x20 is now 
tmdding at Johoetown and another of the same siae \m eoatemplated. 

Gbarlotta furnace, Bvereon, Kna|i & Co., Scottdalc, Westmoreland coun- 
ty. One stack 65x16*1; coke; built in 18"'2-o; daily capacity -15 ion>; 
put in blast October 14, 1873. 

Dunbar furnace, Dunbar iron company, Dunbar, Fayette county. One 
stack 58xldJ ; built in 1870 ; Avenge daily run, SO tons. 

Elizabeth furnace, Martin Bell &. Co., Sabbath Rest, Blair county. Coke. 
One stack 32x0 ; went into blast in the fall of 1872-after a long rest. 

Fairchance furnace, Fairchance iron company, Daiotttown, Payette 
cuiiity. Coke. One stack 45x13; built in 1784 and rebuilt in 1871. 

Frankat'iwn furnace, Blair iron and gobI company? Frankafcown, Blair 
county. Coke One Btack 40x10; rebuilt in 1*72 and put in blast BfovanV 
ber 1, 1ST'-'. Gap furnace, Johnston \ Hemphill, M'Kec, BIWl 1 County. 
One stack 36x10. 

Howard farnaeo, Louth, Thomas & Co., Howard, Centre county I 

One stack 33x8 ; repaired in 187- ; weekly capacity 100 tons. 

.14.; I'urunceB, Kenible Coal and Lrott company, Iliddlesbiug, Bedford 

county. Office 20 Naaaou Mnet, New x'ork, address P. O.box 157. Two 

b BOxld ; built in I960 and 1*71. 

Mahoning furnace, J. A. Colwell & Co., Oakland, Axnfstrong county 
One staOk NkUHrl '"lilt ill Wtii 

Monttcello furnace, M'Kniuiit. Porter & Co., Monticsllo, a 
county. One stock 59}xll ; built in IS- 



264 



-M1XEKAL STATISTICS. 



Pine Crock furnace, Brown A Mosgrove, Kittantiing, Armstrong county. 
One stack, 40x11 : built in 1846. 

Red Bank furnace, Reynolds & Mom-head, Red Bank Furnace, Clarion 
county, Coke. One stack, 10x11 ; built in 1859. 

Rock Hill iron and coal company, Orbisonia, Huntingdon county. Office, 
820 Walnut street, Philadelphia. Building two stacks, each 65x17. 

Rodman furnaces, Charles Knap A: Co., Roaring Spring, Blair county. 
Two stacks, 42x9 and 45x14 ; coke. 

Sligo furnace, J. P. Lyon & Co., Sligo, Clarion county. Coke. 0Ofl 
stack, 32x9 ; not in blast in 1872 and 1873 ; re-building in 1873-4. 

Stowardson furnace, F. B. & A. Laughlin, Orrsville, Armstrong county 
Coke. One stack, 43jxll. 

PROJECTED. 

A company has been organized at Corry, Erie county, and the ereel 
■ >f a furnace of great capacity is conteinplated. 

Several furnaces :in: ['rejected in Southampton township, Bedford couuty. 

CIIAF.IUAI. STATE. 

Augusta furnace, George Clever, Cleversbnrg, Cumberland county. 
k ; not in blast for four years; to be re-built and put in blast by the 
present owner in 1874. 

Bane Forge furnace, D orris & Co., Bar re Forge, Huntingdon county. 
Une stack, 33x9 ; Iron madfl into blooms for boiler plate. 

Big Fond furnace, Philadelphia and Reading coal and iron company, 
Ni-u villr, Cumberland county. One stack, 33x8} ; built in 1836. 

Catatonia furnace, Thaddeus Stevens' estate, Oraeflenburg, Adams 
. ■■ unity. One stack, 33x8 ; built in 1837; not in blast in 1872 and 1873: 
furnace in Franklin county. 

Carlisle furnace, C. W. & D. V. Ahl, Boiling Springs, Cumberland 
county. Office at Carlisle. One stack, 28x8 ; built in 1790 and re-built in 
1810 ; hot and cold blast ; water power. 

I 'arrick furnace, R. M. Shelter, Kannettsburg. Franklin county. Q 
stack, 30x8 ; weekly capacity, o."> tons. 

Charcoal furnace, Foltz, Jordan A: Co., New CaBtle, Lawrence county. 
One stack. 

Chestnut Grove furnace, Win. Ilihlebraml, Idaville, Adams county. One 
siacK. 33x8}; built in 1880. 

Cornwall furnace, R. W. Coleman's heirs, Cornwall, Lebanon county, 
i ln« stack, 31x8 ; built in 1745. 

Cumberland furnace, Ahl sfc Bio., Dickinson, Cumberland county. Out 
. I blast for many years; recently purchased by Ahl & Bro., who intend 
' crate the mines in its vicinity arid perhaps fit up the furnace. 



MINERAL .STATISTICS. 



2(35 * 



Eagle furnace, C. K.«t J. Curtin, Milesburg, Centre county. One stack, 
30x85 built iii 1843. 

East Penn furnace, John Balliet, Parry villi.-, Carbon county. One stark, 
28x7} ; cold blast ; water power. 

Emma furnace, Logan iron and steel company, Lewistown, Mifflin CQuflr 
ty. Office, 218 South Fourth street, Philadelphia. One stack, 34x9 ; warm, 
and cold blast ; steam power. 

Etna furnace, Geo. D. Isett & Hro.. Yellow Springs, Blair county. (» 
Stack, gjjrf ; Cold blast; built in 180b. 

Franklin furnace, Hunter & Springer, St. Thomas, Franklin county. ( 
st.uk, 32x8} ; built in 1828 , cold blast ; steam power. 

Greenwood furnaces, Logan iron and steel company, Greenwood works, 
Huntingdon county. Office, 218 South Fourth street, Philadelphia. Two 
stacks, 30x8}, and 32x8} ; cold blast , steam powi , 

llccla furnace, M'Coy & Linn, Milesburg, Centre county. One Stack, 
32x9; built in 1820; cold blast; water power. 

Helen furnace, John Bice, Richmond furnace, I'ranklin county. One 
Stack, 36x1) ; hot blast; steam power; formerly Ml, Pleasant iron works. 
It is reported this furnace will soon be changed to anthracite. 

Hope furnace, Jos. S. Brown dc Co., Bosc Point, Lawrence county. One 
, 28x8 ; built in 1868 ; cold blast; steam power. 

Hopewell furnace. Clingan & Buckley, Douglassville, Berks county. 
One stack. 30x1 j very uld. 

Hopewell furnace, Lowry, Bichelbexger .V- Co., Hopewell, Bedford coun- 
ty One stack. 30x8} ; built in 1800. 

Howard furnace, Lauth, Thomas & Co., Howard, <Vntte county. Oik- 
stack, 31x8} ; built in 1833 ; cold blast; water power; undergoing repair;* 
in 18,2 ; put in blast in June, 1873. 

Isabella furnace, 3mrtb.de Bros., Barneaton, Chester county. One stack, 
33x8; built in 1836 and rebuilt in 18ti4 ; cold blast ; water power. 

Jefferson furnace, John M. Kaufman & Bros., Auburn, Schuylkill coun- 
ty. One stack, 31x7 ; built in 1864 ; cold blast ; water power. 

Joanna furnace, L. U. Smith iV Co., JoanM furnace. Berks county. One 
k. 30x8 ; built in 1"!>2. and rebuilt in 1847 j cold blast ; water and steam. 
power. 

Lauru furnace, VV. A. Taylor & Co., Millcrsiowii, Parry county. One 
stack, 86x9 ;. built in 1873 ; cold blast; water power: weekly rapacity 

Logan furnace. Valentine 6c Milliken, Belle foutc, Centre county. One 
stack, 32x8 ; cold blast ; water pown 

Madison furnace, J. P, Lyon &. Co., Sligo, Clarion county. One stack ; 
cold blast. 



286 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



maiden Creek rYtrnacc, bains of George Mcrkcl, LenhartsriUe, Berkc 

county. One slack 36x9; built in 1854; cold bla--t : water and steal 

power. 

Manada furnace, Urubbs A Bland, Swatara Station, Dauphin county. 
One stack 81 r8 ; built id lsiid ; cold blast ; water power. 

Muni Alt'i furnace, Mont Alto iron company, Mont Alto, Franklin enmity. 
One atack 27x9} ; built in 1808; warm blast; steam power; bloom li> 
connected with tlic furnace 

Mount Nope furnace, A. B. Gruhb, Mount Hope, Lancaster county. One 
k L'7x7 ; I Mill t in IW5] nut in Mast since 1871, 

:it I'l-nii Furnace, Hunsicker a- Co., Reading, Berks county. One 
stack 30x8) ; built in 1830; cold blast.; water power. 

. \V. II. ClytuiT & I'd., Temple. Berks OOUWy. One stack 

9; built in IW2. 

Pennsylvania Enrnacc, Lyon, Shorn A- Oo., Graysville, Huntingdon coun- 
ty. One stack B2xB; built in 1813. 

Pine Grove furnace, South Mountain h*on company, Mountain Creek. 
Ciunliei'laiiil county. One stack 33x8$, 

Sarah furnace, Essinjrton Hammond, Sarah, Blair county. One 
33x8; built in 1824 1 cold bloat; capacity 40 tons per Week, 

Springfield furnace i John Boyer, Springfield Furnace, Blair county. One 

k31x8i; built in 1815; warm blast; water power. 

Spring Hill furnace, Fairchao.ee iron company) Smithfield, Fayette Boun- 
ty. One -iaek 35x9; built in 1806, rebuilt in IBSt" and repaired in 1873. 

Washington iron works, Barlow \ Day. Lamar, Clinton county One 
slack Sfofl | bnfli In 18091 

York furnace, John Bair & 0o., York Furnace, York county. One stack 
- ; built in 1830; cold blast : water power 



ROILING .MILLS OK PENNSYLVANIA. 



. [U8TMI0T, 

AUontown railing mill company, coneolidatuw of Allen town rolling mill, 
Lehigh rotting mill, and Robaftfl iron eonpany. Wonka at aallentowiii 

Lehigh COIWty, Office, 808 WalBOt street, Philadelphia. Built in I860; 

one single and 88 doable puddling fomaen, I sjftgta and 3 doubts atari 
furnaces, and B trains of rolls ; product, steam and struct mils, from H 

pounds upwards, fisb plates, niei-eliaiit Lain, Spikes, I ■ • ■ I r - . nuts. ri\e!-. 

axles, madum ryj bridge trork, and mine and Hal ears. 



MINERAL .STATISTICS. 






Bethlehem 1 1- » 1 1 company, Bethlehem, Northampton County. Built in 
1863. Will X<>. i, it double paddling furnaces, 9 heating furnaces, and 3 
trains of mils; product, railroad iron; annual capacity, 22,50d net i 

rage .iiiiiii.il production, 18*800 tons. Mill No. 2, 24 and 2ft-inefa rail 
trains, LSI feet 9 inches in length from centre to <mit ii • of engines : engines 
icb and, north, 48x46 stroke, south, 58-\i* stroke; one B 1-inch bloom 
train, with one engine 36-inch diameter and iju-inch stroke, Slks, 

nvevters, eijual to 120 Inns Bessemer steel per day, cupola engine, 18 
by 48, blowing engine, 36x90, T Biemene*s regenerative gas farnacm 
heating ingots and blooms. 4 cupola furnaces, and _ Bpiegel melting fur- 
naces. 

BlrdBboro' nail works, K. & ii. Brooke, Bfvdeboro*, Berks c ty. built 

in 1848; seven double puddling furnaces, 1 scrap and 3 heating furnaces, 
7- nail macliities, and •_' trains of mils : steam and water power; product, 
nails, paddle bar and Bcrap iron. 

Bland on iron works, Bhuidon iron company, Blandon, Berks county. 
! ■.. : one double and .'! single puddling furnaoee, I heating for* 
. and - trains at rolls : product, skelp and band iron ; annual capacity, 
2,560 net tons, Average yearly product, 1, sun tons. 

Brandywiuc rolling mills, s. A B. R. Hatfield, Ooateavilh?, 0he»tt»i 
comity. Product; plate iron. 

Bristol rolling mill, Owen] Jones & Co.. Bristol, Berks county. Leased 
by present operators in January, 1573; two single puddling In maces, 3 
heating furnaces, one train bar rolls, '1 trains sheet rolls, and one hammer ; 
product, sheet and fine won | annual capacity, 8>000 sot tuns. 

Cataaawpia manufacturing company, Cataa&ttQua, Lehigh county. Tw< 
mills; Catasauqus and IferndhAe; organised in lsot: "_'S single puddling 
furnaces, 9 heating furnaces, T trains of rolls, and one 10-ton hamim •; 
lu'iiitnct, merchant bar, small T rail, band, and large size skelp iron, boiler 
plate, tank and chute iron ; annual capacity, 20,000 Del tons. 

Chester, Delaware county. John Koach A 0o. are building a plate mill. 
^74. 

DonahbhookeB, Pennsylvania and Corliss iron works, .1. Wood A Brae, 
Oouahohocken, Montgomery county. Office, 223 Korth Seeond street, Phila- 
delphia. Built in 1882, 1*52 and 1864, respectively ; 5 double puddling 
farnacea, 7 heating furnaces and 7 trains Of rolls : >ii am and water power; 
product, plate and shed h»08| annual capacity, 6,006 net tuns; average 
yearly production, i ,506 tons. 

Delaware rolling mills, Hughes .V: Patterson, Richmond and Otis Btrot 
Philadelphia. Built in 1*70; ti single puddling Asnlaieefi,4 beating fan- 
es and 3 trains of rolls; product, bar iron : annual capacity, 8,00fl 
tens 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



East-Mi -h, ,-i in ii work*, Samuel Oliver \- Sun, Eaaton, Northampton 
Connty. Put in operation Februay 1, 1872; 2 single puddling furiir 
one heating furnace, one sheet furnace, one annealing furnace and one train 
Of rolls, consisting of one pair sheet rolls and one pair bar rolls ; product, 
I iron; annual capacity, 1,000 net tons, Production sold by Marshall 
Lefferts, Jr., 90 Beekuian street, New York. 

Fair Hill forge and rolliug mill, Gaulbert, Morgan & Caskcy, York and 
America street*, Philadelphia. Built in 1*54; 1 single and 2 double pud- 
dling furnaces, 3 healing furnaces, 2 trains of rolls and 1 hammer; pro- 
• ".iH't, merchant bar ; annual capacity, 3,000 net tons. 

Fort Allen iron works, Weissport, Carbon county. Ezra Bertolet, agent, 

Walnut street. Philadelphia. Rebuilt in 1872; 1 single and 2 double 

lling furnaces, 2 heating furnaces, one squeezer aud 2 trainB of rolls ; one 

9 and one 1<>- in«'li train; product, guide and biir iron; annual capacity, 

3,000 tons. Now- idle. 

lltQB rolling mUIj S. Pulton & Co., Xorristown, Montgomery county. 
Built in l*(il : 11 double puddling furnaces and 1 train puddle rolls; pi" 
t, paddled bur: annual capacity, 15,000 net tons; average make, 5,550 
- 

Gibraltar iron works, s, Beyfla* & Co., Reading, Built in 1816; 2 b. 

9 liaioinors and 1 train of rolls; water power; product, boiler 
plate) boiler tube iron and blooms; annual capacity] 1,500 net tons plate 
iron and 1,000 tons blooms. 

Glen iron WOTka, Allentown, Lehigh county. First put in operation il) 
1870 ; 6 double and 2 single puddling furnaces, 3 heating furnaces and 3 
trains of rolls, one SJ and two 15-inch; product, bar iron and small T rails : 
annual capacity, 7,500 net tons; average make, 5,100 tons. 

iv's P.-n-y iron works, Edward S. Buckley, 2281 Walnut street, Phila- 
delphia, Built in 1858; 3 double puddling furnaces, 4 heating furnaces, 
J trains of rolls and 2 hammers ; product, charcoal blooms and plate iron ; 
annual capacity, 3,600 net tone plate and 600 tOM nlOGBQI i WW age annual 
production, 3,000 tons plate and 500 tons blooms. 

Hamburg rolling mills*, Hamburg i>'0» company, Hamburg, Berks county. 
Three double aud 2 single puddling furnaces, one heating furnace, one 18- 
inch train of rolls and one lo-iuch : product, bar iron. 

Hibernia forge and rolling mill, Goodman & Phillips, Wagoutown, 

< "Lester county. Very old works; 4 charcoal lorge fires, one heating fur- 

", one hammer and one train of rolls ; OM tfPOQgni iron scrap; Water 

power ; product, boiler tube iron, skelp, ftuo and light boiler plate ; annual 

i-apacity, 1 ,<><•' ► net tons. 

Kensington iron and steel works, James Rowland & Co,, 020 North Dela- 
ware avenue, Philadelphia. Built in 1845; 10 double puddling furnaces, 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



269 



one single puddling- furnace, 8 heating furnaces, and T trains of rolls ; pro- 
duct, merchant bar, band and skelp iron, and steel plow and shovel plate ; 
annual capacity, 11,000 net tens ; average yearly production, 10,000 tons. 
Keystone iron works, Craig & Koch, Reading, Berks county. Built in 
1857 ; product, boiler plate, tank, chut*, stack, pipe, boat and car irons 

Laurel iron works, Hugh E. Stud, Coatesvillc, Chester county. Built 
in 18*25 ; one annealing furnace, 4 heating furnaces and 3 trains of rotls : 
■water and steam power ; product, boiler, Hue, boat, bridge, tank and tube 
iron ; annual capacity, 4,*00 net tons ; average make, 3,600 tons, 

Litllo Schuylkill rolling mill, James A. Iimess, Port Clinton, Schuylkill 
county. Built in 1869 ; one double and 2 single puddling furnaces, 
Inciting furnace, and one 16-inch train of rolls; water power; product, 
puddled, scrap and merchant bar. 

Lukens roll mills, Huston & Penrose, Coatesvillc. Built in 1*10 ; :.: dou- 
ble puddling furnaces, 4 heating furnaces, 2 trains of rolls and one ham- 
mer ; steam and water power ; product, all kinds of flues, boiler and ship 
plates, and bridge iron ; annual capacity, 0,000 net tons ; average yearly 
production, 4,000 tons. The puddle mill, operated by water power, occu- 
pies the Bite of the first plate mill built iu the United States, 

Win. M'llvain & Son's boiler plate mill, Wm. M'llvain iV. Boos, Reading. 
Built iu 1857 ; 4 single puddling furnaces, 3 heating furnaces, 2 trains of 
rolls and one 3-ton hammer; product, boiler plate, tauk, chute, stack, pipe, 
bridge and boat iron ; annual capacity, 4,500 net tons ; average yearly 
production, 4,000 tons. 

Mmmt Carbon rolling mill, James A. Inness, Mount Carbon, Schuylkill 
comity. Four double puddling furnaces, 3 heating furnaces, one 18-inch 
train puddle rolls, one train muck bar rolls, and one 24-inch train platt- 
rolls. Has been standing for several years. 

N'nrristown iron works, James Hiiovl'ii & Sons. Norristowu, Montgwn- 
cry County, Built in 1X46; 6 double puddling furnaces, 3 heating furnace*. 
3 trains of rolls undone hammer; product, ske I p iron; annual capacity. 
5,000 net tons; average yearly production, 4,800 tons. 

Palo Alto rolling mill, Benjamin Haywood, Pottsvillc, Schuylkill county. 
Built in 1854 ; 12 double and 5 single puddling furnaces, 9 heating fur- 
naces, one 8-inch, two 10-inch and two 18-inch trains of rolls; product light 
and heavy T and street rails, fish bars, chairs and merchant bar iron : an- 
nual capacity 15,600 net tons ; average yearly product 10,000 tons. 

Parkcsburg iron works, Horace A. Beale, Parkosliiip_r, t'lu-ster county. 
First started in April, 1873: 4 charcoal forge fires, 2 heating furnaces. 
train of rolls and one hammer; product, blooms and tube skolp : annual 
capacity 2,500 net tons. 






M I N KK A L STATISTICS. 



Puqcpjd imii works, A. iV I', Uolieris .V «' ., ritiij Suutli Fourth M.ivi-i. 
Philadelphia. Winks in Blontgomcrj county, 0] M ;n i:sy link. Built. 

■ ii L86S; 7 double puddllOg furnaces,:; boating fnruures ami 3 tinin.s ni 
ml!;,; prodoat) hat iron) bridge iron and rolled sad hammered ucIas; Ihe 
heating furnaces and -'i hammers; annual capacity 2,040- ne1 
tuns I i.i i- atiil bridge iron, 3fi&2 tona rolled axles and 3,400 tons hammered 
i\ir-. 

i'i in Treaty iron mirks, Marshall Brothers & Co.. 24 GBrard avenue, 
Philadelphia, Built in 1850; (J single puddling; furnaces, heating fur- 
naces and I trains of rolls; product, sheet and bar iron; annual capacity 
1,000 Ions. 9 

Philadelphia iron and steel compairy, ftSfl North Delaware avenuo, Phila- 
delphia. Hnilt in 18*fi : one single and 2 double puddling furnaces, on< 
puddling machine, •> heating furnaces and 4 trains of rolls; product, bar, 
angle and Ice Ironi MSm plates and peculiar shapes; avetage annual capa- 
city, single turn, 6,000 net tons. 

Philadelphia rolling mill, S, Robbina & Bon, Beach and Vicuna stree 
Philadelphia Built in Is'o-S; 9 double puddlingfojnaces, 5 heating furnaces- 
and 4 trains ol roll* ; product, mercbant bar iron of all kind,-: annual ca] 

ity 14,000 net tons; avera l.v production 9,000 tons. 

Philadelphia and Beading rolling mill, Philadelphia and Reading railroad 
company, owners, W. E. C. Coxe, superintendent, Heading. Built in 1868 ; 
12 single puddling furnaces, 10 healing furnaces and 3 trains of rolls, 23, 
21 and 12-inch; product, iron and steel rails and splice bars; annual caps' 
I2o,009 net tons; average yearly prodnctioj 22 t 4Q0 tons. This com- 
pany ii also constructing a plate mill and ship yard at Pot! Richmond, 
Philadelphia. 

Hi u- n i\ iron works, Phoenix irop company, Pbceniavillc, Chester eounjy 
1 Iffice, W0 Walnut st 1. >ei, Philadelphia. Built in 1840; 20 double puddling 
and B single puddling furnaoes, .'$ beating furnaces and B trains pi rolls ; 
product, T rails, bar iron, beams, angles, tee iron and other shapes; aa< 
noal capacity 24,000 not tons; average yearly production 20,000 tune. 
Tin' company is building a new mill, of greater capacity than the old one, 
part of which dHU be put in operation in 1874. 

Pine Iron workn, Joseph l». Baily .v 0o., Pine iron works, Berks county 
Iluilt in ls4-"i ; two heating furnaces and one tram of rolls; water power ; 
product, boiler plate; annual capacity, 2,600 net tons; average yearly 
production, 2, .'JOO tons. This tinn is building a mill for making muck bai 
at Glasgow, en afaaatawnv nock, one mile from Pottetown, and will run 
.i-i:,li|,. puddling Furnaces ami a Book train of rolls; water power; to 

:t in operation some time in i s "». 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 271 

Potts Grove iron works, Potts Brothers, Pottstown, Montgomery county. 
-Built in 1846 ; 2 double puddling furnaces, 3 heating furnaces, and 2 trains 
of rolls ; product, plate iron, comprising boiler, tank, pipe and tine iron ; 
annual capacity, single turn, 3,000 net tons ; average yearly production, 
2,500 tons. This firm also has a bar mill, 3,000 tons yearly capacity, 
which has not been worked for 15 years. 

Pottstown iron company, Pottstown, Montgomery county. Built in 
1867 ; 14 double puddling furnaces, 5 heating furnaces, 4 trains of rolls, 
53 nail machines, one hammer and one squeezer ; product, nails and plate 
iron; annual capacity, nails, 6,000 net tons, plate, 5,000 tons. 

Pottsville rolling mills, Atkins Brothers. PottBville. Built in 1852; 14 
double and 4 single puddling furnaces, 8 heating furnaces, and 3 trains of 
rolls ; product, T rails of both light and heavy sections, and street rails. 

Reading bolt and nut works, J. II. Sternbergh, Reading. Built in 1866; 
enlarged in 1872 ; one single puddling furnace, 2 heating furnaces, one 
train of rolls, and one 1,500-pound steam hammer; product, merchant bar 
iron, machine bolts, lag screws, rods for buildings, bridges, etc., and hot 
pressed nuts of all sizes ; annual capacity, about 3,000 net tons ; average 
yearly production, 2,500 tons. 

Reading iron works, Seyfert, M'Manus & Co., Reading. Office, 631 
Chestnut street, Philadelphia. Built in 4836 ; 12 single puddling fur- 
naces, 4 heating furnaces, one rotary squeezer, 3 trains of rolls, 30 nail 
machines and 2 railroad spike machines ; product, bar, band, hoop and 
skolp iron ; annual capacity, 5,500 net tons ; average yearly product, 
5,000 tone. Plate mill built in 1862 ; 7 double puddling furnaces, 4 heat- 
ing furnaces, one steam hammer and 4 trains of rolls ; product, sheet, plate 
and bar iron ; annual capacity, 6,80(1 net tons ; average j'carly product, 
6,000 tons. 

Stony Creek iron works, Schall & Co., Norristown, Montgomery county. 
Built in 1849 ; 5 double puddling furnaces, 3 heating furnaces, 3 trains of 
rolls and 29 nail machines ; product, bar, sheet, boiler plate and nails. No 
nails made in 1873. 

Schuylkill iron works, Alan, Wood & Co., Conshohocken, Office, 519 
Arch street, Philadelphia. Built in 1858 ; 16 double puddling furnaces, 12 
heating and 4 grate furnaces, 7 trains of rolls, one hammer, and 2 rotary 
squeezers ; product, sheet and plate iron ; annual capacity, 15,000 net 
tons. 

Schuylkill Haven rolling mill and Spike manufacturing company, Schuyl- 
kill Haven, Schuylkill county. Put iu operation, November 1, 1873 ; 2 heat- 
ing furnaces, one 10-inch train of rolls, and one railroad spike machine ; 
product, merchant bar iron, small Trails, and railroad spikes ; annual capac- 
ity, 2,500 net tons. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 

Stewart & Co., South Easton, Northampton county. Built in 1837 ; pro- 
duct, wire. 

Tamaqua rolling mill, Tamaqua rolling mill company, Tamaqua, Schuyl- 
kill couhty, Built in 1865; 2 double and 3 single puddling furnaces, 2 
heating furnaces, and 2 trains of rolls , product, merchant bar iron and mine 
T rails; annual capacity, 3,000 net tons; average yearly production, 2,500 
10901 

Thorndale iron works, Win, L. Bailey A: Co., Thorndale iron works, 
■Chester county. Built in 1847 ; one double puddling and two single pud- 
dling furnaces, 2 heating furnaces, 2 trains of rolls and one hammer; pro- 
duct, boiler plate iron ; annual capacity, 3,000 net tons; average make, 

2,250 ton*. 

Tioga rolling mill, Bulkely & Noblit, Germatitown Junction, Philadel- 
phia, Put in operation Januury 1, 1873 ; one heating furnace, one train of 
rolls, and 3 spike machines ; product, bar iron and spikes ; annual capacity . 
2,500 net tonB, 

Valley iron works, C. E, Pennoctc & Co., Ooatesville, Chester county, 
Buill. in 1837 ; product plate iron. 

\ iiiduct iron works, Steele & Worth, Contceville. Built in 1838; 3 single 
puddling furnaces, 8 heating furnaces, l trains of rolls and one hammer; 
product, all kinds of boiler, fife box, boat, tank, tube and fiue iron, and 
patent straightened bridge plates ; annual capacity, 11,000 net tons; aver- 
age make, 8,000 tons. 

Winch, Corydon, Canal street, Kensington, Philadelphia. One double 

an. I twii single puddling fnrnu'/es, - heating furttftCefl, 1 trains of rolls, !'_' 
.spike machines, and 4 rivet machines; steam power; product, spike and 
i iron ; average annual product, 3,000 net tons. 



CENTRA I. DISTRICT. 

Alte-ona iron works, Altoona iron company, Altoona, Blair county. First 
put in operation in April, 1873, ; one double and 6 single puddling fur- 
naces, 3 heating furnaces, 3 trains of rolls, and one rotary squeezer; pro- 
duct, bar iron ; annual capacity, 5,000 net tons, 

I'xiwi.l; rolling mill, Berwick rolling mill company, Berwick, Columbia 
county. Built in 1*72; .i single puddling furnaces, 2 heating farttSi 
and 3 trains of rolls ; product, bar iron ; annual capacity, .'!,(i00 net tons. 

Central iron w.irks, Ilarrisl.urg, Dauphin county. Built in 1853 ; I sin- 
gle puddling furnaces, 2 heating furnaces, one train of rolls, and one batt- 
mer: product, boilerplate and tank iron ; annual capacity, 8,000 net tons; 
average annual production, 2,0OOtOft8. 

Chesapeake nail works, Clias. L. Bailey A Ml., liumsburc, Dauphin 
county. Built in l^GT ; ii single puddling furnaces, 3 beating furnaces! 2 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 273 

trains of rolls, and 66 nail machines; product, nails ; annual capacity, 7,- 
500 net tons ; average annual production, 6,700 tons. 

Chiques rolling mill, Becker & Reinhold, Chiques, Lancaster county. 
Built in 1865 ; one single and 2 double puddling furnaces, one heating fur- 
nace, and 2 trains of rolls ; product, bar iron ; annual capacity, 3,000 net 
tons; average yearly production, 1,500 tons. 

Codorus steel works, York County iron and steel company, York, York 
county; Built in 1869 ; 10 single puddling furnaces, 2 heating furnaces, 2 
trains of rolls, and one hammer ; product, principally puddled steel for 
heading iron rails ; annual capacity, 7,500 net tons. 

Columbia steel and iron works, Maitland, Audenreid & Co., Columbia. 
Office, N. E. corner Third and Dock streets, Philadelphia. Built in 1854 ; 
product, rails, bars, and rods. 

Co-operative iron and steel works, Danville, Montour couuty. Built in 
187 1 ; 8 single puddling furnaces, one 18-inch puddle train, and one squeezer ; 
product, puddled iron, or muck bar ; annual capacity, 5,500 net tons. Now 
building a rail mill, 100 feet by 194 feet, to contain 4 heating furnaces, and 
one 18-inch rail train; immediate capacity to be 10,000 tons, but the ma- 
chinery will be fitted for 25,000 tons, needing only additional heating fur- 
naces ; to be completed in 1874. 

Crescent iron and nail works, Heilman & Co., Cogan Station, Lycomiug 
county. Built in 1842 ; 2 single puddling furnaces, one heating furnace, 
one train of rolls, and 7 nail machines ; water power ; product, bar iron and 
nails. 

Danville iron works, William Faux, proprietor, Danville. Built in 1870; 
4 heating furnaces, and one train of 16-inoh rolls; product, T rails from 
16 to 56 lbs. per yard, inclusive ; annual capacity, 9,000 net tons. 

Duncannon iron company, Duncanuon, Perry county. Office, 122 Race 
street, Philadelphia. Built in 1838 ; 11 single puddling furnaces, 5 heating 
furnaces, 4 trains of rolls, and 52 nail machines ; steam and water power ; 
product, bar iron and nails. 

Eagle iron works, C. Curtin & Co., Roland, Centre county. Built in 
1810 ; one single puddling furnace, one puddling machine, one heating fur- 
nace, 6 forge fires, 2 trains of rolls and one hammer ; water power ; pro- 
duct, bar iron and charcoal blooms and slabs ; annual capacity, 2,000 net 
tons ; average annual production 1,200 tons. 

Hancock steel and iron company, Danville, Montour county. Built in 
1847 ; product, rails. Formerly National iron company. 

Harrisburg nail works, Harrisbnrg. Works at West Fairview, Cumber- 
land county. Built in 1810 ; 9 double puddling furnaces, 6 heating fur- 
naces, 2 trains of rolls and 73 nail machines ; steam and water power ; pro- 
duct, nails and muck bars ; annual capacity, 7,500 net tons of nails and 
18 Statistics. 



274 



MINERAL STATISTICS 



2,000 tone of amok bars; average yearly production, 6,800 tens of nails 

1,500 tons of murk liars. 

Hollidaysburg iron works, Hollidaysburg iron and nail company, Noll,. 
daysburg, Btoir county. Built in 186(1; 8 single puddling furnaces, 3 
heating furnaces, three brains of n ills ami 13 nail machines : product, I 
light T rails and nails: annual capacity, 3,500 nr-I bona; average annual 
production, '2,000 tons. 

Howard iron works, Lautb. Thomas & Co., Howard, Centra county. 
Built in 1810; 6 single puddling furnaces, 2 heating furnaces and one 16- 
Inch train ofrollfi, one 12-inch and one 8-inch train "I bar and guide rolls- 
and one rotary aqueesexi water power; product, all sizes merchant bar, 
hand, tinop and guide iron ; annual capacity, 3,600 net tona finished iron. 
The establishment includes a large warehouse, in which a stock of 300 ions 
i all kinds <>f bar iron is constantly kept on hand. 

Juniata rolling mill, J lull Edj ■ysl.nrg iron n n J nail company, lessees, Hull i- 
daysburg. Built in 186ti ; 9 Binglc puddling furnaces, 3 beating furnaceB, 
2 truinB of rolls, 80 nail machines and one hammer; product, sheet* and 
nails; annual capacity, 8,500 net tons; average annua] production, 2,000 
tons. 

Lackawanna iron works, Lackawanna iron and coal company, ScXAnl 

Lnteroe couatjr, Built is L84tj B£ single puddling furnaees) 18 heating 

furnaces and 1 traina of rolls J ai water power; product, railroad 

iron and various sizes of merchant iron | annual capacity, 58,500 net tOOfl 
rails, and 2,f»00 tons merchant iron; average monthly production, ty480 
tons rails. The company is building n new mill of Baine capacity U the 
old one, t.. be completed in 1874, and baa begun bo build B< rteel 

works, 

Lancaster uiauuiiictunngcomponj I'at iii operation in Apiil. 

1*73; 8 single puddling fui I heating furnaces, our lw-inch puddle 

brain, our hl-inch bat train and OBfi 8-inch guide train vf rolls and 2 ham- 
mers: produot, bar, iron splice bar, axles, bolts, spikes and forginga; an- 
nual Qspacity, 3,ijoo net tons. 

Lancaster rolling Mill, ManceL, M'Shain & 0o., Ileinpli'M, Lancaster 

county, Office, 140 AV aim I'luhd-ipiiia. Bought by present par- 

and enlarged in dune, 1872; one double and b single paddling lur- 

Bj 2 heating furnaces, 2 trains of rolls and one hammer; product, mer- 
chant bar and guide iron j annual capacity 3,000 net tons. 

Lebanon rolling mill, Light A Brothers, Lebanon Built in ISo'7 : I 
double puddling furnaces, 6 heating fomaoee, I trains of rolls and one ham- 
mer; product, plate, sheet and Hue iron and muck bar ; annual Cap* 
4,600 not tens ; average make ::.ooo tons-. 




MINERAL STATISTICS. 



2W 



Locliiel rolling mill I > mu | >:ut v . llairisburg. Built in lSt>^> ; merci: 
mill completed is NoTOBJbor} 18? Li 6 double and I .single puddling fur- 
naces, B heating furnaces for rails. 4 heating furnaces fur the merchant mill 
ting of roll-, three I s and on* W-iach; product rails from 15 lbs. 
pi'c vum.I i i|i ward, bin iron and splice bars; annual capacity 25,000 net 
tons rails, and 3,U<»0 tOJM merchant iron and splice bars. 

Logan works. Logan iron and steel company) Lewistown, Mifflin county. 

Oflice. 218 Sooth fourth street, Philadelphia. Built in Ixi'.i; forge verj 

old: 3 single puddling furnaces, 3 heating furnaces, one train of rolls; One 

ii hammer and 3 water hammers; steam and water power; product, 

hammered and rolled bar and blooms. The company has n (date mill not 

now in use, containing one 30-inch train of rolls, 3 heating farnaces, Ac. 

fcher part of the establishment, comprising a large steam hammer and a 

mill, is rented to the Crucible steel works. 

Milesburg iron works, M'Coy As Linn. Milesburg, Centre county, Built 
in 1830 ; 3 single paddling furnaces, 2 heating furnaces, 8 trains of rolls 
sad 2 1 i.in i iii t-is ; steam Mid water power ; product, all sizes bar iron, spring 
sod soft rods and spring, and soft wire of all numbers ; annual capacity 
3,000 net tons; average yearly production 1,576 tons. 

Milton rolling mill, .Milton iron company, ililton. Northumberland coun- 
ty. Put in operation December 1, L832 | I puddling furnaces. I HW heating 
furnace and 3 trains of roll* ; product, round, square and flat OBI iron ; an- 
nual capacity 2,000 net ions; average yeaiij production 1,500 tons. 

Northumberland urea works, Van Ahm & Co., Northumberland. North 
niuberland county. Built in 1867 ; 7 single puddling furnaces, one heal- 
ing furnace. Ollfi train of rolls and 21 nail machines; product, nails, nail 
plate, muck and scrap bars; annual eapaottjl I. Sim net tODfl muck bar, 
t.OOn tons nail plate, 2,250 tons nails. 

ton rolling mills, M'Cormiek's estate, II an i.slnirg. Built in 1869 ; 5 
doable puddling furnaces, 5 heating lunia. es, 3 trains of rolls and one ham- 
mer; product, boiler, skelp and tank iron ; annual capacity 8, 750 net tons. 

Pennsylvania in in workB, Waterman A: Beaver, Danville. Office, -107 
Library street, Philadelphia Built in 1H45; 22 double and sixteen single 
paddling furnaces, 15 heating furnaces, 1 trains of rolls ami one hammer ; 
product, railroad iron; annual capacity, 40,320 net tons , average yearly 
production, 27, 242 ions. 

Pennsylvania steel works, Pennsylvania steel company. Steel Works 
P. 0., Baldwin Station, Dauphin county. Office, 216 South fourth street. 
Philadelphia Bessemer steel works built in 1866-7 ; two 5-ton converters, 
with Bupolas and hydraulic machinery; capacity, 120 tons steel every 21 
hours, Rolling mill built in L867- >, and enlarged since; dailv capacity, 
single turn, 100 tons Bteel rails. Hammer mill contains 6 and 12-tmi b 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 

mors, the larger turning out 75 to 80 tons of blooms and forcings every 24 
boon. Two Sieinens'a furnaces, capacity 25 to 30 tons daily. Heating 
furnaces sufficient for the entire make. Product, Btcel ingots, forging?, 
rails of li^-lii and heavy sections, ati-.-.-l rail*, ami railroad axles, crossings, 
froga ; 1 1 1 . 1 switches. Capacity, 96,000 groflB tons per annum. 

Portage tiail works, John Mussclman, Duncansville, Blair county. 
Again started [a March, i*7i. Built in 1800} 6 single puddling furnaces, 
! heating furnaces, 3 trains of rolls and 8 nail machines ; product, bar iron 
and nails. 

Susquehanna iron works, Susquehanna iron company, Columbia. Xhfft 
beating and 12 single puddling furnaces ; product, bar iron. 

Valentine i Do., BeRefonte, Centre COttnty, Built in I «25 ; prodin-l, 
and rod.". 

Valentine iron company. Williams-port, Lycoming county. Built in 
18T3-1 ; 4 single puddling furnaces, 2 heating furnaces, 8 forge tiros, one 
hammer arid 3 trains of rolls ; one 8 and two 15-inch trains j product, char- 
coal blooms, bars and wire rods; annual capacity, 1,000 tons 

V:,m de S ■•""'. 

,\BAND0NEI> OB STAMMM: 

Kinvillo rolling mill, Colemanville, Lancaster county. Old mer- 
chant mill ; not in operation for several years, but will agffill be used upon 
the completion of the Columbia and Port Deposit railroad. 

Juniata iron works, S. & B. E. Hat Hold. Alexandria, Huntingdon eoiiiiix 
Built in 1 ^3S ; pfOdaOtj Sheet, plate and bar iron; burned in 1868 and D01 
It The firm has a forge at the same place in operation. 
Safe Karbot rolling mill, Reeves, Abbott & Co., Sate Harbor, Law 

ter county. Built in 1848 J 10 double and 2 single puddling I 
8 heating furnaces, and 2 trains of rolls ; product, railroad iron ; has mad- 
19,000 ni-l lona of rails a year; has not made any rails sine,- 1861, and the 
mill DIM not been in operation since 1865; upon the completion of a rail- 
in;,. I. now in of construction, this mill will in all probability again 
be used, 

WESTOX I'l.-THICT. 

American iron, works, Jones & Laughlins, Pittsburg, Alleghany- county. 
Built in 1852 j 75 single puddling furnaces, 30 heating furnaces, 18 ti 
of rolls and 73 nail maelnnc'6; product, bars, nails, hoops, railroad spikes 
plates*, sheets, cold-rolled shafting, and 8 to 40-lb. T rails ; annual e:i|iaeity. 

6O4OO6 H'i lens. 

Anchor null and tack works, Chess, Smyth & Co., Pittsburg. Built in 
1837; 20 single puddling furnaces, 5 heating fsnaces, 1 trains of roll.-, ;mi 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 277 

nail machines, 50 tack machines, and one hammer ; product, nails, tacks 
and brads ; annual capacity, 6,000 net tons. 

Atlantic iron and nail works, Kimberly, Carnes & Co., Sharon, Mercer 
county. Twenty-threo boiling and 6 heating furnaces, and 40 nail machines ; 
product, bar, plate, hoop, rod iron and nails ; annual capacity, 8,000 net 
tons. 

Birmingham iron works, M'Knight, Duncan & Co., Pittsburg. Built in 
1836 ; 20 single puddling furnaces, 5 heating furnaces, and 5 trains of 
rolls ; product, merchant bar iron, rounds, squares, ovals, half ovals, bands, 
hoops, etc. ; annual capacity, 10,000 net tons ; average yearly production, 
9,000 tons. 

Brady's Bend iron company, Brady's Bend, Armstrong county. Office, 
54 Cliff street, New York. Built in 1842; under present management 
from 1862 ; 28 single puddling furnaces; 12 heating furnaces, and 3 trains 
of rolls; product, railroad iron ; annual capacity, 20,000 net tons ; average 
yearly production, 11,000 tons. 

Byers, M'Cullough & Co., Pittsburg. Built in 1862-3 ; 25 puddling fur- 
naces, 5 heating furnaces, 3 trains of rolls, and a pipe mill ; product, bars, 
plates, sheets and tubing. 

Cambria iron works, Cambria iron company, Johnstown, Cambria county. 
Office, 218 South Fourth street, Philadelphia. Built in 1853; 42 double 
puddling furnaces, 28 heating furnaces, one hammer, and the following 
trains of rolls; 21-inch rail mill, 5 sets; 18-inch rail mill, 2 sets ; 12-inch 
rail mill, 3 sets ; 16-inch merchant mill, 3 sets ; 22-inch puddle mill, 6 sets; 
21-inch puddle mill, 6 sets, and 30-inch blooming mill, one«set, Total, 26 
sets. Bessemer steel works has two 5-ton converters, and all the appli- 
ances for making steel rails. Product, iro» and steel rails ; capacity per 
annum, 100,000 gross tons, average yearly make, 80,000 to 90,000 gross 
tons. 

Clinton and Millvale rolling mills, Graff, Bennett & Co., Pittsburg. 
Built about 1841 ; 41 single puddling furnaces, 6 Banks's 'puddling ma- 
chines, 17 heating furnaces, 11 trains of rolls, 41 nail machines and one 
hammer ; product, bar, sheet, plate and nails ; annual capacity, 20,000 net 
tons ; average make, 20,000 tons. 

Eagle rolling mill, Mullen & Maloney, Pittsburg. Built in 1850: pro- 
duct, bar and sheet iron. Formerly James Wood's Sons & Co. 

Erie rolling mill, Erie rolling mill company, Erie, Erie county. Put in 
operation November 1, 1873 ; 11 single puddling furnaces, 4 heating fur- 
naces and 3 trains of rolls, one 8, one 10 and one 15-inch ; product,* bar 
iron ; annual capacity, 6,000 net tons. 

Etna rolling mill, Spang, Chalfant & Co., Pittsburg. Built in 1828 ; new 
mill added in 1 873-4 ; 3 trains of 3 high rolls, 7 Siemen's double puddling 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



(gad) furnaces and 2 Siemcn'fl heating (gas) furnaces ; product, sh. ■ 
plates, rods and tubing. 
Port Pitt iron and steel works, Reese, Grail' & Woods, l'ittsburg. Or- 
ijjfld in 1842; 25 boiling furnaces, 14 heating furnaces, ons 20-inch 
muck mill, one 16-inch l-ai mill, 8 B*tnob guide mills, one 9-inch and 
12-inch steel mil! ; one 20-inch plate and sheet mill, 2 converting fornaoefi, 
7 steam hammers, one eqoeeaer, 4 shingle strip machines, one horae-anoe 
factory, i spring factory, 12 coke Bteel-meltUig botes, and 2 Siemens'* 2-1- 
potateetmelting furnaces; product, plates, sheets , guides, lsu-.ui 1 Qeftnan 

and CaSl steel; annual e;,|,aeit v, 12,000 n-t feont r.-lmnl ir-n. 2,800 tOBS 

German steel, and t.uoo tone east steel. 

Oleudon rolling mill, Dflworth, Porter \ Oo . Pittahuxg. Built in 1851 : 
24 single paddling furnaces, I heating furnaces, railroad Bp-ikc machines 
and fj trains of rolls, two 8, one 10, and two 16-inch trains ; pmduet. rail- 
road and marine spikes, railroad chairs, and fish bars and bolts; annual 
capacity, 10,500 net tons ; average make, 8,000 tons. 

Greenville rolling mill, Greenville, Mercer county. Built in 1*71; two 
beating furnaces, •_' double and 5 single puddling furnaces, ami 3 trains of 
rolls j one 16-inch bar, one L6-iuch muck and one H-ineh hoop; pmdiiet. 
bar and hoop inm, principally hoop ; annual capacity, 5,000 imt tons. 

Iron City and Siberian iron works, Rogers & Burchfieldj Pittsburg 
Iron City mill at Apollo, Armstrong county ; built in 1S50; 9 single pud- 
dling furnaces, 5 heating furnaces and trains of rolls. Siberian mill at 
teechburg, Armstrong ponuty; built in 1872; 6 single puddling furnaces, 
« heating furnaces, 6 trains of rolls, 2 steam hammers, one refinery and 2 
knobbling ; fires : tins mill is run with gas for fuel from a well 1,200 feel 
deep, furnishing all the fuel required for puddling, heating and making 
Steam, not one bushel of coal having been used there for the past 
months. Product, sheet iron and rhareoal term- plates; annual capacity, 
i), ooo m't inns ; average make, 5,500 tons. 

Juniata iron works. Shoonbetgei & 0o., Pittsburg, Pa. Built in 18S 
29 single puddling furnaces, 11 heating furnaces, 1 trains of rolls, and '.'J 
nail machines; proilucl, nails, sheet and plate iron, borsfl and mule sh 

and horse-shoe liar: annual capacity. 1'i.uoo m t tons 

Kensington rolling mill, II. Lloyd, Bon & Oo., Pittsburg Built in 1828; 
16 single puddling furnaces, B heating fotnaoes, ami I trains of rolls; pro- 
duct] bar, sheet and plate iron, Sal rails, and T rails from 12 to 80 lbs, to 
the yard ; annual capacity, 6,000 net tons; average yearly product 
000 Jons. 

krvsione iron v-urks, Glass. Neel> .V 0o., Pittsburg. Built in L86§1 19 
single puddling fiirnacea, one scrap and 5 beating furnaces and fctrai 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 






rolls : product, all sizes round, square, and flat bar iron, hoop, plate. and 
isboel iron: annual capacity, 11,000 net. tons. 

WKeesport iron works, Wm. I>. Wood it Co., M'Keesport, Allegheny 
i ■ unity. Built in 18.il ; 10 forge fires, 7 single puddling furnaces, 16 heat 
ing furnaces, 4 trains of rolls, and 2 hammers; product, shod iron, both 
common American aud planished in imitation of Russian ; annual capacity, 
4.000 net tons ; average make, 3,500 tons. 

Middlesex rolling mill company, Middlesex, Mercer county. Put in ope- 
nltion .lime 1. 187ft; 10 single puddling furnaces, one heating luruace, and 

•J trains of rolls: one 10 ami is inch ; product, merchant bar iron ; nu- 

nnal capacity, .">,000 net. tons. 

tfonongahela and Allegheny iron works, Lewis. Oliver & Phillips, Pitts- 
burg. Built in 1 8f»(i and 1864, respectively ; I',' single puddling turn:' • 

riling (utnaces, and 8 trains of rolls; product, bar, round, SQTlate ami 

■v;il bands, aud peculiar and odd shapes ; annual capacity, HO, 009 net tons. 

Vweastlc iron company, Newcastle, Lawrence eounty, Built En 1 w: t:i : 

ingle puddling furnaces, 5 heating furnaces, 3 trains of rolls, and one 

humnuT ; product, sheet and plate iron ; unniial capacity, 8,000 n<'1 tons; 

n-VOnge annual make, 1,900 tons. 

Old Fort iron works, Jacobs & Jackson, Brownsville, Fayette county, 
iplcted December 1, 1873; 6 single puddling furnaces, 3 heating fur- 
naces, - trains oi rolls, 2 spike and bolt machines, 2 hammers, and one 
i ; product, bar iron, car axles, and general forging, 20 lb. T rails, 
«pikca and bolts; yearly capacity, 9,000 net tons. 

Oncndngi iron and coal company, Newcastle, Lawrence county. Pro- 
duct, bftts, rods, and nails. 

Onmsby iron w..rks, Wharton, Brothers** Co., Pittsburg. 20 puddling 
(tnnaces, 5 heating furnaces, and I trains Of rolls ; product, bar, rod, guide, 
.i rid hoop ii'on. 

Pennsylvania iron works, Stetson, Macron) & Co., Pittsburg. Pitfa- 
.fcmrg mill built in 1844; branch mill at Scottdale, Westmoreland county, 
built in 1813; 3" puddling furnaces, 10 heating furnaces, and 7 trains of 
rails; product, bars, rods, sheets and plates; the latter mill makes rim- ■ 
«heet iron and muck bar. 

(Pittsburg bolt wi.rks, Pittsburg 1 >. .It company, Pittsburg. 

Pittsburg forge and iron company, Pittsburg. Built in 1864; 15 single 
puddling furnaces, 7 heating furnaces, 3 trains of rolls, and 3 hammere : 
product, ( I) bar, rod, baud, hoop, oval and half oval iron, lish plates, and 
track bolts, and (2) hammered car and luemiiotive axlpe, railroad, steam- 
boat and machine fbrgmgs ; capacity, yearly, ( 1 ) 13.000 not tons, (2) 2,000 
; average yearly production, (1) 8,500 tons, (2) 1,500 tons. 



280 



MINERAL STATISTICS 



PSttsbWg iron WOrke, J;"n'.il. rainier \ SottS, Pittsburg, limit iii 1 S33 r 
60 single puddling furnaces, 14 heating furnaces, ii\o 9-buih trains of rolta 
two IQ-i&ch, "ik- I'J-ini'li, one 1 ''.-inch, ami two 20-inch muck n ills ; product 
icipally Oil, whisky mi d trunk hoops; id so hoops for pails, tubs uid 

w ten ware, look iron, saws, hands and huge irooj annua] capacity, 

19,000 not tons ; average yearly production, 17,000 tons. 

Sable iron and nail works, Zug & Co., Pittsburg. Built in 1845 \ %t 
single puddling furnaces, li heating furnaces, o trains o£ bqUb and IS Bail 
machines; product, merchant bar iron., iocladtng heavy sizes Hat bars ami 
squares made by the universal rolls, and nails: snnnuJ capacity, UijOOO 

net toil!?. 

Sharon rolling mills, Wostertnan iron company, Sharon, Mercer county. 
Built in 1862; 29 Bingle puddling furnaces, 13 heating furnaces, 7 trains of 
rolls, :iik! 4U imil niariiiiK's ; product, bar, hoop and sheet iron, railroad and 
boat spikes, light T rails and nails : annual capacity, 15,000 net tons. 

Sfaenango iron works, Reis, Brown A Berger, Newcastle, Lawrence 
■ •■•luity. Built in 1866-; 21 single paddling fusnaces, 8 heating furnaces 

■J trains of roils anil ;ja nail machines j product, bar, sheet, hand, wrOH 
spikes ami nails: annual capacity. 15,(iun nel long; average yearly make, 
1-2,000 tons. 

SHgo !i"ii works, Phillips, Nimiek it Co., Pittsburg. Built in K625 ; 
product, bar, plats and sheet iron. 

Soho iron mills. Momliead & Co., Pittsburg; o trains ol rolls : product. 

is, plates and galvanised iron. 
Solar iron works, Win, Clark & Op., Pittsburg ; 16 puddling furnaces,, 5 

In-ating furnaces ami ;"i Irains of rolls ; product, lump ami hand iron. 

Star ironworks, Lindsay & M^Cutcheon, Pittsburg. Built in 1802; 11 

puddliug furnaces, 1 heating furnaces and t trains of rolls ; product, hoop 
iron of all sizes ; annual capacity, 8,000 net tons. 

Stewart iron an wait iron company, Sharon, Mercer county. 

Uuilt -in 1870; 10 single puddling furnaces, one hammer, anil 2 trains oL 
rolls, each 16-inch; product, muck har and blooms. 

Superior rolling mill, Hsrbaugh, Mtithias & Owens, Pittsburg. Built 
in 1865; product, rails. 

Thompson, J. Edgar, steel works, Carnegie, M'L'amlless \- <j,,, r Brad- 
dock's Station, Allegheny county. Office at Pittsburg. Building in 1*71 ; 
to embrace two 5-ton converters, and appliances for rolling Bessemer steel 
rails: to lie completed early in 1875, 

Onion iorge and iron mills, Wilson, Walker »fc Co., Pittsburg. 

L'nion iron mills, Carnegie, Klornan & Co,, Pittsburg. Built in 1862; 
•_'l NJngle puddling furnaces, 10 hooting furnaces, 7 trains of rolls and ouc 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 281 

hammer ; product, beams, channels, tees, angles, plates and bar iron ; an- 
nual capacity, 27,000 net tons. 

United States iron aud tin plate works, U. S. iron and tin plate com- 
pany, M'Keesport, Allegheny county. Office at Pittsburg. Built in 
1873-4 ; 4 double puddling and 4 heating furnaces, 3 trains of rolls and 
ono hammer ; product, tin plate and all kinds of sheet iron ; annual ca- 
pacity, 8,000 net tons. 

Valley rolling mill, Calwell, Mosgrove & Co., Kittanning, Armstrong 
county. Built in 1848 ; 1G single puddling furnaces, 5 heating furnaces, 
3 trains of rolls, 22 nail machines and one squeezer ; product, rod and' 
sheet iron, nails and spikes ; annual capacity, 7,000 net tons; idle since 
March, 1873. 

Vesuvius iron works, Lewis, Bailey, Dalzell & Co., Pittsburg. Built in 
1846; 24 single puddling furnaces, 10 heating furnaces, 6 trains of rolls, 
and 50 nail machines ; product, bar and sheet iron, rods, hoops and nails ; 
annual capacity, 12,001) net tons. 

Wayne iron and steel works, John 11. Brown & Co., Pittsburg. Built 
in 1829 ; product, bar iron, rod, hoop, sheet, tank, light T rails, splice bars, 
boiler plate, rivets and cast steel. 

Wood's Sons (James) & Co., Pittsburg. Built in 1850 ; product, bar 
and sheet iron. Recently sold to Malone, Mullen & Co. 

STAXD1NO. 

Wheatland rolling mills, trustees J. T. & C. A. Wood, Wheatland, Mer- 
cer county. Built in 1872; 12 double puddling furnaces, 14 heating fur- 
naces and 3 trains of rolls ; steam power ; product, railroad, bar and sheet 
iron ; annual capacity, 45,000 net tons ; average yearly production, 30,000- 
tons. 

PROJECTED. 

Conncllsville, Fayette county. Rolling mill and nail factory. 
Dunbar, Fayette county. 



BESSEMER STEEL RAIL MILLS. 

A COMPLETE LIST OF ROLUXO MILLS IX THE UXITED STATES WHICH MANUFACTURE 

BESSEMER STEEL RAILS. 

Rensselaer iron works, John A. Griswold & Co., Troy, New York. Two 
five-ton converters and one one-and-a-half ton converter. 

Cambria iron works, Cambria iron company, Johnstown, Pa. Two five- 
ton converters. 



288 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



Pennsylvania Bbod works, Pennsylvania steel company, -lialdwiu 
tion, 1 1 < ■ : ■ r I [arrisburg, Pa. Two five-ton converters and a new plant, with 
four five-ton converters, in course of erection. 

Newburgii rolling mill, Oleveland ratling mill company, Dfewburgb, 
Four live-ton converters 

North Chicago rotting mill, 'North Chicago rolling mill company, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. Two five-ton converters. 

Union Foiling mill, Union rolling mill company, Chicago, Illinois. Two 
live-ton converters. 

Juliet iron ami steel works, Joliet iron and Steal company, Juliet, Il- 
linois. Two live-ton converters. Thcso works made llicir liist blow Jan- 
uary 26, 1873, ami their li rut steel rail March l.">, IS73. 

Bethlehem rolling mill, Bethlehem iron company, Bethlehem IV Two 
five-ton converters. These works made their first blow mi Saturday, Octo- 
ber 4, 1873, ami their first steel rail on Saturday, October 11, 1873. 

J. Edgar Thompson steel works, Carnegie, hl'Oandless & Co., I'itts- 
imrg, Pa. Works at Braddock's Field ate now being built, and will con- 
tain twii livi'-toiL converters. They an- expected to be entirely lini- 
iu 1875. 

Lackawanna ironworks, backawanna iron and coal company. Scranton, 
Pu. Now building steel works to contain two Ihc-ton converters. The 
foundations wire laid June 16, 1874, and the trails MO expected to I 
for the roof by December 1, 1874. 



STEEL WORKS OP PENNSYLVANIA. 

Black Diamond steel works, Park, Brothel & Co., Pittsburg, Established 
in -May, 1802 ; ti carbonizing 1 furnaces, 72 melting furnaces and (j trains of 
rolls ; product, edge-tool steel, homogeneous boiler-plate steel, spring steel, 
agricultural implement steel, and east and German plow Steel; annual 
capacity, 12,000 net tons. 

Blair iron and steel company, Pittsburg. Works at Qlenwood { 
Monongahela river. Homogeneous- iron and steel made from the ON by 
Thomas S. Blair's direct process. 

9doxna steel works, York County ir ind steal company, York, York 

connty. Sss BoUing Mil/*. 

Crescent steel works, Miller, Barr <t Parkin, Pittsburg. Built in 1S6T ; 
4 heating furnaces, 2 trains of rolls, one 12 and (me 9-inoh, 8 steel cement- 
ing rhraaces, M steel molting holes, and tour 24-pol Biemens's melting Far- 
naoee and 6 hammers ; product, hammered ami rolled bar steel and cast, 



M I N E R A L ST A T1STICS . 






spring and edge-tool Btee] : annual capacity. 4,080 net tons; average urn 
3,000 tons. 

Crucible steel works, Logan, near Lewistown, Mifflin county. Office, 
218 South Fourth street, Philadelphia. Twenty-eight 4-pot melting holes, 
5 heating furnaces and one tire mill ; product, locomotive east steel tire. 
frogs, crossings, fbrgings, steel castings, etc, 

Fairmmiiit steel works. Alexander Foster & Co., Twenty-fouith street 
and Pennsylvania avenue, Philadelphia. Built in I866j 8 heating fur- 
naees, six 4-pot melting furnaces and 3 steam hammers; product, ma- 
chinery steel, frog plates and points; cast spring Steel) :md all kinds oi 
Steel forgings ; annual capacity, 75(1 net tuns', average make, ;>00 tons. 

Fort Pitt iron and steel works. Reese, Staff A Wood*, Pittsbarg. See 
BoHing Mill*. 

Knssey oasl Bteel works, Pittsbarg 

Uussey, Wells & Co., Pittsburg. Built in 1859: T 24-pot melting fur- 
Etacea and '•' hammers ■. peoiwst, tine tool Blest, spring steel, bofiet Bteel and 
agricultural steel : anneal capacity, 18,004 net Cons. 

Kensington iron and Bteel works, James Rowland A Co., 020 North Dela- 
ware avenue, Philadelphia. See Jtolliny .Mills. 

stone saw; tool, steel and tile works, Henry Diseton A Bona, Prom 
and Laurel streets, Philadelphia — Branch works at Taeouy. Philadelphia. 
F. Minded in 1840, and commenced the manufacture of steel in 1854 ; BOW 
running 43 melting furnaces, 2 trains el rolls, ri heating furnace* unci one 
uner; product, principally saw steel of every description, also, tool 
steel, homogeneous steel, steel for engravers' plates, StC,; annual capacity, 
2,500 net tons. 

La Belle steel works. Rcitcr, Sutton & Co., Pittslmrg. Built in 1863; 
l 26-tOD converting' famaoes, I Open-hearth refining furnaces, 4 puddling 
furnaces, 7 heating furnaces, 12 cast steel molting fun hammers and 

:: trains of rolls, one 20-inch train, one 16-inch and one 10-iuch ; product, 
mi Qsnnas plow steel. agricultural steel of every description, cast 
and Herman spring steel, oasl machinery steel, and enst and Ciorman steel 
tire ; annual capacity, 1,000 net tons cast steel, 2,000 net tons of German 
plow and spring steel, ami 2,400 net tons of Bteel of other description- 
Total, 0,000 net tons, 

M'JIatfie steel works. .MMIafiie Direct Steel casting company, Lamokin, 
Delaware Bounty, Office at Evelina and Levant streets, Philadelphia. 

.Make eastings from pig iron which they afterward.* convert into steel by a 

ji crel piv.e. ■ 

Midvale steel works, Nicetowa, Philadelphia, Built in 1808; LQ beating 

furnaces, one 23-inCb train rolls, 3 hammers, one cementing furnace, and 50 

■melting holes; prodod tool, Bteel, crowbars, &c. ; locomotive tire 



284 



MINERAL STATISTICS, 



mill not BOW in use. Tbe«e Works wen formerly known its the William 
Batcher steel works, ttoore, Davis, DeHaven & Co., Pittsburg. Nellie, A. 
J., Pitts) < 

Oxford iron and steel works, William & Harvey Rowland, Frankford. 
Philadelphia. Built in 1842, and very much enlarged recently, especially 
in 18T3 : ;i heating (hrnaces, :; trains of rolls, one bammer; i converting 
furnaces, oaing wood exclusively, end 24 2-pot crucibls steel melting fur- 
naces convert Iron into steel, re-roll Norway iron, slit Norway nail rods, and 
make elliptic springe, sheet oast steel, oast spring steal} machinery and 
plow steel, sad tire and sleigh steely annual capacity, 1,508 net tons 

- .iliO inns. 
Philadelphia steel works. William Baldwin, l'raiikl'<ml. Philadelphia. 
I in iMi'i ; i heating furnaces, 6 steam drop hammers and one tilt ham- 
mer, one cementing furnace, not now in use, and 32 steel-melting holes; 
product, cast and shear steel, bog stei 1, railroad and locomotive forgings, 
fledges, hammers, tools, etc. ; annual capacity, 1,200 ton 

Pittsburg- steel casting company) Pittsburg. Built in 1871; in sti 
malting holes sod one Sicrneit's ig&s) furnace of li ions daily capacity; 
product. Steel castings. 

Pittsburg sted works, Anderson & Woods, Pittsburgh Basil in IMS; 

product, nasi and Herman pdoe? steel, plat.', and best edge tool Steal : an- 
nual capacity 7, inn.) net tons, 

Sheffield steel works, Singer, Nimick tt Co., Pittsburg. Built in 184 
in mill, li puddlingaitd 6 knobhling iiimaccs. ens L&inel) train ol tolls, and 
one 4j-ton steam hammer; four -J4-p.it Siemeua's gas furnaces, 3(1 melting 
kfurnacea, and one 5-ton open hearth-furnace; animal capacity I l'.imki n«t 
tonsoica«t steel ; in steel converting department, B fhenaees, annual capac- 
ity. :),:>0Q net tons; in finishing mill, one 22-inch, :; high sheet and plate 
train,- one lii-im-li and one 10* inc h bar train, 11 heating Furnaces, and 10 

hammers ; the new plate mill has 4 sets of 28>-inoh rolls, 4 sets of 20-inch 
rolls, and 6 heating furnaces ; product, steel plates, tool steel, saw steel, 
and all other kinds of steel. ^ 

W 'ay no iron and steel works, Blown I't Co., Pittsbnrg. <Sef BoUtBQ 
Mills. 



PROJECTED. 

Isaac; Jones, Sons tc Co., M'Keesport, Allegheny county. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 285 



BLOOMARIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Barre forge, Dorris & Co., Barrc forge, Huntingdon county. Four forge 
fires ; product, charcoal blooms ; annual capacity, 900 net tons. 

Carlisle iron works, C. W. & D. V. Ahl, Boiling Spriugs, Cumberland 
county. Built in 1791 ; 5 forge fires and one hammer ; water power ; pro- 
duct, charcoal blooms; annual capacity, 2,400 net tons; average make, 
2,200 tons. 

Castle Fin forge, J. M. Bowman, Castle Fin, York county. Four fires 
and 1 run-out ; 2 hammers ; water power ; product, charcoal blooms ; an- 
nual capacity, 1,000 net tons ; average yearly make, 750 tons. 

Charming forge, W. & B. F. Taylor, Womelsdorf, Berks county. Works 
very old ; 5 fires, one heating furnace, one refinery, and 2 hammers ; steam 
power; product, blooms and hammered bar iron ; annual capacity, 1,000 
net tons ; average make, 700 tons. 

Cold Spring forge, S. H. Hicks & Brothers, Tyrone, Blair county. Pro- 
duct," blooms. 

Colemanville forge, Edmund Smith, Colemanville, Lancaster county. 
Built in 1828 ; water power ; annual capacity, 500 net tons blooms. 

Cove forge, John Royer, Springfield furnace, Blair county. Two forge 
fires and one run-out ; product, charcoal blooms ; annual capacity, 450 net 
tons 

Cove forge, Wm. M'llvain & Sons, Duncannon, Perry county. Built in 
1864 ; 5 fires, ono refinery, and one hammer ; blast operated by water 
power, and hammer by steam ; product, charcoal blooms ; annual capacity, 
1,200 net tons ; average yearly make, 900 tons. 

Ellendale forge, Spang & Wanner, Ellendale forge, Dauphin county. Re- 
built in 1872 ; 5 fires, one run-out for coke, and one hammer ; water power ; 
product, anthracite and charcoal blooms ; annual capacity, 1,200 net tons ; 
average make, 950 tons. 

Ellwood forge, J. B. Seidel & Sons, Ellwood, Schuylkill county. Built 
in 1863 by Dr. Geo. N Eckert, and bought in April, 1874, by present own- 
ers ; 4 fires and one run-out fire ; product, charcoal blooms ; annual capac- 
ity, 1,250 net tons. 

Etna forge, Geo. D. Isett & Bro., Yellow Springs, Blair county. Four 
forge fires ; product, charcoal blooms. 

Franklin and Sarah forges, assignees of Essington Hammond, Sarah, 
Blair county. Four forge fires ; product, charcoal blooms ; annual capac- 
ity, 900 net tons. 

Exeter forge, Gottlieb Moyer, Reading, Berks county. Product, blooms. 

Juniata forge, J. R. Hunter & Co., Petersburg, Huntingdon county. 



MINERAL STATISTICS, 



Pour forge fires and one hammer ; water power ; product! charcoal Mourns ; 
:nnni:il capacity, 800 not tons. 

Juniata iron works, S. «fc B. R. Hatfield, Alexandria, Huntingdon conn* 
t\. Built in 18*11 ; I HrOB and one -t tuyere run-out, and a puddling forge, 
with 3 single puddling furnaces ; water power; product, charcoal blow 
mailo into boiler plate al Brandywine rolling mills. Coatesville, Pa'. ; an- 
nual capacity, 050 net tuns ; average annual make, 850 tons. 

Liberty forge, Muininn& Royer, Lisbnm, Cumberland county. Product, 
blooms. 

Logan works, Logan iron and steel company, Lewistown, Mifflin County, 
Office, 218 .-'outli Fourth Btreet, Philadelphia. Forgo built about 1810 : t 
charcoal tires, one run-out for coke, and 2 hammers ; steam and water 
power; product, charcoal blooms. 

Mainvillo forge, 0. E, Penuock <Sc 0o., Haiuville, Columbia county. 
Built in 1824; one hammer, 8 forge fires, and one run-out \ water power; 

product, charcoal blooms ; annual capacity, S'»0 net tuns. 

Miirtic forge. Potts & Minis, Colemunville, Lancaster county. Four tires ; 
Water poweffj product, charcoal Mourns : annual capacity, 1,000 net tons: 
avenge, annual make, GOO tons. 

Man Ann forge, R. F. Morret, I»owningtnn. I'liester county. Ruilt in 
1*0(1; ;! fires and one hammer; water power; prodmet, blooms; annual 
capacity, 720 net tons. 

■fileaborg iron works, B£*Ooy A Linn, Bftleebusg, Cerrbre county. Built 
in l8(io ; produot, blooms; 

M'mrue fm'gf, Spang & Wanner, Union forge, [lebanon county. Foui 
Bres and one run-out: water power; product, antraracits and caaitinal 
hi ( Minis ; atinual capacity, Sod net tons; average make. 050 tons. 

.Mont Altu forge, llont Alto iron company, Oh. W. Wiestling. superin- 
lent lent, Ifent Altu. Franklin ruiinty. Prrnliu/t, blooms. 

Blount Airy forge, Thomas K. Williams, Shartlesville, Berks county. 
Built about 1840; water power; product, Muoms. 

New liarket forge, Light Urullier.s, ralmyid, I ■ county. Rmduct, 

blooms. 

North Kiln forge, near l.y, has J.eeii idle for five years. 

Perry forge, J. B. Seidel & Sons, MaryaviUe^ Perry county, Built in 
1862; o fires and one run-out tire; water power; product, charcoal blooms ; 
annual capacity, 1,500 net tons j average make, 1,150 tons. 

Ringwonti forge, Thomas J. IHailey, Penningtonville, Okester OOOUty. 
Very old WOlks; 3 forge tires and one run-out; water power; product, 
charcoal bloumB. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 287 

Sadsbury forge, Charles Goodman & Brother, Pcnningtonvillc, Chester 
county. Works very old ; 3 forge fires and one run-out ; water power ; 
product, charcoal blooms. 

Springton forge, Cornog & M'llvaine, Wallace, Chester county. Very 
old works ; 4 forge fires and one run-out ; water power ; product, charcoal 
blooms. 

Tyrone forge, Lyon, Shorb & Co., Tyrone, Blair county! Product, 
blooms. 

Union forge, Union forge company, Union Forge, Lebanon county. Very 
old works; product, blooms; annual capacity, 1,000 net tons; average 
make, 700 tons. 



THE COST OF IRON. 

On the publication of a table compiled by Mr. Wm. E. S. Baker, of the 
Duncannon iron company, Secretary of the Eastern Ironmasters' Associa- 
tion, giving the cost of pig iron on furnace bank and of bar iron at mill, for 
a series of years, objection was made to the showing of it on the ground that 
no allowance had been made for interest on capital invested, and that the 
totals did not, therefore, fairly represent the cost of the iron in the years 
indicated. Mr. Baker, has accordingly revised the table, and added in- 
terest upon the value of the plant necessary to an average production, ir» 
which shape we publish it, as given in "The Iron Age." 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



289 




5o5„o 



19 Statistics. 



'»,C E--E*. Z?~~ 
3 ■ £ "j; ?■£ £ a S a 




*.-7 *J7 HJB.S «24'» *»'» fl% IB | RS ..- 

i«* ?-:< Pi W P w »'„ M^a »H 

IW a , a n a«3 b a* av ai »■•! 

» •> " :.', n •-'*' ••> a aw rw n a 

isn » s ■>■ a a »», xi, ws 

i-i~ si j- . jt' i ji «»» arc it « M»i 

im»...... »i h » , a kj's a '-- u '-'I-., hh a a 

ino n •:< au^ 3»vi 3> a n si 

iki mH sa b a a :i -ji si a si a 

a , u , »ii j. sou » i . say aw stu wj a .- . a 

IBM..... ... Ji',, ;n B H :»> , DM w» MM 

I8M .: HI ■ .:• MM M 

■ '.-■•-■ 

im -■ -• ■-•■■ a -' a -"'•! » » afi 

i«j -7', .,', I as a>« sag 

l*M MJl 22 1 * 3S* 

' — •• a>, Em H' 24 2»', SUt !»'., B 

« -ss ai, ssis ss^ a ssi. a 

i*i a: I. sua au ax ax a ib ■, iwtj sish w ir 

I4K 20 20V 204) 31.4 -I 

I** :« :t<\ a.s ■ m€ b a , a »* n> 

I4M *V, »', V. II W 8 SI »>« 40S, 

IM6... • N 441, H | IIS, «.'., H i: I- . M , m *•■. 

IM7 *»', *;'.. 41 , II IJl» *1 «l's 44 II II H , B If. 

iaM asx wy r«i. *'i n a? »- h aw *>'„ 41 •* 4j 

S 40fi 44*3 *' II 'i »'v. 40,'t W^ »■* 

igro i :«i', :u . m-. hi njj ,r\ eti :n-. tl] «s I ai ■ i »fi 

IB] .i"- SOX MM u-H, »3 « Silt » .»; .»;;, ST', J7U Mt 

1872. 37 40»i 47 4VM 4»H | M^ ■!', D M 

Itffl , im 48 48*j 4TM 48 4S I » « iBS Ej 

" .Wi-nme Mr year IOMbtMI •>/',",. IIIkIii"-! n> mil. 873»n— Aiigunt, 1844. 

♦ Vncprtnln. Mt tTera,m for year. • 

: I..nvi..~l MOI|t Bur in,,nlli. I II . IMI. 1 Hlul!,-I :iv,- n ,u.- r.., - KM. 

From 1812 to July, 1866, averaged monthly from weekly quotations in 

Philadelphia and 2icw York prices current. Prom July, I860, to 1873,. 

avei&ged from weekly quotation? in bullcii f the American Iron andk 

steel aeeociation. 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



291 



PRICES OF AMERICAN IRON RAILROAD BARS IN PHILADEL- 
PHIA FOR TWENTY-SIX YEARS, FROM 1847 TO 1873. 

Tons of 2,240 Lbs. 



i 



HI 

I 



> 

•3 

s 


1 


-- 1 

I : f 



I 



1M 


*« 




til 


■ '» 


47 


1*1 


« 




*.v 


1853 


74.4 




n 


'<.-,. 


70 


ISM 


S2'.. 




■j{ 


ISM 


so 


ISM 


4»v 


I*» 


33 




« 


'«. 


mm 


!S« 


7J.4 


ls«4 


»4 


18» 


■ H 


I«0 


»0 




as 




«*» 




761, 




74 


i«n 


8BM 


I8J5 


1-4 





PIS 


ROM 


870 


.7,1 


■"," 


*• 8B 


a 


IH 


s?y sax us' 


W* 


SS.'-J 


47.4 48 


41 


4W 


so 


♦45 47M 


45 


45 


48 


4fl' ■ 48.4 
WS 1 77* 


4*/, 


404 


40 M 


SB 


ffl* 


nvj 


81 81 


81 


81 


81 


« «y 

«y «ay 


«2« 


00 

as 


UK 


'.-. , 61'.. 


65* 


07 


r.7 


GO OO 


BO 


Ml 


.•-i 


m'i 4oy 

is ., 48 , 


MM 


I 1 ! 
484} 


sow 


«4 ' M 


44 


44 


44 


*»'■» [ 41* 
BM 72Ui 


41Ni 

7sy 


11 : 

7.1' 


4i y 

7S*, 


mi 'l 1(>5 


111 130 


1274 


ia* noy 


IIMH BOM 


84H. 


n «7« 


84V, 1 81 


M4j 


-'• MM 


-'-'., --i^ 


S 1 ' 


It 7» 


:« 7» 


7t» 


7a 


78 


70 78 


78 


Km 


71H 


72M 1 73.H 


TIM 


90 


49 


8BW | 71 

-'I'. '".4 


71 


WW 


"X 


BD 


■ 


83 


■ 


HO 


78 



say 
*s 

46 
... j 
774 
81 

sum 
V, 
«7 
60 

II 

1414 

8fl« 

S^ 
78 

ft 

89 
78 



MM 

• ;\:-, 
(184 

46* 

i 

504 

05 

87 
SO 

4H'-i 
4« 

4.1% 
4iy 

7J* 
UH>i 
86* 
87 

Si?i 

7V 

80 

-■:• 

71 
75* 



887.4' 


867 


«M 


81 


£3 


w.y 


47,4 


48 


45 


4S 


5g 


19.4 


77 . 


77.S 


81 


81 


64« 


b 


H 


■.-. 


07 


67 


SO 


50 


4JN 


I-', 


47 


*Ji» 


43 


41** 


l.i 


431, 


QK 


784 


paw 


140 


w 


■7' 


87M 


79 


KS4 


tig 


7* . 

ray 


71 


71 


884) 


hV, 


75 


w 



»S74 

111 

si y 

48 
48 

51 

77y 

•• - 

•■■ 

M 

w.y 

50 
48S 

17 . 
«B4 

46 

674 
U8 \ 

US 

Vi 

£'■ 

784 
71-'.. 
71 
«*y 

m 



? 


> 


> 

as 


1 
s 


a 


U 


? 


1 "3 


1 




. -i 






i 8 


«7'i 




100 


61 


ttsy 


I0U 


81 <; 


S37, 


too 


148 


U7-, 


100 


♦46' < 


tiis 


100 


61 


48 v; 


1(1) 


774 


774 


100 


784 


soy 


100 


<n 


«!.'» 


10U 


64 


«1A, 


2 


SO 


M>4 


80 


SO 


■Ml 


48'j 


4!!^ 


1U0 


484 


48 


100 


swy 


42« 


1011 


48 


lll'j 


118 


87'< 


791, 


N.i 


IX! 


•128 


a« 


HI 


9BS 


I..7 


85 


86V 


111 


821'. 


Mty 


i:« 


78*4 


I4U 


78.4 


"4 


138 


70 


72S4 


US 


71 


in 


8*4 


854 


112 


61 


7SS 


112 



• For latter part of 1857 prices were probably only nominal. 
t Uncertain. 

. . ,. ^, v . —.„ i Norember and December. 1861. 

. Lowest montni, 83S,i- j Janamry ^a February. 1882. 

Prices averaged for years to nuarest eighth. 



$ Highest month, 81S3*-September. 
I Lowest year, (41V— 1862. 
T Highest year, «128-1864. 



From 1847 to 1866 from Philadelphia prices current, except for years 
1850 and 1851, for which estimates were furnished by Mr. S. J. Reeves. 
From 1866 to 1873 from bulletin of the American iron and steel associa- 
tion, averaged from weekly quotations. 

The annual premium on gold is calculated from daily quotations of gold 
sales in the Banker's Magazine. 



292 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



Tin: PITfSBORG f * I « ; n:ov MARKET for rSta and lMt. aS pre- 
sented IN THE COLUMNS OF THE "AMERICAN MANUFAC- 
TURER " 

On ( In I following pages we give OUT readers annual tables showing the 
prices wl nil grades of iron in Pittsburg for the pas-t two yefcrl 1-y monlha, 
A wind or (wo as to the scope of these tables will prevent any misrepre- 
sentatdoiM Tiny represent only the sales that have been from week to 
1 in the Manufacturer. At times, for reasons that are appar- 
'•ni. broken have not thought best to report certain sales, but these will 
BOl probably exceed 10 per ivnl. of the entire amount. Boles arc often 
made ■ 1 1 1 - •> - * from the fiirnace without passing through the broker's hands. 
These are DOt reported except in a very few instances. The column of 
Binge price" is the actual average price, and DOt the average of prices. 
For example, if 10 tons were sold at $30, and lt)0 at $40, the average pi 
would be $35* 0£, and not as would be given in most instances, $35. The 
former Bgoraa would be the average price ; the latterthe average of prices. 
The figures given in the tables are the average prices. The difference in 
the volume of business for the two years will be bettor understood by the 
following table : 





1873. 




1874. 


of all grades ■January. . . . 

DO . dO. . . . .March,.,.,. 

Do ... '1" August 

Do do September. . 

Do do December.. 


41 v 488 

20,146 
US, 926 
7,970 
11,058 
13, DM 
16,071 

111. v, m 

17.TLM 

4,523 

48,214 

38,820 


Stiles of all grailo* — l miliary .. . 
Do do April 

Do do August 

Do do September, 

Do do October 

Do. do . Deeoml 1ST, 


18,39* 

.i,ss: 

i*. 166 

11,946 

13,786 

23, 123 

10,8«7 

:-.:•:■- 

7,685 

♦».(»57 

8,648 




101,480 


140,453 



The totals of the two years are not as different as the course of business 
might at first lead one to suppose, it being mainly anthvneite irons, the 
amount of these irons reported in 1873 being 43,757, and in 1874 only 9,998 
tons. Prices have been so low that when the difference in freight was con- 
sidered iron could not be sent from the east to this market. 

Is prices there has been a marked difference in the two years. In 1*73 
the highest price for gray forge, bituminous, which is the standard iron En 
thifl market, was $44 00, the lowest being $24 00. While the market has 
been lower in 1S74, there is not the same relative difference between Uu 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



293 



highest and lowest price as in 1873, the highest being $32 00, and the low- 
est $23 00. The decline from the highest price, which was in January, 
has been gradual. " 

We give below the average prices of good gray coke iron by months for 
1873 and 1874: 



MONTHS. 



1873. , 1874. 



January NO 25 $30 43 

Februarv 43 00 ! 30 87 

March..". : 41 88 | 28 64 

April 4162 27 58 

May i 40 47 ■ 20 85 

June 37 04 : 26 79 



MONTHS. 



1873. 1874. 



July $35 55 $26 90 

August ! 34 23 26 62 

September i 34 34 20 64 

October 31 95 : 2« 13 

November ; 25 38 25 OS 

December 29 22 2108 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



29T 



I « 



II 
3 h 



6 
U 

X. 

H 
>•. 

c 
W 

I 



Q 
SB 

< 






os 
o 

OS 

< 
s 

z 

o 

S2 

o 

•— * 

o 



as ; 

33 

CO 



£4 i 




Average j»il«. 



Lowest price . , 



IllRllfFtpMC?.. 



No. Of tCUS.... 



Ave mire price, 



l ,-■.•.. ;■<,.-■ 



II igbeat price. 



saMfee 

MjWWI 

j= £ = = = 

"fisesss 



an 
■■ 

4 » 
[JJJ 



.* = £ = 



am -.s 



mass 

tsifl 



_*_ 



Sii -r.r.fi-siri 
"88 t 88551 



No. of luns.,,. 
Average prlrr. 



Lowest price . . 



Highest price.. 



No. of tOJIS 



Aveingo pries. 



J,owe« price .. 



nifbMI price.. 



m ii*ais 



Ml 



tf- : 



_gBa«as_ 

£Sl$fS 



No. of tons.... 
Average price. 



Lowest price . . 



Highest price., 



No. if Kim.... 



88TS1T 

isnu 

<* 

ftS'SSBS 
g.fiKf*f5fl 



:i;if r 



S 

J»SR_RRi> 

S3e5c§ 
gSSS=?l 



Jiillli 

*r . . .«. . 



I C : 



= 5 

m 
£1 



s * 



5 '■ 



S 



IfgHI 

mm 

BiioeeBe"i 



b*8« 

RSSn 

! swaa ' 



: 8888 

1 2*11 



B8 

Si! 



r> 



M 
:=: 

RS 

ZS :fi * SMS" 



:■ 



Ml 

as 



5,^ 



-fi 



* ft 



£Su-i 



bsws 



3S :="> 



38 :S 
«H :* 



S3 :3 
S3 :S? 



" |;i :p 



SI i 

M : 
S8; 



5 = : 
"88": 

-i i 



= S 

IS 






S*b 



•=3 



4-: I 



??? h 



1 |1I|S 3. 1 



• ccCo 

Kxse 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 299 



OIL TRADE. 



PITTSBURG OIL TRADE. 

Office of the "Pittsbcrg Commercial." ) 
Thursday, September, 17, 1874. j 

NEW FREIGHT ABRANGMEXT. 

A new system of freight rates, by which all refineries, whether located 
here or in Cleveland or Titusville, arc to be. placed on an equal footing, by 
means of a drawback, has been agreed upon by the Pennsylvania Central, 
Atlantic and Great Western, the Northern Central and Erie railways. The 
new arrangement is stated in a circular which has been issued, and from 
which we extract the following : 

Commencing October 1, 1874, the following rates on refined and crude 
oil shall govern the market : 

The rates on refined oil from oil refineries at Cleveland, or Titusville or 
elsewhere in and adjacent to the oil region shall be as follows : 

To Boston, $2 10 per barrel. 

To Philadelphia, $1 85 per barrel. 

To Baltimore, $1 85 per barrel. 

To New York, $2 00 per barrel. 

Prom which shall be refunded the amount paid for the transportation of the 
crude oil by rail from the mouth of the pipes to the said refineries, upon 
the basis of fourteen barrels of crude oil to the refiners, for every ten bar- 
rels of refined oil forwarded by rail from them (the refiners) to the eastern 
-points named. 

Settlements of this drawback to be made on the refined oil forwarded dur- 
ing each month. 

You will observe that under this system the rate is even and fair to all 
parties, preventing one locality taking advantage of its neighbor, by reason 
of some alleged or real facility it may possess. 

Oil refiners and shippers have asked the road from time to time, to make 
all rates even and they would be satisfied. This scheme docs it, and we 
trust it will work satisfactorily to all. 

It will be seen that by this arrangement the railroads will carry crude oil 
free to Cleveland, Pittsburg, Titusville and other refineries free of charge. 
That is the refiners pay for freight on crude oil, but when the petroleum 
has been refined and shipped to the seaboard, the amount paid on the crude 
is returned. To give refineries at the seaboard an equal favor, one thou- 



800 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 



Band barrels oi crada oil a ill bo carried io New York for the same price as 
the refined oil which the thousand barrels of erode would make, can be 
transported. 

Tin- effeol of this SflMlgesaRBi will he bo partially benefit the business of 
oar-oil refiners, by irapro* ; ii rates, and removing the inequalities 

which have Inn inline existed in favor of points less advantageously lo- 
■ :it<'d than Pittsburg It Joes mil, however, place Pittsburg in the position 
whicb it DUgbl to occupy by virtue of its material advantages fur the nil 
refining trade. That position can only be secured by the establishment of 
competition in the transportation of oil. The completion of the Columbia 
Conduit company's pipe line, ox of any similar enterprise, which will en- 
able the Baltimore ami Ohio road to enter into the business, will insure the 
establishment of the lowest living rates a1 which oil can be transported. 
That consummation is one which the oil men of this eity need. The «<•!- 
of thai business does nol require any gifts, nor is it (hi its interest to 
be subject to the dictum of any one transportation company, but when the 
establishment ol competing lines shall insure that erode oi! shall be brought 
in their relinen'es, ami the refined product taken away, at the lowest prac- 
tioablc rates, the oil trade of Pittsburg need be second to none in the coun- 
try. 

The Oi! City Derrick suggests a constitutional diffioulty in this connec- 
tion as follows : '"But the railroads appear to have forgotten' that a new 
Constitution was adopted in this State last year, and that one of the sections 
of said Constitution positively prohibits any favor between transportation 
companies and individuals or corporations, by abatements or drawbacks. 
The people made this a law. and it remains to bo seen if they will allow 
the railroad companies to break it, by putting in force this arrangemi 

which has for its basis certain drawbacks or (abates in favor of Bbippara 
n ud refiners." 



MINERAL STATISTICS. 301 

PIPE LINE REPORTS. 

We find in the Oil City and Titusville papers, the teports of the various 

pipe companies up to August 81 . It is said by the Oil City Derrick that 
there is an evident intention on the part of some of the companies to evade 
the law in making their statements. We give below the report of stocks 
on hand August 31, so far as received : 

Barrels. 

United pipe company 911 ,629 81 

Union pipe company 394 ,568 48 

Pennsylvania trausportion company 163 ,199 22 

Titusville pipe company 30 ,262 50 

New York pipe company 18 ,744 19 

Grant pipe company (59 ,309 77 

Octave oil company 17 ,684 21 

Church Run oil company '. 7 ,410 89 

Sandy pipe company 39 ,328 91 

Milton pipe company 49 ,695 20 

Sage Run pipe company 5 ,445 23 

Antwerp and Oil City pipe company 150 ,000 00 

Karns pipe company 15? ,507 42 

Tidioute pipe company 23,292 88 

New York and Allegheny oil company 13 ,369 78 

Tidioute and Warren oil company 17 ,100 00 

Fisher's pipe company 14 ,000 00 

Sage Run pipe company 5 ,445 23 

American transfer company 82 ,500 00 

Cherrytree pipe company 9 ,500 00 

Total stock on hand 2 ,179 ,998 72 

The above shows an increase in stock during the past month of 453,354 
barrels, the stock at the last report, having been 1,726,639 barrels. 






MINERAL STATISTICS. 



OFFICIAL OIL RETURNS, 

Tabu of n turn* from parlies engaged in the storage and transportation of 
petrottum oit, for the quarter ending September do, 1 s 7 4 . made pursuant 
to act of 18th May, A. I>. 1874. 



■ •■■ A! I' A VI I:-. 



Vinci nan Transfer company 

\ in werp Pipe aamjMoy 

< in i n! i Hun pip© company — ,. 

« "harles Hun Pipe company 

Delaware River Btonge company 

I'nuikl in Pipe lino 

hi l'i|. ( c..iii]uiiiy.. 

Kama Pipe line 

Munhall, John «fc Co 

Sew York and Allegheny Oil oofnpfeny 

V.w York Pipe company 

Octave Oil company. ..." 

< Ml city Pipe company 

Pennsylvania Transportation company., 

Prentice, F. A Co 

TCoehenter anil Olflop il la 
Relief Pipe line com puny, 

Shaffer Run Pipo •■oni[>:in v , r , , , , 

i ton Pipe lino * 

Smith's Ferry and inland Hun (ill Tnui*. oo... . 

Ticlioiitc oil Pipe »■' >ti i [ mi iy 

Titusvillr l'i| ompany 

Taft & Pay in* Pipe company 

Union Pipe coin puny 

Cnilo'l Pi | >< • lino 

Vandeignit, Formon .v 'Y>.'npipe line 



'I'.. Ml 



POBtoi 



st. Petersburg 

Nt. Petersburg. . 
Titusvllle., . 

oil citv 

112 Walnut st., Pliila., 

Franklin. 

Parker 

Parker 

Oil Citv .. 

TiiUouti- 

TttUBVUIO. . 

Tituaville 

St. Petersburg 

Tituaville 

Coal City 

oil i it v' 

Millcrstovn ., . 

Oil City 

Oil City 

Beaver county 

Tidioutc. 

Tituaville 

Franklin 

Parker 

oiicity":::::::: ;.::: 

■ 



135,839.01 

Ufl,M8.1S 
9,562.68- 
8,352.00. 

l:y.,9S6.00 
8,1ft 

154,087.24 

263,672.41 
53,471.00. 
I'.', I'll. 71' 
11,098.01 
17,829. OT 
78,885.88 

145,979,08 
23,340.00 
83,85 

T'S lMfl Hi 
:'". 712.00 
16, 092. S3 
Hi, 433. PI 
80,218.45 
37,899.02 
18. aSJ .24 
783,1 
819,331. £>1 

69,081.84 

3, ana, ooT.fli 



• 1^-ai.wi. 



BUSINESS OF PITTSBl'RfJ. 



303 



BUSINESS OF PITTSBURG 



MANUFACTURING AND BUSINESS STATISTICS FOR 1ST I 

Reported for the Bureau of Stalistks, by ]Vm. Evans and James T. Hudvuit 

The year 1874 has been a peculiarly unfavorably one to the leading in- 
terests which form Pittsburg'8 principal prosperity. The industries in iron, 
glass and oil, have all been subjected during the year to the severe teste of 
a heavy decline in values and a slack demand. Them circumstances 
■ssarily cause a falling off for many of the leading interests, but the 
■ase thus shown is not eo great as might have been expected, a 
taking everything into account, present n very favorable showing i<>r i ls< 
ility and endurance of Pittsburg's chief industries. 
The mercantile interests of Pittsburg have, of course, felt the depression 
r the manufacturing part of the community. But, nevertheless, the ye&i 
has been an average one for the amount of business. A careful examina- 
tion reveals the met that in the amount of articles handled during the year, 
the business of the past twelve months, exceeds the average of forme* 
i by ten to fifteen per cent., while calculated in values it falls *Wt "I 
tverage by from fifteen to twenty per cent. This is due partly t.i tin- 
tor economy rendered uccessary by the exigencies of the times, and 
pAftly to the decline iii values which h.<- general during the year. 

The task of collecting statistics has been a difficult one, and some infor- 
mation which would have been of importance we are forced to omit. It 
id been intended tu include in the present report some statistics com-eni- 
ing the general tonnage movement of freight to and from Pittsburg, but 
this was rendered impossible by the apprehension of some railway oHii.i.ils, 
that by this means information might be made public which would be li 
■ 1 .aiitageoua to their roads. Other gentlemen, connected with the rail- 
way interests of Pittsburg, furnished very liberally all the information 
asked for. and the statistics thus obtained, though incomplete, confirmed 
the opinion expressed elsewhere that the business of the year, calculated 
by tonnage, was increased considerably over any former year. The tonnage- 
of eastern shipment- for the year, as an example .shows an increase of over 
lifty per cent,, composed principally of the product of the iron, glass and 
I manufactories, while the market values of the same shipments would be a 
• onsiderable de cr e to for the same period. We give below statistics of 
the iron, oil, coal and coke and produce business transacted in Pittsburg 
during the year ending December 12, 1874 5 



:n! 



BUSINESS OK PITTSBURG. 



COAL AND OOK35. 

Notwithstanding the adverse circumstances of the coal aud coke trade 

daring 1. 1 1 < • Tear, the statement of the amount handled presents a very good 
wing. Navigation was entirely suspended from June to November, and 
almost entirely stopped for two months previous. In addition to this, the 
latrous vratsrapoui, which destroyed so much life and property on the 
26th of July, created considerable damage in the Saw Mill Run mining 
section, and to a certain extent caused a stoppage of operations these 
Notwithstanding these drawbacks, wo present below a statement of re- 
ceipts showing n considerable increase in the total, aggregating 8,73tV-7^ 

tons til' cual, and 1,110,079 ions of coke, equal to 112,088,190 bushel- 

!. anil i;ti,658,740 bushels of coke. The receipts, last year, won- 1 IS 
866,146 bushels of coal, and 84,880,500 oi oofee, making the aggregate re- 
ceipts, Ibl the present season, 178,64(1,930 bushels, against 149,296,646 — 
an increase of 29,151,284 bushels. The shipments by river were 48,241,- 
000 bushels, against 63, (505,000 bushels the preceding year. 

SHIPMENT OF COAL THROUGH THE MONONG.VIIKL A tfiVISATTOM COMPANY'.* LOCKS 

KKOM ITS ol'ESIS... 





Bushels. 


Tolls. 




Bushels, 


Tolls. 






I860 87,047,732 

1861 I'll. $65,722 

I.SIV2. 1H.SR3 DSD 


982 17 
30,945 92 
26,780 20 
40,689 98 
61,881 20 




■,806, 185 


S3,::- 
10,221 Bfl 




7,778,911 
9,645,127 
0,818,381 
9, 708, 507 
13,207,987 
12,681,828 




18,24194 L863 26,444,253 






18,683 80 
17,0 

17. 850 24 




38,522,792 
42,615,800 
30, 07 •-',"00 
45,301,000 
63,612,600 
57,596,400 
48,891,300 

54.2IW.SOU 

68,178,238 

59,934,800 


69.608 4S 






77,811 26 

54,855 63 




i W8J 


ins, 


14.630.W1 H4 18 
15,716.3(37 21,201 80 
17,331,948 25-097 51 


91,376 3* 
104, n:w HI 










118,705 68 




22,284.090 
8,584.095 

28,P7:i,r,: x; 
26,606,689 

■>.:»'.. i"l 




100,338 64 




10,566 42 
37,111 41 
34,553 49 
39,065 65 


1872. 


115.1309 20 
1 16, 728 75 






I860.. . 











COAL AND COKE. 305 

COKE RECEIPTS PER SLACK WATER FOR THE PAST TWO YEARS. 



Pool No. 2, Pool No. 2, 
1872 A 1873, 1873 A 1874, 

bushels. ! bushels. 



December, 1872 147,000 i 116,000 

January, 1873 48,000 87,000 

February 263,600 I 204,000 

March 320,000 I 447,000 

April 744,500 | 388,000 

May 394,500 226,500 

June .• 240,500 ' 224,000 

July 316,600 i 141,000 

August 124,000 52,000 

September 15,000 i 52,000 

October 672,000 92,500 

November 116,000 ' 69,000 

Total bushels 3,310,500 ] 2,049,000 

Total tons. 55,175 ' 84,150 



COAL RECEIPTS OS THE MONONGAHELA FOR THE YEAR ENDIXO DECEMBER 1, 1874. 



Pool No. 1, Pool No. 2, ! Pool No. 3, Pool No. 4, 
bushels. bushels. bushels. ; bushels. 



December, 1873 694,000 1,023,000 801,100 741,800 

January, 1874 1,601,000 4,746,000 1,396,000 1,605,700 

February- 1,423,500 4,549,500 1,682,700 1,596,500 

March 1,400,000 5,150,000 1,860,000 1,485,600 

April 1,517,500 4,968,400 1,864,800' 1,635,900 

May 696,000 3,099,800 1,028,000 802,900 

June 83,000 034,000 335,500 342,000 

July.. .' 39,000 715,500 239,100 561,300 

August 47,000 366,000 481,100 399,700 

September 21,500 209,500 126,500 753,200 

October 123,600 479,500 822,200 

November 753,500 2,615,500, 894,400 1,223,500 

Total bushels 8,399,500 28,856,700 1 1,530,400 I 10,148,200 

Total tons 279,983 961,890 ' 384,347 338,273 



MONTHLY RIVER EXPORTS OK COAL SHIPPED BY THE OHIO RIVER, AND WHERE TO. 

December, 1873. 

Biuhels 

To Cincinnati 954 ,000 

To Louisville 1 ,033 ,000 

To Parkersburg 20 ,000 

Total .* 2 ,007 ,000 

20 Statistics. 



<n; BUSINESS OF PITTSBURG. 

January, 1874, 

Baebi i.-. 

To Cincinnati 3,830 ,0(Ri 

Tn .M,,li,u,, 180,000 

To Louisville 4 ,313 ,900 

T-. Nashville 1 70 ,000 

To Bayou Sara. 95 ,000 

To New Orleans 160 ,000 

T< >tal 8 ,748 ,000 

Fttiruanj, 1874. 

To Cincinnati •. £,645 ,<>»" 

To Louisville 4,582,000 

To St. Louis B81 ,000 

Tntal 8 ,578 .000 

March, 1874. 

To Cincinnati 2,547 ,000 

To Louisville 5 ,350 ,000 

To St. Louts Mfl ,000 

To Cairo 170 ,000 

To I'arkersbnrg- 12,000 

Total. . s ,555 ,000 

>•'/, 1S74. 

To Cincinnati li.n'.ij ,000 

To Louisville 5 ,256 ,000 

To St. Louis ?fi ,000 

To Now Orleans (390 ,000 

To l'arkersburg * go ,000 

Total 9,143. 

Ma,j, 1874. 

To Cincinnati 1 .j-j;; 

To L-'uievillc I ,i)]7 .nun 

To St Louis :.-... 12 ,uuo 

Total , 2 ,252 .(mki 



COAL AND COKE. 307 

July, 1874. 

Bushels. 

To Ironton 80 ,000 

To Cincinnati 740 ,000 

To Louisville 150 ,000 

To St. Louie 140 ,000 

Total 1,110,000 

November, 1873. 

To Cincinnati 4 ,973 ,000 

To Louisville 2 ,415 ,000 

To Nashville 105 ,000 

To New Orleans 355 ,000 

Total ; 7 ,848 ,000 

Total for year 48 ,241 ,000 

Total tons 1^608" 0~33 



COAL RECEIPTS BY RAIL. 

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD RECEIPTS OF COAL AND COKE FOR PAST YEAR. 



December, 1873. 
January, 1874... 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

'final 







" 


_ . 


Coal, 
No. cars. 


Coal, tons. 
31,650 


Coke, 
No. cars. 


Coke, tons. 


2,595 


2,507 


:W,084 


2,850 


34,205 ! 


3,138 


37,656 


2,786 


33,432 


2,549 


30,588 


i. 2,836 


34,032 


4,105 


49,260 


3,181 


38,172 . 


3,641 , 


43,692 


3,548 


42,576 


3,312 


39,774 


3,973 


47,676 ! 


3,390 


40,680 


3,016 


43,398 


3,214 ' 


38,568 


4,588 


55,026 


3,805 i 


45,660 


5,214 


02,568 


3,938 


47,256 


4,960 


59,520 


4,322 1 


51,864 


3,202 


38,424 , 


3,593 , 


43,119 


43,346 


520,679 


41,514 ; 


498,201 



r.i 31NESS OF PITTSBURG. 

PinSaUKC AND CASTLE -ilANV'N K.Ul.Ii'MD, FOR FAR TWO YEARS. 



[872-78. 1878-74. 

Bushels. Bmhols. 



caber, L872. . . 
Jann 

nary 

March ........ 

April 

May 

.lune 





282,258 
288.013 

LT'.1, 1)1.5 

522,440 
179, 118 

•JiiS.-lW 
l-l, 1'.'7 

L4Q, 203 



879,480 
384,660 

887,360 
896,650 

829,016 
218,908 



1872-78, 

Bushels. 



September.. 

OotObl 

Noveiiilii-r. . . 



S20, 582 
871,801 



1878-74. 

Bn»hcl* 



167,686 
870.74H 
821,493 



Total buahela . . 3,378,oo« 8,825,714 



Total ton*. 112 






M'lTlI.ATIOS. 

coai. am' COKS ui:<i;iri- Hm 1874. 



Pen n~i i '. .1 n i;\ railn ■-■* • i - 

mrg and < 'astle Shannon 

plttaburg and Gonnellarills 

Pittsburg, Cincinnati Kid St. Louis 

beny Valley railroad 

Saw Mill Run.. . 

Western Pennsyli anla 

Monongahela River 

Total 



foal, tons. Coke, 



590,879 

1-7. 

101,876 

206,284 

231,572 

05,109 

,064,493 



198,901 






9,786,278 



1,110, 



Equal i»i DuMielsto 112, o>- 






PBTHOLETJM*. 

The relative position of Pittsburg to the petroleum producing sectimi- 
is 8ti cli as tn make Iht tin' natural receiving, re lining and distributing centra 
nl' the oil trade. The fact that heretofore the entire transportation of oil 
for Pittsburg lias been controlled by a single railroad corporation, ha-- 
Bolted in riving Other cities less favorably located decided advantages in 
the matter of transportation rates. The attention of capitalists has been 
drawn during the past year to this stair of (acta, and several steps have been 
taken to improve the position of Pittsburg in this respect. The opening of 
tin' Pittsburg ami I .'nnni-llsvillr railroad to oil shipments has given tin: n - 
fineries of our city ■ decided advantage in the transportation oftheSr refined 
product In llie seaboard, and during the few weeks that that route has been 
upeiii -d. a large amount of oil has gone forward. Other enterprises have 
been formed looking bo the cheaper transportation of crude oil from the 

wells to this city, which, when consul ated, will give Pittsburg such iir- 

oided advantages sa > refining centn as to place her Car in advance of th 
compethloTS which have heretofore been most successful. 



PETROLEUM. 309 

■ 

The unfavorable condition of the oil market during the past year will be 
seen, on reference to the table of prices current appended. During the 
early part of the year when prices were remunerative, the business trans- 
acted was largely in excess of any previous year. But when in June the 
downward course of the market resulted in establishing a lower range of 
prices than was ever before known, it resulted in a serious checking of the 
business, and caused a decrease in the receipts of crude oil, as compared 
with the previous year of over 400,000 barrels, as will be seen by reference 
to the figures given below. The eastward movement of crude oil, on the 
contrary, although seriously retarded by the disadvantageous circumstances 
alluded to, shows an increase of b'5,328 barrels over that of 1873, which in 
its turn was more than 125,000 barrels greater than any previous year. 



CRUDE OIL. 

-CRUDE OIL RECEIPTS AT PITTSBURG, BY RIVER AND RAIL, FROM 1859 TO 1874, IN- 
CLUSIVE. 



Barrels. ' Barrels. 



1859 7,063 1867 727,494 

1860 ; 17,161 1868 \ 1,081,227 

1861 94,102 1869 1,028,902 

1862 171,774 1870 1,050,810 

1868 175,181 1871 \ 1,146,493 

1864 208,744 1872 1,186,501 

1865 630,246 1873 2,035,182 

1866^. . „_. 1,263 , 326 1874 1,628,070 

EXPORTS OF REFINED OIL EAST. 

The following are the exports of refined oil east, for the past ten years : 

Barrels. " Barrels. 



1865 298,111 , 1870 T. i 811,158 

1866 424,848 1871 ' 733,943 

1867 498,221 • 1872 743,510 

1868 ' .724,991 1873 869,946 

1869 596,475 1874 035,274 




Jnnuan 
Do ...n, 

. . i". 
Do 26, 

l'.'Urn:i r\- :, 

DO 10, 

Hi- ■>.i, 

March 3, 

i". n. 

Do i«. 

Do 28, 

n 

v i .t 1 1 9, 

Hi! IS, 

DO . .. 20, 

I"- 87, 

Muv 4, 

...11, 

Do ...is, 

Do 

Jons l, 

Do 8, 

..n. 
Do '-"•-. 

IM », 

Jnjj 8, 

Do 18, 

it.. 

DO IT. 

DM X, 

IK. 10, 

17, 

Do SI, 

~;.'l ii .-in i.rr 7, 

Do 14, 

Do ..-l. 

Do.. 28, 
■ i..i 

Da ... 12. 
. . . l", 

Do 28, 

November 'd. 

Do '•■. 

. - 18, 

Do . 

Do SO, 

Decern l ht 7, 

Do 14, 

Do 21; 



IRON, 



ROLLING MILLS. 

The | > ;t > i year lias beeu a very severe one to the irou manufacturing inter- 
ests which form so Luge a share of the industries of Pittsburg. The effects 
of tin 1 panic of 1S73 have been very severely felt throughout the entire 
year, causing a, shrinkage of value* of thirty per cent, in manufactured 
iron, and twenty per cent, in pig metal. The demand for manufactured iron 
is also largely decreased, and during the month of December the, difficult;* -^ 
culminated in a wages dispute between the manufacturers ami tin 
in their employ, which has n suited in the stoppage of the puddling depart- 
iik-iiI nl every rolling mill in the city, with one exception. Under such 
circumstances the natural result would be a large decrease in the consump- 
tion of material and the production of manufactured iron, accompanied by 
a large proportion of failures, such bave been the results to a certain di - 
grec, but the statistics presented below, and the facts as to the failures ol 
t lie past year, in this branch of trade, show a much smaller proportion of 
the results, usual to such a state of depression and shrinkage of values, 
than might have been expected. It is safe to say that the operations ol 
tin- past year afford an extraordinary proof of the stability and strength of 
the iron interests of Pittsburg. 

The statistics given below show the amount of pig iron, ore, blooms, and 
hp iron received during the past year. The totals are as follows: 

Pig iron, tuns 268 ,41 j 

Iron ore, tons 216 ,358 

Blooms, tons 7.650 

Scrap iron, tons 19 

Total, 1874 511 ,462 

This shows a falling off from the rc< cipt> ej £878 Of 119,720 tons, of which 
decrease 104,484 tonHwere in the receipts of ore. The entire decrease from re- 
ceipts of 1872 is 67,451 tons, while there is an aggregate increase over tin 
receipts of 1871 of 69,255 tons, so that while the consumption of material 
in our mills and furnaces during 18T4, was less than during the two years 
immediately preceding, it waB considerably larger than during any year 
previous to 1B72. 

The number and capacity of the blast furnaces here has not been changed 
during the year, their aggregate annual capacity being placed at 166 ,400 
tons. The actual product for the j r ear will of course fall short of this 
amount through interruptions and the unfavorable state of the market. 

The production of the rolling mills during the year will show a falling off 
in the number of tons of iron produced, which is much lesB than the pros- 






BUSINESS OF PITTS UVlUi. 



trated condition of 1 1 j« - iron trade wonld Indicate In (hot, when we 

into account the stoppage of some works through the linaiicial embarras>- 
mints of their owners and the restriction el" operations through wages, dis- 
pute* and similar difficulties, it will be found that Che production ol die 
works that hare been in operation is full v np to their average, estimated in 
tons. Hut when tin- aggregate value of the prodnction is estimated die 
•''age is shown to . large, and the unfavorable ohaJttetftX of the 

: s operations us '.cry apparent. The total production of manufactured 
Iron in 18T8 \i estimated at 435, ooo torn*, thai of 1874, at 370, oon toti 

i ease of 05,000. But the value of the tnannfacturefi of l9i4 fa estSma* 
t.il at £34,Sui ),000. while that of WS is placed at $26,350,000, a dee* 
which is proportionately twice as great as that iif the production : ■ 
by tons. The value of the raw material used in the rolling mills ilnring 
1>74 is estimated at $ 1 4 ,tit»s, lln. and the amount paid for labor is calcu- 
lated to be about $6.00(1,000. 

We give below detailed statistics of the receipts of pig metal, oro, 
blooms, dec'., for the year ending December 1, 1874: 



1'EXNSVLVAMA IIUI.HOAII Pill IIHIN AMI III 



no IKON. 



December, 1878 

[;oiMLirv, 1874. , , 

February 

Marcfa .," 

April 

May 

June. 

July 

ist 

September 

October 
Xovexnber 

i 





Tons. 


i :. re, 


Top*, 










244 


•J.i'.sl 


17 


187 


851 


3,801 


B 


09 


no 


2,189 


13 


I4:t 


IB] 


2,101 


7 


:: 


380 


a, two 


9 


83 


192 


3.113 


10 


110 


17:. 


LOSS 


111 


no 


ua 


1,673 


15 


165 


143 


1..VVJ 

1,813 






122 


12 




U8 


1,518 


18 


VIS 


75 


BBS 


.-• 


53 



2,2(11 34,871 



125 



1, 375 



IRON. 



313 



PITTSBURG, FORT WAYNE AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 



PIO IRON. OKE. 



SCRAP 
IRON. 



Tons. Tons. Tons. 



Tons. 



December, 1873. 
January, 1874. . . 

February 

March j. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 



Total 



12,380 
15,790 
13,700 

7,950 
11,715 
11,250 
14,620 
15,011 
11,200 
12,550 
11,740 

7,910 



145,816 



200 

760 
1,540 
1,240 
1,250.- 

920 
2,090 
5,410 
4,050 
1,830 

320 



20,010 



130 



120 
"96' 



340 



CLEVELAND AND PITTSBURG RAILROAD AND MANCHESTER STATION. 



230 
310 

360 
8.50 
650 
950 

1,180 
700 
750 
980 

1,180 
570 



8,710 



PIG IRON. ORE. 'BLOOMS. 



8CRAP 
IRON. 



Tons. Tons, i Tons. Tons. 



December, 1873. 
January, 1874. .. 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 



1,480 
1,740 

740 
1,470 
1,560 

910 
1,030 
2,880 

300 
1,240 
4,350 
2,180 



14,340 

12,890 

17,590 

17,010 

17, 510 

10,740 

17,080 

14,610 

14,450 

7,650 

8,240 

6,110 



ALLEGHENY VALLEY RAILROAD. 



530 
690 
340 



160 
20 



Total 19,880 j 158,230 1,720 



150 
150 
170 
140 
250 
110 
300 
170 
220 
180 
250 
160 



2,250 



PIG 
IRON. 



ORE. ; BLOOMS. 



Tons. 



Tons. 



Tons. 



Tons. 



I>ecember, 1873. 
January, 1874... 

February 

March 

April 

.May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 



1,400 
2,530 
1,960 
1,650 
1,050 
1,190 
2,060 
1,790 
1,640 
1,660 
1,250 
850 



200 

80 



00 

SO 

60 

130 

no' 



160 

'iao' 

20 

30 

mo 

530 

270 
ISO 
900 
1 130 



120 



650 
270 
150 
230 
240 
220 
150 
90 
410 



Total. 



19,030 



780 



3,450 



2,530 



:;i ! 



BUSINESS OF riTTsBri:., 

riTTsauna \>i> eoasBbumbU i-;.vii.ui>.\i«. 



no nt">. 




i-h. [BOW, 


Tons. 


Ton*. 






8,0*0 

1,2'JH 


February. 870 

1,780 






1,680 
1. 816 




1,070 






18,870 



vVKSTKRV PKSSSVLVASIA RAILROAD. 



I-H: (BON. 



1-Jl. IH.il>,-. 



Tons. 



Decern in-i'. i vt:; 

January, 1ST 4 

February 

M;ir,-ll 

April.. 







I. 

1 . 790 
BS0 

I 580 

•J. Ill) 



July. 1874. 
LUgUi 

SeptHinlx-r 
1 1. -i. .iter... 
November 

Tot* i . 



Tons. 



1,380 
1,390 

l,l»o 
1,680 
1,800 



. 



REC.U'lTI'l.ATIiiN. 



- - 


1']'. IKON'. 


a looms. 


win;. 

i 


SCRAP 

I nose. 




Tons. 


Ton*. 


Tons'. 


Tons, 


I'iiisli'uiLi. Ft. Wiiyni' .mil i hn :mo railroad, 

< 1 !• vi' land ami Pittsburg railroad 

Pittsburg and i 'in:nclU> illi- railroml 


84,873 
146,818 

19,000 
18,890 


1,720 


1 

880 

20,010 
[08,830 


8,842 

■\710 
8,860 


3.150 






PHtaborg, 1 'in.-imiiUi and :-•!. l."uis railroad, 














24fi, 137 


6,885 

77i 


17!»,890 
80,488 


18,875 


l'.v river 


155 






* 


1268,415 


7,859 


216,358 


19.03O 



GRAIN AND PRODUCE. 315 



GRAIN RECEIPTS. 

The grain and produce trade of Pittsburg, during the past }*ear, has had 
many difficulties with which to contend. The depressed condition of other 
industries has to a certain extent decreased the consumption of leading 
staples, and other causes such as discriminations in freight rates, &c, have 
operated to decrease the volume of trade in this line. Still there have been 
steps taken by which the interests of this department of business have been 
materially advanced. The organization of the Corn and Produce Exchange, 
which was accomplished in November, has been found to greatly facilitate 
the transaction of business, and by the union of the trade in one body, a 
6trong influence has been brought to bear in favor of more equitable terms 
of transportation. By reference to the tables given below, it will be seen 
that the total amount of grain handled in Pittsburg during the twelve 
months ending December 1, 1874, was 3,558,170 bushels, while in 1873 the 
total amount was 4,572,208 bushels, a falling off of 1,014,038 bushels. The 
elevator receipts, by a similar comparison, show an increase of 90,875 
bushels. The trade in flour has increased 63,408 bushels, and the amount 
of cheese handled shows an increase of nearly 20 per cent, over the previous 
year, while apples, butter and bacon show a slight falling off. The follow- 
ing tables give the receipts of the leading articles of breadstuffs and pro- 
duce during the year ending December 1, 1874 : 

GRAIN RECEIPTS. 



■ Wheat. : Barley. Rye. Outs, i Coru.- 

I Bushels. Bushels. Bushels. Bushels. ' Bushels. 



December, 1873 ' 114,208 35,217 8,612, 33,088! 40,350 

January, 1874 54,820 100,307 15,462. 82,068 47,552 

February 60,702 51,738 27,198: 80,630 69,638 

March ' 21,340: 41,040 14,297 56,370 35,662 

April 29,772 51,110 10,178 92,735 43, 023 

May 46,882 7,380, 2,717 134,37)2 62,120 

June 29,077 1 0,898 156,848 29,507 

July 35,517 725 2,517 [ 116,815. 19,575 

August 73,702 4,842 4,220 290,510 49,635 

September 29,607 *,<>"> 3,825 153,928 2ii.24i. 

October 41,505 39,480 i 18,825, 208,360 r,M67 

November > 50,912 57,400 17,478 113,390 40,60.5 



Total 594,094 397,294 I 131,684 1,518,994 516,104 



31NEPS of httsui'im;. 



PSODDOE RRl ■XPT8. 










Flour, 

rcls. 


Apples. 
Barrels. 


Boxes. 


Batter* 


1'i. -,-. - 


. -• :. 


38,166 
38, 7-17 

13,363 

43, SB 1 
60, 264 


6,016 
i,68S 

."., B7S 

1,086 

sss 

7"ll 
2,811 
[,028 

■l..'7'i 
II, 124 


4,366 

rag 

844 

1,788 
«, 828 

5,848 

i . 852 

7, HIT 

10, l-l 


664 

7'H. 

1,065 

1,311 

1,108 

888 

664 

lilHl 

601 

:::: 

/ 1,080 






March 

April ..... 




M»\ 






12,058 




32.408 
















160,018 


4.-., 028 


53,861 


in, SS7 


345, 148 



ri i fSBl BQ OH AIM BUSY vrnu RKI I 



Wheat, Barley. Rye. Osta, 

liii-siirls. i ; . i - r i . ,-. Uusiiol.s. llualiels. Buahela, 



imbsr, 1878 

nary, 1874 

i ii.ii \ . 

eli 

April. ... 

May. 

Jane . . 

I»l) • 

lugaei 

i tuber 

1 ■■ i 

ber. 



18,01 1 

33,020 

43,000 

8,040 

80,747 
14,881 

24, 161 

12,448 
20,467 

II,:: 17 



Total 



aft, ios 
3,428 

urn 

80S 
1,860 

7, 163 
•J l,7:io 
80,888 



'.•, 84 1 

I,. Mis 
SS6 

704 
B, 886 

3,048 
0,217 

::. 276 



1,724 




21.641) 








14,7.1V 


0,873 


90, 4*M 


0,708 


So, 254 


44,700 


86,212 


10,470 


09,643 


12,648 


208, 388 


20,028 




12, a 


188,720 


10,010 


4SI,0fi4 


12,808 



381,047 :,\:mc sjii,441 



STEAMBOAT TONNAGE. 

lirs nil steamboat tonnage owned and operated by Pittsburg 

1.1I and in Rttsburg business, shows a n im/ivase nver teal year of five 
md l,A73.80 tons. Wo give below a com |»ar:itivi? stati'im.-nt ol tbe 
! i eoaola and their aggregato tonnage : 

1573. 

1 > ; IT IT 

9 1" 

1 IT 121 

■M boaia 8 ....... 



146 



151 



ftftaj 



82,962.6] 84,58 



MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS. 



si: 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE OF OTHER INDUSTRIES 

In addition to the above report of the leading manufacturing interests 
Pittsburg I will here add what perhaps is only entitled to bo considered :i* 
approximate estimates of the aim mil production of other interests less in 
ant, but which, in the aggregate, serve to give a better idea of the an- 
imal business of that city. 

The glass manufacturers of Pittsburg ore a sort ofoloee corporation, and 
I liavc never been abb- to obtain from them any detailed report of I lie ••up i- 
t,.l employed, or She annual product of their establishments. 

The census report of 1870 puts down Allegheny county as having 32 
establishments, capital invested, $460,800 — producing, in 18f>9, $5,- 
B32.492. 

The number of establishments is undoubtedly 12 or 16 below the true 

number, tin- capital involved is five times, or $2,300,000 — the annual pro- 
duct is probably twice the amount of the census returns, or $11,(500,000. 
The manufacturers of si eel an- like the glass men, not disposed to eu- 

11 the public in regard to their Capital or annual products. 
The census returns report Allegheny b* having nine steel roantriheti 
Mishroonts of all kin. Is The capital involved reported at $2,(i!i5,400 : 
•mual production of 1868 at $3,908,413. 
This is also below the production of the past year. I suppose about 
$6,000,000 to be a fair estimate. The census returns ^ivo Allegheny 
county only one copper manufacturing establishment, capital invested, 
$260,000, and annual product, $276,000. There are at least two largo roll- 
ing mills, I know not how many coppersmithing establishments. The 
animal product must probably reach $3,000,000. 



aiAM-F.M-TUSBB. 



Ale and beer 

uiiit.- lemi 

Tanneries 

T< .1 Hiiro factories 

1 otton :uni woolen fiutoriee. 
Chair unit cabinet (Hetoriee.. 

Brass founderios 

Planing nulls 

Potteries 

Briok yards 

Turning Shops, , , 

1 anrl&ga factories 

I'isiilieries 

Wagon (totOilM 

Brush factories 

Mnrlile yards 

Bellows Sab 



A 1 Mil t Of Capi- 
tal iiivi'sted. 


Nil 1 no of 


product?-. 


12,000,000 


#3,500,00(1 


l,2»u.i»«i 


1,600,000 


1,600,000 


1,800,000 


850,000 


9,000,000 


1,600,090 


1,800,000 


400,000 


600,000 


■100, (HHI 




500,1 


700,000 


130,000 


[fill, (HI-' 


160,000 


800) I 


900,000 


100,000 


150,0011 


350,000 


:n 1, IK III 


2,600,000 


CM, 000 


250, < 


10,000 


76,000 


too, 000 


400, 01 HI 







;i 



B1 -INKS- OF ERIE. 



BUSINESS OF i: R I li 



THE PORT OP EBIE. 
The tabular statement <>i t in- im i this port, will be read with at- 

tention by every one ini. Test. '.l in iii.. gn.Aviii of its foreign and doin 
1« :um1 tin.' consequent iin reaae. of commercial actu Uy in the city. '1': 
is do more flittering proof of the future importance of Erie Jts a transfer 

statiou on the grcal Water Mid land grain transportation route from 1 1 1 • - prai- 
ries tn tin- seacoael than these yearly exhibits of the lust increasing business 
.lone in the harbor by the various transportation companies which centre 
here. 

T!i" most important portions nt" the tra<!t' are, o r course, the imports, 
foreign and coastwise. Of these the grain business assumes each year Lai - 
get and lurger proportions, lit all the classes of grain there has been a 
large inn. ;l -<- ■! Imsinc*- over the year 1873, and ill all classes but one 
(oats) there has been an increase over 1872, and all previous years. Of bur- 
ley there wore imported during tliiB year 3,868 buBhels more than in ^873, 
and in round numbers, 66,000 bushels more than in 1872. 77,000 bushelB 
of peas have boon imported this year, almost all ol which ie a business of 
■in entirely new growth. Corn shows an increase of 160,000 bushels • 
[878 and 879,368 bushels over 1872. 243,446 bushels of oats have been 
received this year in excess of this receipts of 1818; bat 353,000 busl 
less than in 1872, which was a remarkable year in the transportation of this 
grain and shows an excess oi 1,663 bushels r ive'd over the combined re- 
ceipts of 1873 and 1874. It is, however, in the great bread staple of the 
World that the most flattering exhibit is made. Wheal is largely and stead. 
ilv increasing from year to year, as the bulk of all its freight transactions 
In 1874, 1 ,086,261 more bushels wore brought into the harbor of Erie than 
during the year 1878, and 2,610,633 bushels more than in 1872; shou 

Mid increase over the total business ol both 1^72 and 1878 ui 88,871 

bushels. Of flour 205,647 barrels were received during the VAST, which 
represent 1,478,235 bushels of wheat, swelling the combined receipts oi 
wheal and its products for the year to 5,076,242 bushels. There waaan 
increase of 70,338 barrels of Bout over the business of 1873, and of l . 
harrels over thai of 1872. 
Tin 1 increase in the receipts of breadstuffs shows to a remarkable degi 

- 1<. hi! Lgi ■ nrblCh Ibis j » « . »- 1 possesses f..r t li leadv trutn-fe, -I freights 

and quid dispatch to tidewater a1 Philadelphia. Of the iraporU wl 
are to a groat extent employed in home manufacturing industry, pig-iron 
al. me >ln>ws an iueieMsi' iii the amount brought to the port, and that incroaae 



Till-: PORT i iF ERIE, 






h i-viy ii. .initial. This ia- i ia I course fullyaccouutt .1 for by the dej 
-imi iii the iron industry and will be remedied M opt a on the rev4va) of thai 

Hess. Tin: receipts of lumber, although a million and a balfbf feel less 
than that of the year 1813, "'as still eight and a half millions of feel great- 
• ■{■ tlian during the year 1ST'-'. 

The present lack of facilities ill railway communication with the coal 
fields prevents ite increasing or even holding itsj own in the anthrai 

trade which goes in bulk to BufTal.., but still the doc-kin- ; facilities. d its liai- 
OOC continues to make the shipping of coal profitable. As a place oi ahipment 
tot bituminous COal, it is hoped by the early openingof an additional road to 
the partly developed regions of Mercer and Lawrence counties, it may be 
able to regain its place beside Cleveland and Buffalo and even to lead them 
n this article of export. The entire falling off in its coal export, during 
this year of exceptionally hard times when many mines have been deserted 
and unworked, has been 108,000 tons— a fact which ia not at all discour- 
aging. In railroad iron business has increased in spile of the depression. 
12,466 tons were exported in excess of the trade of 1873, and although the 
amount still falls short of the immense trade of 187*2, it is a general ha- 
lves the ligures of the last six yean with that one exception. 

Plaster is comparatively a new article of export and oue which promises 
rapidly to increase. Nearly twenty-live hundred barrels were sent nut in 
excess of the experts ..f 1 v 7. - ', and more than two thousand in excess of the 
trade of I8fS. 

Among other articles growing to be important as exports are its Lake 
SI i.. re grapes. Nearly 10,000 baskets were shipped during the ye 
the region is already prominently rivaling Ohio both as regards winemak- 
and the supplying ..f home and foreign markets. 

The number of vessels entering the port fell oft* during the season about 
::imi showing K3.012 tons less than i*7:; -■ -figures which indicate that the 
vessels plying to its channel are larger than the average and require a 
greater depth of water. The channel is naturally very favorable lor lai 
craft and requires comparatively tittle work tu keep it iii proper ..id. 'i . and 
the importance of its trade demands that the government should never neg- 
lect tin- outlay which will Beoure a thoroughly safe and commodious harbor. 
There is no other place on the lakes when appropriations are so uniformly 
productive of good results as in Presque Isle Bay. The present winteJ baa 

ahvadv w rough! 90 damages which need prompt attention and another 

spring should sec the Work of repairs persistently carried out. Haifa mil- 
lion Of dollars could be expended judiciously in and about the bay, and 
the River and Harbor Appropriation Committee Can find DO place on the 
entire line of sea and lake coast where that amount would do more good 
than at Erie 



■:,-■■ 




BUSINESS OF ERIE. 




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COMMERCE OF PHILADELPHIA. " 



321 



PORT OF PHILADELPHIA. 



Tbe Bureau is indebted to the enterprise and liberality of Peter Wright 
& Sons, of Philadelphia, for the very full and elaborate report of the business 
of that city for 1874. Not only did they subject themselves to great labor 
in collecting and furnishing this exceedingly creditable report, but they 
generously refused all compensation therefor. We therefore tender them 
onr own thanks and that of our readers for their gratuitous services. 



STATEMENT OF TOTAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF THE UNITED 

STATES, 

Including gold and silver; with those of her five principal ports for fiscal 
years ending June 30, 1812, 1873, 1874, compiled from statistics furnished 
by Mr. Edward Young, Chief of Bureau of Statistics, Washington, D. G. 

IMPORT!". 



i Per rentage ofj 

Value for 1872.: Value for 1873. sain or lorn of Value for 1874. 
; 1873 over 1872. 



Per rentage °' 
gain or loss of 
1874 over 1873. 



United State* <640.338.7ae 



Philadelphia 
Boston 

New Orleans.. 

New York 

Baltimore 

All other |iort» 



20,383.853 

70.388.185 

18,542.188 

418.515.829 

28,891.305 
8S.M2.40B 



4683,817. 147 
25.303.150 
88,083,807 
19,933.344 
420.321.427 
21, 237. 60S 
94,508.310 



3.8 Increase. 


8505, 8*1.248 


24.5 


28,447,037 


3.4 decrease. 


52,212.405 


7.5 Increaae 


14. 583. 884 


1.S8 •• 


385,133,622 


1.8 '• 


20,302.138 


13.7 


78.232.182 



11.3 decrease. 

4.15 Increase 
30. decrease. 
37.1 

7 88 ** 
Stationary. 
30. » decrease. 



EXPORTS. 



Percentage of 

.Value for 1872. Value for 1873. gain or him of 

i 1873 orer 1872. 



Per centage of 

Value for 1874. gal n or loss of 
740TWM71. 



United States i CS71.a6B.487 



Philadelphia . 

Boston 

New Orleans... 

New York 

Baltimore 

All other |iorts . 



21.018,7.50 ! 

23,199.8*H 

SO, 802, 849 
2S5.574.8B2 

18.458.533 
132. SB*. 775 



8S77.282.074 
24.230,3*7 
29. 382. 645 
104,886.732 
382.102.082 
10.421.723 
167.227.555 



18.4 Increase. 1 
16.3 
26.8 
15.5 
18.3 
5.2 
25.11 



8718,819,392 
33,121,337 
30,610.650 
83.715,710 
354.893.732 
Z7,682,70» 
17*. 685. 254 



5.85 Increase 
S8.6 

4.14 
11.93 decrease 

6.8B Increaw 
42.58 

5.08 



21 Statistics. 



. DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 323 

Domestic Exports — Continued. 



articles and couNTRiBS. Quantity. Value. 



2,405. $16,141 
1,620 



French West Indies:— 

W heat flour, bbls. , 

Othart breadstufls 

Petroleum, ( refined,) galls. 

Pro visions 

Tobaooo leaf, lbs 

Hoards. M.. . .,;,.„,; , 60 1,000 

Coopemge ' 1, 606 

Miscellaneous 866 



9,820 2,070 

3,620 



9,690 | 024 



Total 27,255 

French I'ossessions in Africa : — 

Petroleum, (refined,) galls. 110,000 13,200 

&trmany :— 

Petroleum, (refined.) galls. , 25,535,905 \ 3,804,941 

Benzine, galls i 167,686 i 12,800 

Miscellaneous ' 60 

Total ! 8,777,801 

England:— 

Agricultural implements. ; 45,732 

Bark 19,154 

Books i 2,278 

Bread nnd breadstuff's; , i 

Bread mid biscuits, H» 12,688 2,040 

Indian <*>n>, bushels 606,915 521, 166 

Wheat, bushels 1,198,151 1,744,142 

Whoat flour, barrels. j 52,219; . 867,399 

< ferriages i "■' "^J 70 

( 'opper ore, tona. t j 30 i 1,500 

i.'otton, unnuiiiubaturcd,!bs ; 12,443,423 h&*>™- 

< 'otton manufactures , 30, 103 

Hcntists' material i •• 31,598 

Drugs ; 30,146 

Dyestuffs , 3,308 

Fruits 14,601 

Furs 3,980 

Grease.tbs : \ 97,091 7,713 

Hair, unmanufactured 1 17, 874 

Hides, I 427,265 

Iron, ropes 1 83, 116 

Leather and manufactures , 162,183 

RosUubbls 1,566, 0,006 

Oilcake, lbs ' 13,540,726 ; 263,895 

Oils: 

Petroleum, refined, galls 3,523,310 473,325 

Naphtha, galls. 135,926 j 11,214 

Besiduumibbls ' 3,742 7,800 

Paintings | 1» 130 

Provisions i ■ 2,788,235 

RaB8,ft8 i 07,235-1 6,649 

Seeds ! <! . 956 

Sewinir irmchint-H , 1,854 

Mpirit* turpentine, galls 4,470 8,980 

\fol*ases, galls; 626,601 126,257 

Sweepings ..? ! 2,776 

Tallow. tf.s I 5,187,086 ; 448,381 

Tohaom.l. wf.lt* I 4.7J8.694 503,140 

Tobacco, manufactured 11,313 

W«.«* ! 17,221 5,684 

Wearing apparel 1.400 

Wood -Hoards, M ; 493 19, 696 

Wood manufactures 29, 697 

Miscell aneoiia 7 » °69 

Total 10,131,334 



DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 
Domestic Ex posts — Continued. 



3-25 



ARTICLES AND COUNTRIES. 



Quantity. 



SetAer lands : — 

Petroleum, refined, galls i 6,743,688 

Petroleum, erode, galls 5,660 

Total 

Dutch Went Jndie*:— 

Indian corn, bu»heU 

Indian corn meal, bbls 

Rye flour, hbla 

W hent flour, bbls. 

Oilcake, lbs 

Provision!* 

Tohncco, lenf, lbs 

Boards, M 

MiTlliiuc'iist 



Total 

Peru.— 
Iron, manufactures 

Fhrtufftit ;— 

Rye flour, Hfoln 

Wheat, bushels 

Wheat flour, bbls 

kosm, bbls 

Petroleum, refined, galls. 

Cooperage 

Miscellaneous. 

Total 

Bussia:— 

Iron— Locomotives 

Petroleum, refined, galls. 

Total 

Spain .•— 
Petroleum, refined, galls. 
Naphtha, galls 



Total 

Cnba:— 
Agricultural implements.. 

Bones, <jwU 

Boneblaok, lbs 

Brooms. 



Indian corn, bushels . 
Wheat flour, bbls 

Coal, tons. 

Drugs and chemicals. 

Gas fixtures 

Glass 



Gold coin 

Hay, tons 

Iron manufactures 

Leather manufactures. . . . 
Petroleum, refined, galls. 

Rice, lbs , 

Paper. 



Perfumery 

Provisions 

Printing materials. . 
Sewing machines... 
Tobacco, leaf, !t>s . . . 
Wood : 

Hoards, M 

Cooperage 



1,650 
860 
258 

2,727 
61,500 



11,888 
80 



'I 



300 

45,320 

1,018 

800 

553,430 



12 
884,983 



623,679 

18,881 



750 
506,889 



4,784 

3,752 
23,703 ! 



139 



5,945 
66,918 



5,570 
1,581 



Value. 



896,430 
500 



896,930 

1,670 
3,440 
$1,480 
17,175 
1,476 
2,993 
1,681 
1,750 
3,046 



35,250 
771, 147 



1,350 
52,639 

0,110 

3,143 
78,971 

4,173 
348 



146,734 

149,088 
135,954 



284,042 

80,606 
1,794 



82,400 

4,204 
1,421 

21,349 
1,666 
4,420 

27,948 

120,200 

15, 115 
5,881 
1,705 

77,908 
3,185 

141,968 
2,390 
1,221 
2,115 
3,024 
3,707 

44,398 
4,494 

10,827 
1,048 

38,876 
816,724 



COMMERCE OF PHILADELPHIA. 

It i ■ h ksti c E .x ra ins — Coiilin tied. 




abth i,k> fcMD OOCXTB 1 Quantity. 


VHMh 


( H i..t — Contlon 


7,222 




. . • ■ ■ i .. , * . « 






i,;i7,j.4s,'. 
901 

n# 

28,240 

71 W 

B, L4S 

30,(07 

1,094 


fhrto Rico — 


18,850 

7.47:. 
56,764 






l-.-:.:» 










H.IMI 
•412 


Wckm) i 
















138, ISO 

If, 
7,2W 


1 '/ :— 


149, 
88,910 






26, 520 

\ 

91,005 

880 

l.v, 


f r n{& lombia;— 






! -.'I''! 












93, W0 

'J. 1 17 

::i. LSfi 

152 

,000 

■\ 

■'IT 

1". 

GM 

9, 17H 

51,712 

2,194 

1,000 
114 

3, 17-. 

1,890 
1,030 

.;. MM 


1 1 >u tuela .— 


-7.4*.; 














OS 
















Mr 
















iW3.su 
















.-.ii'.', 






ao.87s.mi 





DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 



327 



SUMMARY 8TATEMEXT OP C0MH0DITIE8, 

The growth, produce and manufacture of the United States, exported to 
foreign countries from the port of Philadelphia during the year 1874 : 



ABTICLKS. 



Quantity, j Value. 



Agricultural implements ISO, 129 

Animals 1,170 

Bark for tanning. ; 24,428 

Beer and ale, gftbons 1,917 j . 880 

Bones and bone dost, cwts 1,900 2,938 

Bone-black, lb*. 578,682, 24,762 

Bocks , *,1M 

Bread and bresdatufls: 

Bread and biscuits, lbs. 81ft, 140 ; 24,444 

Indian eora, bnsbels. , 2,208,688 \ 1,910,943 

Indian corn steal, bbla I 27,401 i 117,721 

Oats, bnabel*.. 80,871 21,290 

Rye, bushels. 104,610 99,891 

Bye floor, MAS. , 98* | 84,927 

Wheat, buahela. 3,289,682, 4,748,798 

Wheat floor, bbU 186,696 1,247,616 

Other broadatofla. 991 

Bronze manoJbctnrea. 89,000 

Broom*. 1,792 

Candles,**. 184,698 12,874 

Carriages 8,827 

Coal, tons. 61,843 882,684 

Copper ore, cwts 400 L690 

Cordage 90,769 16,879 

Cotton bales, fjs 14,298,116. 2,107,981 

Cotton manufactures 81,7*4 

Dentists- materials , 82,166 

Drugs and chemicals 108,897 

Frtuts 16,320 

Pars 4,480 

Gas fixtore* 6,365* 

Glassware 2,385 

Gold and silver coin 85,708 

Grease, lbs. 113, 481 8, Wj 

Hair, nnmannfactnred 32, 560 

Hav. ton*. 184 4,336 

Hides 696,647 

Hops, fes 5,582 1,844 

Iron: 

Bar.cwt 641 2,57* 

< 'asunga J, 27* 

«'ar wheels. 1,989 «,014 

Engines 187,0* 

Machinerr. 811, 47* 

Nails, lbs 555,100 14,954 

Other manufactures 179, 278 

Leatberand manafiteturea.: 515, 5*» 

Marble and atone 1,687 

Matches L.602 

Saral stores— Boats, bbla. «,011 2*,55J 

Oilcake. Bjs 1A,2J7,«C 374,555 

Oils: 

Petjoleam. (erode. tgaUona, 1.C14.1K. Iti.KK- 

Petroieiun. ( refined. t gaDons 70.no.7Jl '/•,3*0-517 

Naptuba and benzine. saUona 1,729,892 155,407 

Beatdsnm. bbla 6.HS2 JV.215 

"ibnoil*. 4,814 

Cartridge* 7.«T> 

Pkiniines 1,245 

Psj*r. C.S84 

Prrfsmt-rj- 7.454 

Przuiiar nnaeriaL 5,*W 



DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 



329 



RECAPITULATION. 

Statement of the value of exports to the following foreign countries : 



COUNTRIES. 



I In Ameri- 
can vessels. 



Austria . 



Br 

Denmark 

Danish West Indies. 

France 

French West Indies 

French possessions in Africa. 
Germany 

Ireland.^ '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Gibraltar. 

Nova Scotia ..'. 

British West Indies 

Italy 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

Dutch West Indies 

Peru 

Portugal 

Russia 

Spain 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Sweden 

United States of Colombia. . . 
Venezuela 



Total 

Total exports during 1873. 



•60,837 

614,144 

18,645 



In foreign 
vessels. 



1,230 

106,072 

27,255 

13,200 

56,144 

6,431,208 

72,522 

76,186 

16,924 

696,699 

110,537 

17,045 

59,016 



559,147 

11,461 

200,909 

11,863 

1,281,011 

50,855 



86,415 
56,377 



$79,255 

5,030,623 



229,672 
'294,'809 



837,914 
35,256 

212,000 

135,273 
84,133 
70,537 
94,474 
87,434 
26,526 
9,615 

453,187 



Total. 



3,221,657 ' 
3,700,126 
3,672,527 
186,698 
125,500 
249.909 
303,634 



10,635,652 J 19,243,259 



$7,382,905 $22,250,281 



$140,092 

5,648,887 

18,645 

229,672 

1,230 

400,381 

27, 265 

13,200 

3,377,801 

T0,I3r,SS4 

3,745,049 

261,884 

142,424 

946,608 

414,171 

17,045 

896,930 

39,256 

771, 147 

146,734 

285,042 

82,400 

1,375,485 

138,289 

29,626 

95,930 

50rf, 5o4 



29,878,911 



$29,633,186 



Helium tl.OSt 



France 

in noh Wi X Indies. 17,7fil 

find 3,681,807 

Ireland 8, 321, 708 

BtovaSeotla u.\s:tn 

British West Indies 667,847 

Italy 12.UVI 

Dutch Wert Indian 24, ill 

Portugal no. n:»< 

Cuba 33, M3 

Porto Rim 55, JS8 

Inited State?, o/ Colombia 115 

Venezuela 223,764 

Tl 'till S. 15fi, 37 1 

i- during the year 1S73 , to,55<$,M<5 

ns during the year 1872 4, 100,fl7» 

irts during the year 1871 4,Mf 




FOREIGN, FOR 187-1. 



331 



TOTAL EXPORTS OK PETROLEUM. MNZTNK AMD 1* APHTHA, 



" 


1HT4. 


1871. 


tm 


l>7l. 




( MHoa*. l>o!lari. 


Gallon*. 


DoHai . 


BlBM 




Gallon*. ' Dollar*. 






ll 


70.ilO.7U 9.S8B.M7 
l.BILIM II.".. 'i?. 


SO. 1*1,1*7 
». *- _ er_ ::-■ I 
i,Ma.4It 


14.tM7.7tW 

"W. U-I 

mb,M~ 


«.W»l,a45 

7. ;i'..lV.« 
1, IM,MK 


11,3m, tai 

1.1W.0BTI 
IBS, 100 


S,W3.li7'.' 
711, i.l". 


~4.1M.IM> W.04S.WB 


98.8W.OU 


IS,7a,7»l 


M..1M.IWI 


itaao.T7B 





AVEUAOK PRTCK. 


Por gallon. 

tin. 


Per gallon. 

tire. 


Por gallon. 
1873. 


Pur gallon. 

1871. 




13 225-1000.% 
9 042-lOOOe. 

7 X40-l«0iK\ 


16 SHrino. 

II 710-100*'. 

III M49.10UH.-. 


23 &30-1000o. 
LB MB-10000. 
4 Sll-lOOOO. 


,-1000<-. 




17 577-1000f. 
Ill OSl-lOOOr. 



CLEARANCES OF Vi> 

Their nationality, value of cargo and tonnage : 





NATIONALITY. 


Number. 


Tonnago. 


v.-U.i. ...i 
c-argo. 






443 
12 
13 

303 

.-, 


207, 
5,724 

29, 003 

16ti,4'.i4 
















1,317,422 


'l» 






rtantsh 




84,&*> 




• 


6 

1 

111 

52 

B 

17 




1,890 

498 

72,833 

24,608 

2,193 

8,761 

67,890 




39, am 


Oernmn 





1,41 






HIS, 583 








231,6% 




181, L2S 














,1015 


847,865 


29,878,911 


. 


- 











• TH FOREIGN COMMERCE FOR 1871. 
Thi' values of commodities im/wrled into the Cuatvjns biftricl of Philadelphia 

We are indebted to Seth I. Comiy, Esq., OolleCtOI of the Port, for tile 

fullnwing statement of the values of commodities imported into thr customs 
lisiiiit of Philadelphia for the year ending December 31, 1874 : 

DIRECT TRADE. 

Value of goods subject to duty $20 ,862 ,1 1 2 

Value of goods free of duty S ,570 ,868 

INDIRECT TRADE. 

Vi.i New York, subject to duty 52t> 

Via New York, free of duty 40 ,539 

Received at other ports and warehoused at Philadelphia 306 ,741 



OMMERCE 



IILADELPIIIA. 



Total value foe LiM 125.306,525 

Total value fill 1873 89 .596 .1"92 

Total value lot 1 872 . . . 2G .824 ,351) 

Total value for 1871 20 ,820 ,374 

•I vain- fa] 187H 14.952,371 



increase of 1H71, an compared with 1*73 4.298,667 

Increase of 1874, as compared with 1872. . 1 ,517,825 

Increase "l'H74ov.. r 1871 4,486,151 

hut-case of 1874 over 1870 10,354,164 



Of the total value per direel trade $24,432,480, for 1874; #15,120,648 
imported in American vessels, and #9,311,932 in foreign vessels, as 
against $11, 396, 6!>-l in American vessels, and $15,424,202 in foreign vessels 
wing an increase daring the past year over 1873, in commo- 
dities imported in American bottoms, of > . '■ . 7 2 :f . ? f>4 , and a decrease in 
those imported in foreign bottoms of $6,1 12,270. 

The bulk of the business is largely in favor of the dJF06f trade, the de- 
■ •reasc of the indirect trade via New York, as compared with 1873, being 
self $1,798,725, This result shows that our merchants are patronizing 
our own line of steamers more than heretofore and not relying bo much 
upon New York. 
The value i>f goods withdrawn from warehouse amounts to $9 ,158 ,980 00 

Withdrawn during 1873 7,151,746 00 

Withdrawn during 1872 8 .707 .696 00 



Statement of duties received during the year: 

Ob imports iu American vessels. 

On imports in foreign vessels 

Ob imports via New York 

Merchandise withdrawn from warehouse : 

Imported in American ve6Bels. 

Imported in foreign vessels 

K**- warehouse withdrawals 

Imported via New York 



$2,699,562 IS 
1 .476.217 83 

164 .in 6 87 

tt.ua h 

1 Ml .771 87 
is: 

183 ,795 53 



Ifctal duties: IBM 
d duties for 1878. 









8.3*3. 159 42 

r .«r» .sat t« 



Increase in the amount of revenue m. i 1811 



»21 ti(S 



It may be stated bare that ours is the onlj port in Uw 1 • 
an increase in the amount of duties received the past year. The 
bar ports show a decided rede 



FOREIGN, FOR 1874. 333 

The number of entries received and passed is as follows : 

Cash 7 ,001 

Free 1 ,111 

Appraisement 481 

Warehouse 1 ,284 

Re-warehouse 174 

Withdrawals from warehouse ^ .6 ,090 

Withdrawals from re-warehouse 613 

Entries of additional duties % 1 ,150 

Entries of refunded duties • : 1 ,442 

'" Total 19 ,346 

Total number of entries for 1878 18 ,296 

Increase in the number of entries 1 ,050 

The total values of the exports for the past y$ar are : 

In American vessels $10 ,685 ,652 

In foreign vessels 19 ,248 ,259 

Total 29 ,878 ,611 

Total values of exports for 1873 29 ,683 ,186 

Increase in exports 245 ,723 

The total number of passengers arrived is 10 ,633 

Arrived during 1873 4 ,257 

Increase 6 ,376 

As to the character of the goods imported, the statistics show that all 
descriptions of linens, silks, cottons, leather, woolens, and, in fact, all sorts 
of fancy goods have come to us in greater quantities than during bygone 
years, whilst the importations of pig iron, old wrought iron, old cast iron, 
and all manufactures of iron and steel, and all manufactures of steel and 
other metals have been very considerably diminished. On the whole, the 
year 1874 compared favorably with any of its forerunners. True, the 
values of goods imported, which is after all the only true guage by which 
to estimate the amount of business transacted, are not so large as was 
hoped, but our revenue has been increased, and to such an extent as to 
command the attention of the general government. Let us hope that the 
year 1875, in view of the approaching Centennial, may outstrip all its pre- 
decessors in the extent of its commerce, and inaugurate an era of prosperity 
to continue for years to come. 



FOREIGN IMPORTS*. 

Foreign Imports — Continued. 



335 



ARTICLES AND COUNTRIES. 



Quantity. Vulue. 



Bolivia .-—Free of duty : 
Soda, nitrate, lbs. ' 1,595,460 . 

Brazil .—Free- of duty : 

Coffee, lbs. 485,700 

Subject to duty: 
Sugar, lbs. 4,789,743 

Total i ; 

Danish Wat Indies .—Free of duty : 

Pewter, lbs 

Subject to duty : 
Capper, lbs..... 



678 



.jer.lbs..., J 2,622 ; 

Into, old, tons | 143 

Lead, lb* 30,633 



Molasses, gallons 
Miscellaneous . . . 



Total 

Greenland .—Free of dutv : 



Kryolite. 



France .—Free of duty : 
Chalk 



Household effects. 
Plattaa. 



Miscellaneous.. 



Total free of duty- 
Subject to duty : 

Glass, manufactures 

Iron, old, tons. 

Oil, olive, gallons 

Spirit*, gallons 

wine, gallons 

Miscellaneous 



Total 

French West Indies. - 

Sugar, hhds 

Spirits, gallons 



-Subject to duty : 



Total 

French possessions in Africa : — Free of duty 
Articles of the United States. '.. 

Subject to duty : 
Iron ore 



Total.... 

Qermany .-—Free of duty : 
Articles of the United States. 

Chemicals 

Dyewood, lbs 

Plumbago 

Paper material 

Ratans 

Miscellaneous 



Total free of duty. 

Subject to duty : 

Books 

Cement 

i'hemicals 

Clay and clay pipes 

Cotton manufactures. . . 
Earthen and stoneware . 



26,726 



493 

2,536 
77,744 
180,792 



630, 101 
54 



10,189 



(38,291 

99,905 
192,346 



292,251 

135 

.408 

1,842 

1,113 

5,802 

13 



9,803 
65,575 



I 



733 
600 

i, 246 
268 



9,847 

642 

14,460 

6,115 

33.566 

71,223 

440 



136,293 

22,733 
93 



22,826 

232 

30,576 



30,808 

24,189 

25,134 

11,718 

989 

101,822 

6,294 

570 



169,716 

920 

1,696 

21,668 

14,557 

2,132 

9,075 



FOREIGN IMPORTS. 
Foreign Imports — Continued. 



337 



ARTICLES AND COUNTRIES. 



Quantity. Value. 



England : — Subject to duty : 

Clay and clay pipes 

Coal, bituminous, tons 

Copper and manufactures 

CottjDQ, manufactures 

Earthen and stoneware 

Fancy goods 

Flax, manufactures 

Fruits 



2,066 



Furs 

Glass and glassware 

Grape sugar, lbs 172, 500 

Gypsum , calcined 

Half and manufactures 

Hemp, manufactures. 

Hops 

India rubber, manufactures. 
Ink 



8,477* 



Iron— Pig, lbs 2,665,076 

Bar, lbs. 46,866 

Old, tons : 281 

Hardware 

Anchor and chains, lbs. 519,049 

Machinery ' 

Musket and sporting guns 

Steel ingots. > 

Cutlery : 

Files. 

Other manufactures 

Jewelry . 



Jute, manufactures , 

Lead, lbs , 1,137,966 

Leather and manufactures ,i. , 

Marble . 



Metals. 

Musical instruments 

Oilcloth 

Oils 

Opium, lbs 

Paintings 

Paints. 



97,074 



Paper, manufactures 

Perfumery 

Precious stones 

Provisions 

Salt, lbs 72,771,439 

Saltpetre, lbs 10,963 



Silk, manufactures. 

Soap, lbs. 

Soda— Bicarbonate, lbs. 

Carbonate, lbs 

Caustic, lbs. 

Spices, lbs 



19,946 

302,400 I 

40,238,159 ! 

5,999,372 i 

175,890 ■ 



ffir 



68. 



in, in plates, cwt . 191,215 

Tin, manufactured j 

Watches I 

Spirits, gallons 48,341 

Wine, gallons j 17, 080 

Wood, manufactures * \ 

Wool, unmanufactured, lbs 488,345 

Wool, manufactures 

Miscellaneous 



Total 

22 Statistic". 



923,625 

7,019 

17,869 

505,491 

506,816 

42,687 

780,880 

189,408 

18,279 

56,881 

5,900 

1,962 

45,607 

022 

2,492 

10,770 

9,807 

57,422 

2,248 

11,978 

12,056 

' 80,752 

56,876 

33,254 

120,812 

35,404 

84,486 

864,212 

7,655 

39,918 

55,888 

268,850 

26,814 

26,072 

10,096 

8,502 

10,818' 

479,824 

41,153 

28,108 

68,224 

10,518 

78,958 

22,028 

227,263 

789 

17,824 

440,784 

3,873 

9,874 

840,542 

52,884 
3,644 

1,728,269 

3,943 

58,321 

65,433 

21,078 

30,881 

121,826 

2,831,466 

1,473 

12,563,076 



FOREIGN IMPORTS. 

Forbsn Imports — Continued. 



339 



ABTICLES AMD COUSTBIJBS. 



Quantity, i Value. 



Italy .—Subject to duty : 

Soap, lbs. 

Wine, gallon* 

Wood, manufactures 

Miscellaneous 



118,392 
11,751 



$0,995 
4,746 
1,049 
1,568 



Total 

Netherlands .-—Free of duty : 
Articles of the United States . . . 

Chemicals 

Madder, lbs 



1,046,936 



19,698 



Total free of duty 

Subject to duty: 

Hay and clay pipes. I'iiiiLWiil 

Iron, pig, lbs. I M^l 

Spirits, gallons rJJ'jSS i 

Wine, gallons j JMI5 ' 

Zlnoin block*,lbs 91.660 i 

Miscellaneous I 



Total 

Dutch West Indies .— rree of duty • 

Chemicals 

Guano, tons 

Miscellaneous 



70 



Total free of duty ' 

Subject to duty : : 

Salt, lbs 1,534,545 

Miscellaneous 



Total 

Dutch East Indies ;— 8ubject to duty : 
Suga-, lbs 



iVru .—Free of duty : 
Soda, nitrate, lbs. 



Pfyrtugal .—Free of duty : 

Corkwood 

Miscellaneous 



1,682,039 > 
1,942,625 ; 



Total free of duty. 
Subject to duty : 

Iron, old, tons 

Marble. 



Salt, lbs. 

Wine, gallons. 
Miscellaneous. 



Total 

Spmn:— Subject to duty : 



Fruits . 

Oil, olive, gallons.. 



Total 

Cuba :— Free of duty : 



Animals. 



59 



2,280,938 
1,234 



9,867 



Fruits. 

Paper materials, lbs. 

Miscellaneous 



183,063 



Total free of duty . 
Subject to duty: 
Brass 



8,787 
1,627 
1,828 



11,642 

2,033 
80,228 
12,075 

4,498 
7,072 
2,867 



70,425 

906 

1,705 

658 



3,249 

1,661 
716 



6,626 
70,477 

46,623 



62,816 
142 



52,457 

2,401 
912 

2,273 

1,040 

336 



59,419 

176,230 
6,946 



183, 176 

1,200 

41,660 

4,936 

3,308 



51,110 
9,678 



R40 



COMMENCE OF PHILADELPHIA. 

FiiREKJ.V ImimIIT* — Continued. 



« 

Mini t.k.h and coctmu 


iiiuuitiiy. 


Vtt.na. 


. to fluty : 




$1.(177 




74,605 


12,637 




18,874 




W> 


18,8*9 




l. UN 




11, OSS, 438 

HO, VJS 

■i*. LOO 


3,4+ 
8,044,315 






11,581 




in.:, B4fl 














6,2W,141 


M,w„ llieo:— Subject to iliitv : 

l-inil- ..' 








B,92 
70,288 


S86,85<3 






Total 


106,873 


w, ,/. ,i — l'r.-c i.l ,lnty : 




'.177 


■>ul>j''(l to duty : 
Iron : 


007,407 

il.. 










'.Ni.l.W 






ua 




L5S,fllS 


United -s/n'i u n/ Colombia: — Froo of duty : 






la .— Free of duty: 


91 9M 
2,7* 
BOA, 088 


5,021 




5&1.S08 






Finite 








75,059 










3.SU 


2,040 




tffi 










727,441 


sniiji-i-t to duty : 


53 

3. WW 


B19 




1,130 




1.3S2 










730, sT 1 




'24.1 



FOREIGN IMPOETS. 



341 



SUMMARY STATEMENTS OF ARTICLES, 

Imported direct from foreign countries into the port of Philadelphia, during 
the year 1874 : 



ARTICLES. 



Commodities free of duty: 

Animals, living 

Arapols, Iba 

Articles of the United States .. . 
Bark: 

Medicinal, lbs 

Cork 



Quantity. ] Value. 



756,778 



699,932 



Books 

Chalk. ! 

Chemicals and drugs I 

Chloride of lime, lbs i 6, 661 , 787 

Cocoa, crude, lbs. I 83, 809 

Cochineal, lbs. 126,476 

Coffee, lbs ! 3, 379, 784 

294,608 
116,375 
619,205 



Cotton, raw, lbs.. 
Dyewoods, cwt. 
Fish, fresh, lbs. . 
Fruits . 



Gold and silver coin. . . 

Guano, tons 

Gums, lbs 

Gnt strings 

Gypsum, tons 

Hair, unmanufactured. 
Hides.. 



.1 



70 i 
354,947 



Household effects 

Indigo, lbs 

Ivory. 



Kryolite .... 
Madder, lbs. 
Oils 



10,416 



39,798 



42,622 



Paintings 

Platinum , 

Plumbago 

Paper material 

Ratans 

Rottenstone 



Seeds. 

Silk, raw, lbs 

Shells 

Soap stock 

Soda, nitrate of, lbs 

Sulphur, tons . .'. 

Tin in bars, lbs 

Vanilla beans 

Wood, unmanufactured. 
Miscellaneous 



2,302 



3,846,385 

8,576 

705 



Total free of duty 

Commodities subject to duty : 

Blacking 

Beer and ale, gallons 

Books 



25,747 



Bras* manufactures . . 

Breadstuffs 

Buttons 

Cement 

Carriages 

Chalk 

Chemicals and drugs. 

Clay, tons 

Clay pipes 



3,430 



91,245 
93,782 
74,891 

260,842 

54,993 

18,601 

15,612 

302,627 

151,888 

6,921 

71,347 

084,183 

. 27,747 

86,122 

20,794 

419,300 

63,754 

1,705 

41,678 

1,307 

12,488 

3,974 

308,496 

5,617 

80,400 

8,714 

66,676 

2,878 

11,063 

12,646 

8,604 

1,087 

818,045 

7,168 

2,506 

4,013 

16,968 

23,861 

1,065 

96,284 



30,406 
4,187 

16,465 
1,245 



3,570 868 

3,286 
34,415 
93,789 
22,752 
130,022 
15,754 
10,144 

1,732 

870 

466,914 

34,713 

9,736 



:;iJ COMMERCE OF PHILADELPHIA. 
Foreign Imports — Continued. 


articles. Quantity. 


Value. 

*7,oir. 

33.897 
900,200 
514,001 

DO, 970 

787,867 
«3M0?B 

H9.0P3 
200. 
5,961 

■Hi, 044 

li!,27" 
:i. 888 

10.384 
ft, 421 

289,051 

95,04ri 
12,05 

si.orij 
57,878 

i-.irju 

1SS, 10M 
»fl. i 
•M. MB 

400. 007 

80,013 

&SL4M6 

1. 17, 958 

10,011 
M.8B8 

•J*. 111! 
7'.'. 1-i- 

11,867 

w,s 

IS, 481 

>,:>-.- 

.117 

310,180 

7*'.» 

21. UG 

173,898 

I -. 1 

MM«tf 

240,000 

>.-.4-'.. 
2,107 


ties lablaet to duty: 


-.'»><; 






■ 






























Grape sugar, tt>s 


J 49, 025 








e,a» 








Iron: 






1J. 119,267 

2,752,856 

•J,68fl 














































7,294,367 




















OIU: 


10, lUn 






vr.iiTi 






















r,;:i. ri« 






Provisions .... 




Salt, [faa 


»l,700,O4fl 

1(1, t.W 










fbmi ubtect t<> dutv : 
go 


100,003 

302. VK) 
10,258, l.v.i 

5,9V' 1 .' 
BDOtOM 




I :i 1 1 - [ :.-. IDS 















FOREIGN IMPORTS. 
Foreign Imports — Continued. 



ARTICLES 



848 



Quantity. Value. 



Commodities subject to duty : 

Sugar, brown, lbs 

Molasses, gallons 

Melado, lbs. . 

Tin: 

In plates, lbs 

Manufactures. 

Tobaooo: 

Leaf, lbs 

Segars, lbs 

Other manufactures 

Vegetables 

Watches 

Spirits, gallons 

Wine, gallons 

Wood manufactures , 

Wool: 

Unmanufactured, lbs. 

Manufactures. 

Zinc in blocks, lbs 

Miscellaneous 



93,712,481 

11,359,806 

165,120 

191,260 



24,657 
26,114 



$4,223,177 

2,672,943 

5,631 

1,728,661 
8, MS 

11,531 

103,662 

1,190 

11,248 

69,185 
138,089 
194, 115 

60,386 

125,048 

2,377,378 

16,141 

19,251 

Total I 84,487,480 



179,604 
349,303 



198,946 



Statement of foreign merchandise imported into the port of New York and trans- 
ported thence without appraisement to the port of Philadelphia, under the provisions 
of the act of July 14, 1870, during the year 1874 : 

COMMODITIES FREE OF DUTY. 

Articles. Value. 

Philosophical instruments $1,072 

Platinum 27, 487 

Miscellaneous : 1, 980 



Total free. 



COMMODITIES SUBJECT TO DUTY. 



Books . 

Brass manufactures. 



30,539 

1,399 

2,766 

Barley 16,323 

Buttons. 20,768 

Chemicals. 9,341 

Cotton manufactures 88, 890 

Earthen and stoneware 792 

Fancy goods 17,236 

Flax manufactures 9, 145 

Fruits 2,483 

Furs 

Glassware i . . . 

India-rubber manufactures 

Iron manufactures 



Jewelry 

Leather and manufactures. 

Metals 

Musical instruments. 

Oils 



6,988 
5,247 
2,205 
9,040 
2,450 
38,334 
3,363 
2,907 
3,054 
9,220 



Paintings 

Paper manufactures 

Silk manufactures 110, 601 

Segars 4, 639 

Watches. 16, 530 

Wood manufactures 3, 436 

Wool, unmanufactured 20, 937 

Woool manufactures 122, 365 

Miscellaneous 3,321 



Total 567, 304 



FOREIGN IMPORTS. 



345 



Totililtitle* rei*l»- 
<*1 during ttx-ynr 

W7S 



•— i 
CQ 

I 



r 

i 

E 



Toul dutlrs receiv- 
ed M7« ... 



HMRttllSSI 



BHiliBEttll 



On Rind ■ i ia ii .■- .i i . 
i"t Ir.'lll - - 1 1 1: ■ 1 'II- 

MM 



OiiiriH»IMniM»|«iri- 
i-«l 1h IniimI, hi n I. -I 
:•.' I "I Jul) II. I-7''. 

=«■ ti-1 « 1 1 hdraw n 
from warvliinini' 



( hi k" - - 1 - tmii upon 
nl In tionil uiiilrr 
«fl of July. M, 
MHO 



BSftlBISiSil 



E 
I 
I 



:-: » 



g&'SIIfiUII&'Ifl 



!?Fi35=3=-r..-r5?t! 

EIBRBBBSBBSB 




|eSB8SSB6lft! 






i 



U s' s 



BIS6IBfSGSS3 



B 1 



HtBN8ltttf«*l 

BHiSBUHlB 



B 5 



• I -I • 



«*. - 



s i 





•Iiinuarv ,.,,, 77 

February ... 

• 123 

April 1<M 

132 

June . IM 

July. ii' 

lugari 128 

in bar 132 

October 129 

N"\ ember . 125 

December. ,.., rio 



Ti i a 1.B23 



FOREIGN IMPORTS. 



347 



STATEMENT OF IMMIGRANTS 

Arrived at the port of Philadelphia from foreign countries during the 
year 1874 : 



NATIONALITY. 


Males. 


Females. 


Totals. 


Africa • 


5 
43 
14 

1 

s 

32 

238 

1,062 

1,178 

38 

1,102 

1 

! 

1 

177 

1 

66 

1 

490 

54 

176 

187 

16 

42 

1 

2 


»' 

1 10 : 

42 | 


5 




61 




24 




97 


Brazil .... 


2 


Chili 


1 


China 





2 




26 ' 
100, 
791 ' 

1,034 ' 

28 : 

1,049 


58 




338 




1,883 


Great Britain and dependencies: 


2,212 

66 

2,151 




1 




4 


12 




1 






1 




44 


221 




1 




34 


90 




1 




440 

26 
130 

93 i 
1 

24 ; 


939 




80 


Switzerland 


306 
230 




17 


Cuba 


66 




1 






2 




i 






4,975 


3,894 


8,869 




2,241 


1,440 


3,681 



The detailed statement, which we publish of the imports for the year 
1874, will bear close study. The most apparent and most important de- 
duction to be drawn from their analysis is the gratifying fact that while 
the imports of the entire country have notably decreased during the year, 
the business of the port of Philadelphia has constantly grown greater. 
The amount received at the Philadelphia custom-hduse for duties during 
the year 1878 was $7,697,287 76, while in the year just closed the aggre- 
gate reached $8,892,159 48, showing in this item a gain of $694,921 66 ; 
an exhibit altogether satisfactory, when the utter stagnation of trade 
throughout the country is taken into consideration. We consider the indi- 
cation a most hopeful one for our commercial future, and cannot doubt 
that with the revival of prosperity the ratio of increase here will be main- 
tained to such an effect as will place Philadelphia among the foremost of 
American ports. In the matter of immigration, too, we find that with the 
press of the entire country teeming with lamentations about the "return 
current," the inducements and attractions of Philadelphia as a port of 



348 



COMMERCE OF PHILADELPHIA. 



arrival have brought about an increase of 5,188 immigrants. No bettei 
argument can be advanced to prove the superiority of the Philadelphia 
steamship line than is given in this one fact, and it is but an earnest of 
what is to come when the arrangements for the control of this business be- 
COM BOM nearly perfected. 

• '••mpariiig the figures in some of the leading articles of traffic with those 
representing the results of the previous year, we find that an increase is 
registered in cotton, $65*1,169; in flax, $467,9*23 ; in leather and its pro- 
ducts. $279,579; in opium, $226,156; in silks, $397,009; in tin plates. 
$168,502; in wine and spirits, $96,420; and in woolen manufactures, 
$1,463,178. The decrease is most noticeable as follows : In cupper, $81,- 
•41 : in ironand its manufactures, $2,617,142 ; in lead, $59,335; in metals, 
$31,028; in provisions, $89,611 ; in soda carbonate, $011,572; in sugar, 
$2,207,055; in molfeues, $607,330, and in clay $37,101.— AT. A. Bnd I '. S 
Ga2ctte. 



THE COMMERCIAL ADVANTAGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 

UER mtWXHa TERMINAL FACIUTIEi? A.*D BAP1D GROWTH OP TJIADE. 

At no time, perhaps, during the history of our State has its foreign com- 
merce shown such a gratifying increase as during the past two years, und. 
thanks to native energy and enterprise, Philadelphia, as our gateway to the 
sea, mire more ranks among the foremost of Atlantic porta. Pre-eminent, 
indeed, as Pennsylvania has long bjBBS as a manufacturing State, the estab- 
lishment of direct communications between Philadelphia and Europe was 
apparently all that was requisite to revivify her foreign commerce, and to 
place her on that highway of commerce between the new and old worlds to 
which her geographical position and unequalled terminal facilities at Phila- 
delphia justly entitled her, and that the result has not been disappointing, 
a glance at the following statement must both cany conviction with it and 
i ■'•nvey an assurance that the rapid progress already made is but the fore- 
rtUMier of greater activity in the future. 



ADVANTAGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



S4» 



X 31 

r- * 
< " m 






I5E 



c 



IflMil 



= " t~ ;i — " — " g ri 

2 Z :• S H = ": 



fI* 



IIS 

5 



|i i I i | i 

SSf 3 « * f 

C w £ *r w E C 






|**ws 



5 r 



8- e» 
2s. S» 



T. 



at i 



< 



5 £ 



^ 



— -^s 



ii! 



- 


•-. 


y. 


V 










^ 


X 


:£ 


5 


-^ 




-- ^ 


*- 






r- 


-5 


■/. 


*> 




S. 




c 



c 

3 









ffillii 

£§£££££ 

ilJisia 



4 



2 

1*2- 

_ w E ,0 © * " 



■5-5 j< 

II? 
ill 

III 



e 

D 



C 

c 



iiiiiii 

■•s»w«e teste 

•• r- -» r* r* rt »s 

Allien 



gSSfSHK 

£fs&i§ 



II 

S3 







sS£kk{S< 



350 COMMERCE OF PHILADELPHIA. 

- 1MP0IIT3. 

Otu imports, amounting in 1872 to $"20,3*3,853, had increased to $25,- 
1,160 in isTH, or at the rate 61 24.fi per cent, per annum, and in 1 S74 . 
notwithstanding the general stagnation of trade throughout the country, 
to $20,447,037, an increase of 4, 15 per cent, over 1 873, while, on tlie other 
hand, the total importations nf the United States during the Bame period 
had suffered a decrease of over 11 per cent. Free, also, from her former 
dependence, on neighboring cities for steam communication across the At- 
lantic, Philadelphia now competes with them for the carrying trade of tin 
west and south, and by the unequalled facilities she can offer for its con- 
duct, even levies tribute from those to whom she was but yesterday tribu- 
tary. Thus, in a period of little over two years, lias our State not only 
rendered herself in a great degree quite independent of the foreign steam- 
ship lines nf neighboring ports, but is enabled to offer important commer- 
cial centres like Pittsburg, Lancaster, riarrisburg, Chicago, Bt. Louis, Cin- 
cinnati, Savannah, Charleston, Ac, a show in the substantial advantages 
which she herself enjoys, and. as may be seen from accompanying table, many 
"I these citieB have already availed themselves of the Philadelphia route for 
portion of their importations, which, it is well to note, generally consist of 
the more valuable kinds of merchandise. 

IMPORTATIONS [N F10X1> VIA PHILADELPHIA. 

The following is a report of merchandise received at the port of Phila- 
delphia by the American and Red Star steamship lines, from January 1 to 
December 31, 1874, and sent in bond under the act of July 14, 1870, viz : 

Chicago 4 ,1568 packages. 

New York. 6,801 

Baltimore 1 ,1W 

Cincinnati 898 

Milwaukee 126 

Pittsburg 61 

St. Louis..., 11 

Louisville 4 

Total 13,080 



EXPORTS. 

In even a more marked degree have these advantages tarred to build up 
the exports of our State, und while the shipments from our port for 1873 show 
an increase in value of fifteen per cent, over those for 1872. The statistics 
of the past year give evidence of over thirty-six per cent, oa 1*73, and 
this at a time when all the principal staples of export had seriously de- 
clined in value. Connected, indeed as^she is, with all purls of the United 



FOREIGN IMPORTS. 



351 



■ -a by aucti avast nrt-wurk of railroads, the development of" tike foreign 
trade of Pliiladclpbia, already fostered by her own steam-ship lines, can 

•iily he limited by the means at her disposal lor the transportation of mer- 
chandise, and appreciating their necessity, such attractions have been of- 
fered to the managers and controllers of tonnage throughout the world, 
m '-king business with the United States, us have now practically secured 
for Philadelphia a supply of tonnage commensurate with her wants. New 
elevators have been erected, with a capacity to load eight veaeela at 
time, free wharfage offered, the harbor improved, port charges redn< 
and the advantages of the Delaware breakwater, as one of the finest port 

if call, brought prominently to the attention oi the world. Large and 
manifold also as are the industries of our own State, the produce of the 
West and South, to no considerable extent, lorms an important percentage 
of Pennsylvania's exports; und to our fellow-citizens in these quarters, 
Philadelphia furnishes a shipping point second to none in the country. 
Our trunk lines of railroads run their branches into their elevators, ootton 
presses, packing houses and through their grain fields, briuging merchan- 
dise from the spot, direct to Philadelphia without a change, by cars which 
run alongside the steamers or vessels already provided for its transport 
acrosB the ocean. Speed in transit has also been studied, and with no idle- 
boast, the Pennsylvania route from the West to Europe may now be called 
the shortest in existence. 



852 



COMMERCE OF P1IILA IjKIJM 1 1 A. 



G i:\in ELEVATORS "I- THE i\TKK.NATio\Ai. ,\ FAV1GATIOM 
COMPANY AT &IRAJH) POINT, PHILADELPHIA. 



" 



fi 



k * 






While upon the subject e1 

exports, and especially those 
of grain, it may not be un- 
interesting to add a few re- 
marks upon, some recent im- 
|nii\ entente .it Philadelphia, 
Vrhich arc destined to play 
an import ant part in the fu- 
ture exports of grain through 
Pennsylvania. 

Reference is made to the 
yraiii eUvatur* of (lie. Itilcr- 
national natiyalion company 
it i.'irard Point, Philadel- 
phia. Situated, on the one 
hand, at the eastern terminus 
of the vast eyetem of rail- 
roads pfiu'Lrating West, 
Xurth-icest and SouOvwegt, 
and owned and controlled by 
the Pennsylvania railroad 
. ■. •nip.-iri v : "II tin- other hand, 

at tin- junction of the Dela- 
ware and Schuylkill rivers; 
and while sufficiently inland 
to afford ft secure faftrbor, 
( with such depth of water 
that the largest vessels can 
load at the Bpaciout* 
wliaivcfi,) they afford facili- 
ties which form one of the 
most effective solutions of 
the problem of cheap trans- 
portation yet offered at any 
p.nl on the Atlantic sea- 
board. The grain, loaded 
into ears at the most remote 
points, is brought icilhuul 
any h<in.--liij>ment into tie 1 
elevators, through which it 



GRAIN ELEVATORS. 353 

is passed directly to vessels. Having arrangements for loading twelve ves- 
sels at one time, the utmost dispatch is secured for tonnage, and the large 
storage capacity, (now 1,000,000 bushels, and to be increased to 4,000,000,) 
gives the western shippers the advantage of holding their property at tide 
water, in thoroughly fire proof ware-houses, until it is desired to ship, 
when vessels of any size are at his disposal, the low expenses of the port 
and the liberal policy of the company in giving free wharfage and other 
facilities, attracting vessels from all parts of the world. 

When it is seen that the increase in grain shipments from Philadelphia 
in 1874 was 44J per cent, over those of 1873, without the aid of these valua- 
ble improvements, a further and yet more important progress may reasona- 
bly be anticipated during the present year, and a steady advance in the 
future. 

The International Navigation Company own 98 acres of land at the junc- 
tion of the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, and the elevators, which are 
situated at this point, as above described, are only one of the many features 
in the improvements established here. 

At each side and in front of the elevators are the largest wharves in the 
country, being each 500 feet long and 250 feet wide ; upon these wharves 
are built extensive ware-houBes, into which run the tracks of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad company, and where all goods arriving from the interior and 
intended for shipment to any part of Europe, or discharged from arriving 
steamers and sailing vessels and destined for the great cities of the West, 
are handled under cover. The goods are handled with the greatest ease, 
dispatch and economy, by means of powerful machinery on the docks and 
in the ware-houses. 

The ware-houses are bonded, and goods arriving from a foreign port can 
be stored here till the importer desires to pay duty. Foreign goods des- 
tined for the interior can be examined and appraised in these ware-houses 
and shipped off without delay, avoiding the tedious and expensive exami- 
nation at the custom-house, customary at other ports. 

The docks are large and commodious ; a fleet of steamers can be afloat 
and discharge and load in them at all stages of the tide. 

From the large amount of pro^rty owned by the company at this point, 
these docks, wharves and ware-houses are capable of large extension, suffi- 
cient to meet any demands, and additional improvements will be made us 
business requires them. 



23 Statistics. 






PHILADELPHIA PETROLEUM REPORT. 



PKTROLKI 'JM. 



rEB WIUollV i 80KS. 



Notwithstanding the many adverse intliienccs arising from an almost 
world wide commercial depression, the production and refining of crude 
petroleum still hold their position among the leading industries of DUl 

; aii.l at tin' present moment it is estimated that over sixty nation 
the globe now till their lumps with Pennsylvania oil. The discovery of tin- 
article iind i ts mode of manufacture were h>> fully dwelt upon in last report 
Unit in compiling thai for 1874 a short synopsis of such tints and ligun-s 
aB more particularly relate to the production, refining and export of this 
staple has been deemed sufficient to give to the intelligent reader a com- 
prehensive idea of the extent and value of a trade which furnishes to the 
world the cheapest illuminator of modem times, and one which is only 
Inn nd in paying quantities in the £tatc of Pennsylvania. 

1'RODlCTloN. 

Although commencing the year with (air prices, the largo production of 
the fourth sand wells, struck at the latter pari of 1873, and the extensive 
stocks of crude in the regions, combine to prevent the usual active prose- 
cution of new developments; and it was not until the close uf March, 
when the apparent small extent of the berth Band belt induced considera- 
ble mors activity, only, however, to be followed by a smart reaction, tin- 
increased production from these new third Band wells, the extension of the 
territory, and from turther strikes on the fourth sand belt, (which was dis- 
covered to be of further extent than was at first supposed,) having a most 
depressing influence in the value of crude, bringing it down in fact to such 
a figure as to show nothing but a loss to the producer. The almost total 
cessation in drilling operations, which naturally resulted, has served in a 
measure to restore a better feeling, and prices (or the end of December, 
1874, closed at about the same figures as those current on the 1st of Janu- 
ary, while the total production for the year is somewhat in excess of that 
of 18*3. 



WELLS DRILLING. 

NUMBER OP WELL DRILLING AT VAlflOFS DATES. 



355 



1874. 



January 1 
February 1 
March 1 
April 1 

May 1 

June 1 

July 1 

August 1 
September 1 
October 1 
November 1 
December 1 



37 

65 

99 

213 

225 

210 

180 

128 

107 

82 

57 

60 



1878. 1872. 1871. 1870. ! 1869. 



361 
249 
227 
177 
228 
295 
340 
267 
197 
163 
137 
60 



469 
420 
405 
301 
334 
378 
390 
349 
347 
361 
359 
353 



167 


364 


173 


388 


159 


395 


231 


433 


247 


412 


306 


463 


386 


849 


353 


319 


364 


308 


426 


305 


481 


206 


490 


191 , 



378 
341 
334 
292 
312 
345 
305 
310 
315 
331 
360 
846 



1868. 



182 
150 
160 
193 
217 
257 
299 
327 
331 
870 
435 
401 



1867. 



232 
255 



CRUDE PETROLEUM. 



357 



Stock of crude petroleum in the producing regions on the first of each month, 

1868 to 1874, inclusive. 



1874. 



187*. 



1872. 



1871. 



1870. 



1869. r 18S8. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November. 

Decern bar 



948,919 
888,00 

52*, 210 

r,iv,:t4 
594.286 
Till, Oil 
794,790 
998,319 
100,000 
241,(117 
700,000 
000,000 



1,085,435 
1,183,630 
1.206,375 
1,244, ess 

1.178,(515 
1,192,540 
1,324,405 
1,443,620 
1,513,890 
1.513.1S5 
1,452,895 
1.493.875 



023,348 



686,848 

1,040.898 
1,144,240 
1,203,0*9 
(KM), 220 
ii79. 1(5(1 
951,410 
914,423 
759,(330 
023,047 



507,751 
587,021. 
842,944 
873,810 
085,8115 
554,424 
541,071) 
530,933 
541,875 
495, (MO 
503,574 
532,974 



340,000 
342,000 
351,000 
;>s5.ii00 
329,000 
341,508 
321,840 
350,908 
419,477 
473,890 
578,014 
554,626 



264,000 
274,000 
282,000 
329,000 

:»;.->, lioo 
365, 000 

iioc.ooo 
307,000 
832,000 

292,001) 
27?, 000 
337,000 



534,000 
541,000 
552,000 
559, 000 
421,000 
290,000 
268, 000 
207, ..Km 
295, 000 
263,000 
206,000 
2,53, 000 



Table showing monthly shipments of crude petroleum from producing regions 

during the year 1874. 

Total shipments for the month of January 705 ,961 barrels. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



.do February 390,276 

.do March 433,650 

.do April 605,624 

■ do May 754 ,638 

.do June 669,315 

.do July 756 ,039 



.do August. . . 

.do September 

.do October.. . 

.do November 

.do December. 



648 ,180 
837 ,226 
566 .378 
498 ,218 
508,891 

7 ,374 ,396 



Daily average for the year, say 365 days, at 20,203 barrels, 7,374,396 
barrels. 



NUMBER OF VESSELS LOADED. 



359 



Table showing number of Vessels, with Big and Nationality, loaded at Phila- 
delphia with Petroleum during the years of 187 0, 1871, 1872, 1873 and 1874. 



g . g : 5 
8 El 



M 



§ I I 



» I 



1870. 

ships i 

Barks I 

Brigs 

BkPns 

Schooners — 



20 I 

«l I 

21 ! 1 



23 

M 4 

24 1 



• ! 



4 ■ 
6 



2 ; 



; 88 | 1^ 1 . 147 

1871. — I 

Ships 18 '••» 25 

Bafts i 41: as 

Brigs I 19! 13 

BkFns ' i 

Schooner* .... 3 ' 



13 

» 
S 



7 ; 
2 ' 



81 |. 



1873. 

Ships 

Barks 

Brigs 

Bkt'us 

Schooners — 



1873. 

Ships 

Barks 

Brigs 

BkPlM 

Schooners .... 



18 



45. 1 | 



05 

91 

14 

1 



12 

an 

5 



5 
4 . 



S I 10 



131 



1874. 

Ships 

Barks 

BkPns!!;!!!!; 

Schooners 



IB 




87 








.. 10: 


if 1 :::: 

4 


•> 

■1 * 


i . 

8 

1 


...:.| 


1 
7 

1 

3 


85 

19 




112 
14 


1 j 


8 ... 
1 ... 


u .... 


1 
8 1 






1 : 








J 


































71 ! 

14 


2 . 
1 . 


1 


168 ! 

84 j 
88 

8 ! 


2 


4 . . 


..| 120 .... 

T.r« m ..z 


.. 28 

1 16 

7 


80 .... 


5 


18 


2l 
-_vj 


14 

1 
18 

2 


n 

8 1 


4 \, 




..; 72 

..; 1 .... 


56 .... 


2 

■i •! 


6 

1 


8 1 

1 | 


■> 






8 ! 



51 



1 



1 I 116 I 



104 



1 



23 78 



2t 



Total number of vessels loaded at Philadelphia with petroleum In 1870 334, carrying 1,100,861 barrels. 

Do do do /.do 1871 845, •• 1.238.U61 

Do do do do 1872. 334. • 1,814,439 

Do do do do 1873 513, •• 1.889.146 " 

Do do do do 1874 417, " l,6S2fOVl 



A I though the condition of the trade has hardly warranted much in< 
to t! 'lie country, a good deal has been done in 

ving machinery, repairs, &c, many of the manufacturers tak- 
ing advantage 'it the \m- vailing dullness to completely close their works, 
for the sake of more thoroughly making sach necessary r- s. It i« 

also worthy of note that the economical arra tfl which years of ex- 

the manufacture of the article have 

ever to make it a nations] industry, and the time seems 

not! I when the refining of petr>>li'um will be as exclusively onr* 

as its production. At the present time it is estin 

' constructed [fl i I States have a capacity to refini 

r»l* rni !•■■ per day, iiridod M follows : 



Philadelphia ... ... 16 or 

Pittsburg 

<H1 rssjicM i 




PHILADELPHIA PETROLEUM REPORT. 




KEFtMSi; CAPACITY - . 



STATE OF PEXX3YM 







STATE OF SET TORS. 



STATE OF OHIO. 



EXrOBT.-. 




100 or 40 



Although the shipments of IS* 3 were somewhat in excess of what ha.- 
rally been considered a normal increase in the foreign consumption. 
the am.ninr of petroleum and its products which left the country- dorinr 
187+ has been little short of the figures for the previous year. In * 
however, of the general dullness of trade, the decrease is indeed wonder- 
fully small, an<) (tie ifiodBl now held in Europe would show that the idi 

past two years has been at a greater ratio 
at any time ry • f the article. In the far east, too. 

'•"•U are opening up, sad th- wants of the teeming millions of In 
China and Japan tanjr soon demand a production far ahead of whs* H 
fteMMftdsV. 



CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



361 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 



The great importance of this exhibition, not only to the interests of Phila- 
delphia but to those of the State, render it eminently proper that some allu- 
sion should be made to it in these pages. The result of all former exhibi- 
tions of a Biniilur character has Leon to largely increase business, open up 
new avenues of trade and to bring new inventions before th" world. It was 
estimated at the close of the year 1867, that over $50,000,000 has been ex- 
pended in the city of Paris, bnjond the annual expenditures in that city. The 
: niurest already shown in Europe indicates not only that we shall have 
large exhibits from the various nations, but that from 20 to 30,000 visitors 
may be expected. These visitors will be composed of various classes, 
many of them capitalists, who will take thia opportunity to make a thorough 
examination of our land with the object of making permanent investments, 
and the important coat and iron interests of this State will doubtless receive 
marked attention. Still further, there can be no question, but by the i<- 
sults of this exhibition, showing for the first time the progress of the nation 
at one glance, the tide ui emigration will be largely increased and by a bet- 
ter class of emigrants then have heretofore reached our shores. As to our 
own people, information has; Leon received from all sections that the number 
of visitors will be immense, various estimates have been made but the gen- 
eral opinion is that during the period at which the International Exhibition 
will remain open not less than ten millions of Americans will enter its 
portals. When we consider that there are within a radius of 250 miles 
of Philadelphia a population of over 12,000,000, this estimate does not ap- 
pear unreasonable, a large number of these visitors will take advantage of 
the opportunity to visit all sections of the State and it is to be hoped that 
the greatest facilities will be offered by our numerous railroads it. l.STii. 
and at reasonable rates, thus increasing their own income aud making 
the Keystone State better known to our own people. 

To Philadelphia this opportunity is an unrivaled one, and it* citizens 
proud of the position bestow..-*! upon them by a National Congress, are 
using every effort to have their city in good condition for the great event. 
Every facility will be given to strangers. Hotels are now being erected, 
streets improved, supplies of both water and gas increased, new street rail- 
roads built, and the ornamentations of the city and Fairmount Park will be- 
largely improved. Philadelphia to-day, the largest manufacturing city 
in the world, bids fair, under the impetus given by this great world con- 
gregating, to take a stand as a large commercial city. The American and 
Red Star steamship company, which has steadily gained ground since 



362 



CITY OF PHILADELPHIA. 



its origin, will find, use in 18Y6 fc r all its material; it lias been estimated 1 
that tun-thirds of onr foreign visitors will come by this line, and natu- 
rally n large proportion of the Ireight for the exhibition will be carried on 
t lie i r steamers. There can be no question, but this will tend to increase 
foreign trade hereafter and make Philadelphia a prominent commercial port. 
We Bhall in iw give such facts as we have been able t>> obtain as to the ori- 
gin, present position and future prospects t)f the international exhibition 
which we have had illustrated by a map and designs of the buildings. 

OKI (JIN. 

In 1871 various memorials and petitions were presented to CongrcsB re- 
lative to t In? proper celebration of our Centennial anniversary in 1876. 
That body, after due deliberation, decided that the movement was a proper 
one* and in the preamble to the law making provisions for a fitting celebra- 
tion, did commend the same to the people in the following felicitious terms, 
to wit • — 

•■ Whereas, Tin- Declaration of Independence of the United States of 
America was prepared, Bigned and promulgated in the year of 1774J, in the 
city "f Philadelphia : 

" And rchereae, It behooves the people of the United Stairs to celebrate 
by appropriate ceremonies the Centennial anniversary of this memorable 
and decisive event, which constituted the 4th ehiy of .Inly, Anno Domini 
1776, the birth-day of the nation : 

"And trhrreax, 1 1 in deemed fitting that the completion of the first century 
of onr national existence shall be commemorated by an exhibition of the na- 
tional resources of the country and their development, and of the progress 
in those arts which benefit mankind, in comparison with those of other na- 
tions: 

"And irhcnas, No place is so appropriate for such an exhibition as tin- 
city in which occurred the event it is designed to commemorate : 

• ' Ami irhereas, As the exhibition should be a national celebration in which 
i he people of the whole country should participate, it should have the sanc- 
tion of the Congress of the United States." 

The letter and spirit of the law following this preamble shows that Oon- 

IM intended that the celebration should be broadly national in its char- 
r, for it intrusted the management to commissioners to be chosen from 
the several States and Territories, and provided that the leading feature of 
the ceremonies should be a national and international exhibition of arts, 
manufactures and the products of the soil and mine, "to be conducted under 
the auspices of the government of the United Slates."'' 

The Commission to direct tin- celebration and exhibition was constituted 
accordingly in the rammer of 1871. But it was soon discovered that that 



/ 



CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION 






l""ly was \v;uit iti^c in authority to raise tin- necessary capital for the CTCC. 
lion ul' buildings and other |>roper preparations. To supply this need 
Congress, in 1*7'2, created another corporation known as tin- Centennial 
Board of Finance clothed with [he right, to raise capital] not exceeding 
sm,iiuo,iiuo, by selling its own capita] Btock, in shares "I' $10 each, ac 
Conpanied with the right to one rote fbl • .11 'li share in the election ofdi 
tors. '"The proceedB of said Btock, together with tin- receipts from nil othar 
sources, shall be used by said corporation for the erection of suitable build. 
ings, with their appropriate fixtures and appurtenances, and for ail other 
expenditures required in carrying out the ohjects of the said act of ('mi- 
M of March 3, 1871, and which may he incident thereto." Ami (In- 
tent h section reads <ib follows, to wit: — "That as soon .is practicable alter 
ill'- exhibition shall have been closed it shall be the duty of said corpora- 
tion Ul Convert its properly into cash, and alter the payment ol all its lia- 
bilities, to divide its remaining assets among its stockholders pro rata, in 
full satisfaction and discharge oi its capital stock," 

On the tth ol" July, 1878, the proper authorities of the « - i t y of Phila- 
delphia, in the preset! f the President of the I cited states, by iter spe- 
cial representatives and a vast gathering of the people, presented to 
United States Centennial Commission a deed dedicating to said commission 
I.M) acres of ground in Fairmourit Park for the uses and purposes of the said 

Centennial Exhibition. The President of tin 1 United y his 3] i,il 

representative, •'"imueiided tlie proposed eelebratfon to the favor and sup- 
port of the people of the United States, and did also call the attention of 
the governments of foreign countries to the proposed international exhibi- 
tion of arts, manufactures, ttv . to the eud that all might participate therein. 

IVVITATION TO FORJtIGN NATIONS. 



Then, again, Congress, at its last session, while adhering to the policy 
indicated in its laws of 1871 ami 1872 that the capital necessary fiw prep- 
arations should arise from the voluntary contributions of the people, passed 
a law facilitating the raisingof capital, and another providing for the admis- 
sion of articles for exhibition from foreign countries tree of duty j and an- 
other, in the, following terms, to wit: " That the President be requested to 
extend, in the name of the United States, a respectful and cordial Invitation 
to the governments of other nations to be represented and t:»ke part in the 
International Exhibition , to be held at Philadelphia, under the auspices of the 
government of the United States, in the year 1376 ;" and we are informed 
that that cordial invitation, under direction of the President, has gone onl 
to all the civilized nations of the world. 



360 



)f PHILADELPHIA. 



have sufficient reason bo believe that in the departments of useful machinery , 
manufactures 1 natural productions the display will be grander than any- 
thing of the kind heretofore witnessed! 

ACTIOS W FOBJBTON COT NTf.lKS. 

The indications an to the display from foreign countries tit this date,, a 
yeai and a half in advance of the beginning, are far bore favorable than 
bad been anticipated by the managers. The following named count: 
have token action, to wit: The German Empire liaH accepted the inviti. 
of the President i France, has accepted, and lias appointed commissioner 
in Philadelphia and New York; Sweden and Norway have ap- 

ted a I'l'imnihtiiuti, and havo gone 8u fcr as t'l provide for defraying the 

OOsl of traasportatiOQ of goods of their subjects to the exhibition and home ; 
it Britain has accepted iii the most cordial manner, and it is surmised 
that the Priii- ilea will bead the commission. In several of the British 

colonies — especially iu Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmauia, and 
others of the Australasian islands, exhibitions of unusual completeness and 
interest have been prepared; in Austria a large number of manufacturers 
and artisans have solicited space in the exhibition buildings. The govern- 
taebbfl of OeSttal America and South America have manifested special in- 
terent in thfl exhibition, and the President's invitation has been accepted 
l>\ 1' in, I'nited States of Colombia] Nicaragua, the Argentine Confedera- 
tloa, Uiav.il, Venezuela, Ecuador, Chili, Guatemala and Salvador, and for 
these countries commissioners have been appointed, and the money appro- 
priated for (heir expenses. Mexico, Honduras and Ilayti have also accept- 
ed the invitation, Brazil and other South American nations have made 
application for space. In addition, the Netherlands, Belgium, Liberia, the 
Sandwich Islands, China. Japan and Switzerland have accepted the invi- 
tation. Spain has accepted, and appointed Seuur Kmilio Castelar, the cini- 
neat republican statesman, to be her resident commissioner at the American 
< ■ x. I > i I - i i ■ . 

The means to the celebration provided for by Congress we regard as 
BOSJ fortanatft. Gnat, exhibitions, displaying the progress of the several 
nations in civil arts, always impart moet valuable lessons. Nothing hss 
done more fur England and France within the past quarter of a century 
than their great international exhibitions, and no one can doubt that the 
eemiag exhibition will be followed by similar results to our country. 

\V>- have thus given in brief such facts as it seemed of importance to in- 
c"i|iorate in this report ; and in our report for 18*5 we earnestly trust Uo1 
only to record the completion of the work, but also its large Increase neces- 
sitated by the demand for space from our own and foreign countries- 



I- 



Till: DELAWARE BREAKWATER. 






THE DELAWARE BREAKWATER. 

One pf the finest natural harbors on the Atlantic seaboard is formed bj 
the Delaware Bay, situated midway between the harbors of New } 

Hampton Beads, it lies iu the direct track of commerce between the 
Northern and Southern States and South America, and, moreover, i 
>mh.- .>f the moot convenient ports of call for vessels from Borons tad the 
Eastern hcoiispliere. Protected naturally by the head lands of Cape lleu- 
lopen and Capo May, science has also lent its aid to improve the safety "I 
the anchorage, and ly the construction of the massive sea walls, known M 
the Delaware breakwater, the harbor has been made one of the safest in the 
world. These works which are of great magnitude were completed by the 
government in 1869. The longer wall is 2,500 feet in length, the shorter 
1,400 feet. They are built of the heaviest stones on rock foundations, and 
tin storms of past -years only demonstrate their strength. 

Vessels of any size can lie in deep water, close to these defences, and 
the navies of the world could shelter behind them in perfect security. 

The barber proper is immediately inside of Caps lb-nlopen,on die south 
of the entrance to Delaware fay. Tttfl entrance channel is broad 
deep, and the anchorage so near the course ot passing vessels as to entail 
the least loss of time in reaching or leaving it. 

The approaches and neighboring waters arc well supplied with lights. 
I 1 1 ii Cape May, at the north-eastern side of the entrance to the bay, there 
is a very powerful white light of the first OTdef, Hashing at half niinut-' In- 
tervals ; this is visible at a distal ghtcen nautical miles. Upon 
Cape Beolopen, at the south-western Bide of the entrance to the bay, there 
is a powerful fixed white light, also of the first order, visible at a distance 
of seventeen nautical miles; and at a distance of seven-eights of a mile 
from the main light there is a white beacon, visible at a distance of twelve 
nautical miles. Upon the Breakwater is a fixed beacon varied by white 
Sashes at intervals of three-quarters of a minute. 

There are several life saving stations in the vicinity, while a government 
Steamer cruises in the neighborhood for the assistance of disabled vessel.-. 

The harbor has peculiar facilities for communications with all parts of tin 
world. The Western Union telegraph compauy, whose wires reach 
p- 'int, have arrangements for giving special attention to messages for ves- 
sels, and cables or telegrams addressed merely with vessels' name are de- 
livered to the captain, while Delawarebreakwater in such messages, if so . 
written, is only charged as one word. The government has built a mag- 
nificent iron pier, 1,500 feet long, extending out into deep water, and com- 
munication can be had with vessels at anchor in the harbor at all times ; 
this pier is to be still farther lengthened. 



368 



CITY OF PHILADELPHIA. 



The holding ground for vessels anchoring- there is of the very best de- 
scription, and by the constroction l)f some I'urthiT improvements, which 
are now under consideration by the national government, the harbor will 
I"' made to rank with any in t h- • world . Reference is asked t- > tin- enclosed 
diagrams for additional information concerning this magnificent port of 
call, and which bears such intimate relation and influence on the commerce 
of Pennsylvania. 

VITAL STATISTICS. 

HARM AUKS, lUni AND DEATHS IN PHILADELPHIA, 1873. 



.1 miliary. .. . 
February.. . 

M.rvl, .'.... 

April 

May 

.lim«? 

July 

August . . . 
September. 

October 

November. . 
December. . 

Total... 



Marriages. Birih-. Deaths. 



1,970 
1,607 

1 . ■■ ! I 
1.2H6 
1,410 
1,483 
1,706 
1,700 
1,540 
i.oi 
1,634 
1,508 



I.734J 

1,299 
1,(158 
1,887 
1 . 278 
|,S69 

I. II .: 
1.12V 
1,816 
1,(124 

l.ll.'W 



7,801 



18, TO 



*10,73-> 



Marriages, 10.52 in every 1,0110 ot population. 
Births, 24.93 in every 1,000 of population. 
Deaths, \'M.W in every 1,000 of population. 

BIRTHS. 
The following table will show the number of births in each month, the 
number of colored and still births, and twins : 





Total. 


Birtha. 


Black. 


Still- born. 


2 

I 

* 
: 


MOXTHS— !*.:>. 


M. 


P. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


r. 




1,670 
1,50? 

1.544 
1,21)0 
1,410 
1,4*1 

1 , 7i Li 

1,700 
1,649 
1,688 
1 , < ••: 4 * 
1,608 


884 

772 
804 
7<Kl 

7S0 

920 
807 
BR 

N12 

BSB 


788 
755 

m 

595 
057 

IKI4 

SM 

771 

742 
783 
772 
740 


15 
11 
10 
10 

11 

12 

19 
20 

11 

18 

15 




15 

11 
11 

12 
15 
2(1 

I'- 
ll 
lit 
10 
19 
10 


54 
38 
41 

47 

a 

45 
41 
SB 

n 

41 
44 
41 


49 

25 

:42 
34 
87 

:« 

;;;, 
30 
22 
38 
22 
31 


9 




14 




7 




1" 


Mav 


14 




rl 




16 
l<1 




7 




11 




10 

15 






Total 


1S.7U2 


!«. N l.i 


h. K.-.7 


161 


io:t 


502 


:«!) 


143 



*Iii<"liuU>s slil 1-1 h >rn »nil ilemlis from oilier localities). 
f Based on actual deaths in our city. 



VITAL STATISTICS. 369 

The number of births in each quarter of the year, was as follows : 

First quarter, ending- March 31 4 ,721 

Second quarter, ending June 30 4 ,188 

Third quarter, ending September 30 . 4 ,954 

Fourth quarter, ending December 31 4 ,839 

Total 18,702 



MARRIAGES. 

ten OF THE I'ABTIES. 

The following table will show the ages of the parties married during the 
rear 1S73: 









AUKS OK THE VOmSi 


c 3 


1878. 


rjadex 

20. 


20 to 25. 


25 to 30. 


40. 


40 to 
50. 


50 to 
60. 


00 to 
70. 


70 to 
80. 


Not 
given 


1 


Arret, men:— 
20 to 25 


33 

1,119 

352 

74 

3 


». 


1,601 
1.123 

408 
44 

7 
1 


m 

SM 
480 

9(5 
14 

1 


1 
27 

348 










1 
14 
17 
15 

1 


41 


1 
8 

in 








•j.'.r.i 
1,429 


25 to 30 


1 
4 






40 to 50 






212 Hi 
M 52 
13 






m 


SO to 80 


3 

5 

1 




152 






1 


1 
"505' 


n 








2 


3 
1 


7 










1 
-J 


s 


Not given 


4 


4 




515 










Total, women 


1,585 


3, 3-V1 


1,3(52 


778 


200 


48 


9 1 1 554 


7,891 



The number of men. married under twenty was only forty-one, (-H,i 
while the women amounted to one thousand rive hundred and eighty-fhi , 
(1,585 J two thousand nine hundred and thirty-four, (2,934) men were 
married between the ages of twenty and twenty-five, of whom one thousand 
one hundred and nineteen, ( 1,119) married women under twenty, one thou- 
sand six hundred and one, (1,601) married women between twenty and 
twenty-five ; one hundred and seventy-two, (172) married women between 
twenty-five and thirty, twenty-seven (27) married women between thirty 
and forty, and one (1) married woman between forty and fifty, Fifty-eight 
(58) women over the age of fifty were married, and one hundred and nine- 
ty-nine (199) men over the same age wqro married. 

The ages of five hundred and fifteen (515) men, and five hundred and 
fifty-four (554) women were omitted. 

Mmut.UJTY. 

The number of interments in the city during the year amounted to six- 
teen thousand seven hundred and thirty-six, (16,736,) a decrease from the 
84 Statistics. 



370 CITY OF PHILADELPHIA, 

previous year of three thousand eight hundred and eight, (3,808,) or 18.53 

per cent. 

Total number of interments during the year 1873 IB ,73G 

"White 15 .757 

Colored 978 

Total 16 ,?36 

Males 8 ,635 

Females 8,101 

Total 16 ,730 

Male adults 4 ,223 

Female adults 4 ,160 

8 ,888 

Slide children 4,412 

Female children 3 .01 1 

8 ,353 

Total 1«,T36 

Deaths from registered diseases 14 ,524 

Deaths from still-born 801 

Deaths from old age 538 

1 teatbfl from unknown, external and accidental causes 783 



Total 16,7.:' 

Deduct still-born 891 

Deduct from other localities 621 

1 ,512 



Actual deaths in city 1- 

— 

Taking the actual deaths in our city,, fifteen thousand two hundred and 

iv.'Liity-four, (15,224,) and making the basis of our calculation on the in- 
crease of the population, (750,000,) we find the deaths in our city to be 
line in ».vcry 49.26 of the population. 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



371 



The following table shows the percentage of deaths daring specified pe- 
riods of life, compared with a similar statement of the mortality in the year 
1872 : 





1872. 








1873. 






5,882 


Being 28.53 per cent. 


6,121 


Being 30.59 


per cent. 




1,708 


it 


8.30 


II I 


1,074 


» 6.41 


44 


2 to 5. .do 


1,588 


it 


7.72 


«* 


956 


" 5.71 


II 


5 to 10.. do 


782 


it 


3.80 


*• 


448 


» 2.61 


14 


10 to 13. .do 


428 


n 


2.06 


<• 


266 


" 1.57 


41 


15 to 20. .do 


685 


44 


3.33 


II 


489 


" 2.92 


41 


20 to 30. .do 


2,168 


«• 


10.52 


II 


1,710 


" 10.21 


II 


30 to 40..do 


1,892 


II 


9.29 


tl 


1,616 


9.05 


44 


40 to 00. .do 


1,497 


II 


7.20 


II 


1,387 


" 7.98 


41 


50 to 60. .do 


1,178 


II 


5.73 


II 


1,126 


" 6.72 


44 


60 to 70. .do 


1,139 


II 


5.54 


II 


1,188 


6.76 


44 


70 to 80. .do 


991 


41 


4.82 


11 ' 


962 


" 5.74 


11 


80 to 90. .do 


530 


44 


2.53 


II 


501 


" 2.99 


• 1 


90 to 100.. do 


94 


14 


.45 


II 


87 


.51 


It 


100 to 110. .do 


15 " 


.07 


II 


13 


.07 


II 




1 ! " 


.004 


11 








Total 


20,544 1 






10,730 







From the foregoing table it will be noticed the mortality of children under 
ten j'cars of age amounted to seven thousand six hundred and nine, (7,60?),) 
or 45.38 per cent., of the total mortality, while those under twenty years 
amounted to eight thousand three hundred and fifty-three, (8,353,) or 49.81 
per cent., or nearly onc-harf of the entire mortality; six hundred and one 
( 601 ) died over the age of eighty years ; thirteen (13) over the age of one 
hundred (100;) the number of infants under one year was five thousand 
one hundred and twenty-one, 5,121,) or 30.59 per cont., of total mortality, 
almost one-third of the entire list. 



3TS 



5 HILADELPfllA. 



The lbllowiug tabic of mortality iu each ward, with the percentage of 
ikiitlia to total mortality, (still-births not included :) 



wards— 1873. 


Dt*ths. 


r, ,- 
naaUgi 




089 
051 
454 

674 
444 

225 
728 
401 

m 

117 

saa 

294 

314 
371 
879 

337 

m 
ssa 

1.443 

ru 

-■::, 
417 
318 
881 
441 

bob 

BH 
240 
444 


4.53 




4.27 




8.08 




8.10 




._, , c 




1.47 




4.76 




a .as 




1.51 




2.73 




12. IS 




1 93 




2. (Hi 




'J \". 




B 77 




2 14 




3 ,93 
1.88 






9 47 




4,07 




1.74 




2 .67 




•• l)S 




4 14 




■J H'l 




5 7<i 




2 61 




1 .57 











The highest mortality occurred in the Nineteenth ward, one thousand 
four hundred and forty-throe, (1,443,) or 9.47 per cent, of the total mor- 
tality ; tlio lowest number in the Sixth ward, two hundred aud twenty-live. 
(225,) ot 1.47 per cent. The deaths iu the Twenty-seventh ward were 
three hundred and ninety -eight, (398.) (Deaths in almshouse not included 
in tin's amount.) 

The following table will show a general Buminary of the returns of births, 
marriages and deaths, for the past thirteen years and six months : 



Yean. 



L800— 8 months. 

C861 

LS09 





1865 

IHiMi 

1*77 

IBM 



1870 

1*71 

1873 

1 678 

Total* 



Births. 


Marrluyes. 


Deaths. 


• 8. i:;i 


8,810 


8,842 


17,371 


4.417 


1 1. MS 


14,741 


£oaa 


18,078 




5,474 


15,788 


IB, $81 


8,701 


17,688 


15, 438 


8, ON 


17, 160 


17, 437 


7,087 


[8,808 


17.IKI7 


0,084 


18,888 


17,850 




] L| SB 


1(3, 960 


8, BBB 


14,788 


17. 1U4 


8,483 


16,750 


18, »M 


ii. sir, 


16,993 


88,078 


'•-, m 


80,844 


18, 702 


:,vu 


18,788 


229. 735 


84.017 


■817,884 



*Iiicliulos deaths from other localities and nlill-1 x .rn. 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



373 



The above table shows the total number of births, marriages and deaths 
recorded in this office since July, 1860. It will bo noticed that during the 
years of the rebellion, 1862, 1868, 1864, the deaths exceeded the births, 
thus showing the disastrous effects war has upon the natural increase of 
population. Since the year 1865, with only one exception, (1872,) the 
births have exceeded the deaths, showing a natural increase of popula- 
tion ; the year 1872 the deaths outnumbered the births, owing to the epi- 
demic of small-pox. 



DEATHS IN CITIES, 1873. 



No. of 

deaths. 



Rate of 
living. 
1,000. 



London . 

Paris 

Brussels. 
Berlin... 
Vienna.. 
Rome . . . 
Turin 



Calcutta 

Bombay 

New York.... 
Philadelphia . 



74,792 

43,531 

4,544 

29,954 

19,809 

7,152 

5,537 

11,782 

15,617 

28,490 

16,788 



22.3 
23.2 
24.8 
30.6 
32.7 
29.3 
24.8 
25.3 
24.1 
27.9 
20.3 



AREA OF THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA. 



First 

Second... 

Third.... 

Fourth.., 

Fifth.... 

Sixth.... 

Seventh . 

Eighth... 



Ninth 

Tenth 

Eleventh 

Twelfth 

Thirteenth 

Fourteenth 

Fifteenth 

Sixteenth 

Seventeenth 

Eighteenth 

Nineteenth 

Twentieth 

Twenty-first 

Twenty-second . . 
Twenty-third.... 
Twenty-fourth .. 

Twenty-fifth 

Twenty-sixth.... 
Twenty-eeventh . 
Twenty-eighth... 
Twenty-ninth . . . 



WARDS. 



Area in 

acres. 



Area in 
sq. miles. 



Total. 



3,526 


5.509 


283 


.442 


122 


.191 


147 


.229 


206 


.321 


206 


.321 


281 


.439 


279 


.435 


256 


.400 


230 


.359 


135 


.210 


124 


.193 


164 


.259 


152 


.237 


671 


1.049 


180 


.281 


161 


.251 


416 


.650 


903 


1.455 


469 


.734 


4,560 


7.129 


11,593 


18.114 


27,339 


42.716 


6,224 


9.725 


6,630 


13.060 


• 5, 100 


8.000 


7,475 


11.680 


4,060 


6.343 


900 


1.400 


82,003 


129.382 



APPENDIX. 



ARTICLES TOO LATE FOR CLASSIFICATION IN MAIN PART 

OF REPORT. " 



/ ! : i / 



/.■• 



APPENDIX. 



STATE TAXATION IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



An old maxim warns us that in this busy world "none escape death and 
few taxation." The absolute certainty of the first should admonish us to 
be ever ready ; and the imperative necessity of the second requires us to 
submit without needlessly ruffling our tempers. All forms of government 
require the citizen to contribute some portion of his income to insure the 
pn itection of his life and property and the amount thus contributed is called 
his tax. Whether this taxation is heavier or lighter must largely depend 
upon the wisdom which enacts our laws and the economy and faithfulness 
of their administration. The manner in which the exact proportion due 
from each member of society shall be ascertained and collected, has at all 
times and in all countries Leon a subject of great perplexity It has puz- 
zled the wisdom of statesmen and philosophers, some of whom have solved 
the problem to their own satisfaction, but very rarely to the satisfaction of 
the tax-payer. The question of taxation is one in which every citizen is 
interested and upon which we are all very sensitive. It appeals Airectiy 
to our pockets and we are easily inclined to listen to any argument, how- 
ever fallacious, tending to show that we are too heavily burdened, Our 
prejudices are frequently applied to, even in Pennsylvania, by the cry of 
"taxc-B! taxes!" To show how little ground there is for complaint, and 
livw, on the contrary, there is great reason for congratulation on the part 
of citizens of Pennsylvania, for the manner in which the question of State 
taxation is here disposed of will be the object of this article ; and I know of 
:,n way in which this .an be done more satisfactorily than by a comparison 
of the annual revenues of our State with those of other States, giving also 
the sources from whence the revi nu - • ■•• .lorivod. Tnkr f.. r instance NV-w 
h and Massachusetts, two prosperous and wealthy • 'omirn uiwealths. Ac- 
cording to the annual financial reports of these States for the year "1873, (re- 
ports for 1H74 cannot be obtained at this writing.) and of Pennsylvania foi 
187-4 the revenue of the States named was as follow- ; 

Pennsylvania, for 1874 $5 ,871 ,968 

Massachusetts, for 1873.. 11 ,8!>4,91S 

Xew York, for 1873, (not including receipts from canals j. . . 18 ,;k>ii ,210 



APPENDIX. 

From these figures it will be seen that the State of Pennsylvania, having 
a population nearly equal to that of New York and more than double that 
of Massachusetts, is governed at an expense of less than one-third the cost 
of government in New York and less than one-half that of Massachusetts. 
This exhibit is very gratifying and speaks volumes in favor of the wisdom 
met economy with which our finances arc at present managed. In addition 
to the small amount of revenue required for State purposes we must also 
consider the sources from which that revenue i8 derived and the manner in 
which it is Collected. In New York and Massachusetts the great bulk of 
revenue is raised by direct taxation, uo tax being imposed upon the fran- 
chises of corporations. In Pennsylvauia it is quite different. For years 
the simplicity and economy of our system of State taxation has been the 
envy and the admiration of our sister States and an abundant source of 
satisfaction on the part of citizens of our own. W'li il •- the revenues of 
other Commonwealths have been raised principally from tax. s IJKii- 
directly upon the people, by far the greater proportion of our revenues are 
derived from corporations. We have no State tax whatever upon real 
estate and but a very light one on personal property. By our system the 
burden of State taxation is lifted almost entirely from the shoulders of the 
private citizens aud falls without oppressive Weight upon the corporations. 
It is at once simple, effective and economical. No army of commissioned 
assessors aud collectors is required, the taxes of corporations being paid 
directly into the State Treasury upon accounts settled by the Audit" i 
General and State Treasurer, without the deduction of any commission or 
expense whatever ; and for this reason alone the amount of revenue 
required to be assessed is undoubtedly from ten to fifteen per cent, less 
than would bo required under any other system. 

The Bources of our revenue in 1874 wero as follows : 

Tax on corporation stocks $1 ,400 ,118 80 

Tax on gross receipts 81 ,88T 20 

Tax on tonnage 130 ,931 35 

Tax on coal ... 82 ,601 26 

Tax on incomes 80 ,20T 41 

Tax on loans .,* 418 ,381 66 

Tax on bank stock 304,064 93 

Tax on coal companies 80 .084 58 

Tax on foreign insurance companies 292 ,733 40 

Tax on personal property 545 ,523 24 

Tax on writs, wills, deeds, Ac 157 ,783 21 

Bonus or premiums on charters 56 ,498 13 

Collateral inheritance tax 350 ,676 45 



STATE TAXATION. WS 

Retailers', tavern, 4c, licenses $871 ,803 22 

Collections on outstanding indebtedness Bt5 r t6Q W 

Miscellaneous 134 £16 .;i 

$5,871 ,9(58 27 

The total ivn-uiir ii, 1*74 was SI, 204,754 '.»:; less than in 1ST3, taxes to 
about tliat amount having been repealed absolutely by the Legialfttttree of 
1873 and 1X7 1. Recent decisions of the Supreme Court and the new Con- 
stitution having seriously affected the existing tax law, the I>j,'i»luturc "I 
winter found it necessary to very materially alter them The items 
which in the foregoing statement are designated as taxes on gross receipt.-. 
tonnage, coal, income and loans have all been repealed. The tax on capital 
-tik of railroad companies was increased to meet in part the deficiency 
arising from the repeal of some of the other taxes and a tax on coal com- 
panies takes the place of the tax on coal. 

A classification of the figures in the foregoing statement shows that of 
the total revenue Foe 1874 there was derived as follows: 

From corporations by direct taxation $2 ,936 .508 SI 

From corporations as interest on bonds, commutation, &c, 875 ,160 00 

Total from corporations 3 ,811^668 81 

From taxes on the people generally fi ,060 ,29! > 

Total revenue in 1874. 5 ,871 ,W8 27 



Of the two millions of dollars put down as taxes on the peopte generally, 
nearly one-hall is derived from licenses and is but indirectly a tax on the 
people. 

It is sometimes urged that the taxes on corporations fall ultimately upon 
the people in the shape of increased prices, railroad freights, Ac. That 
this is not tlie case to any groat extent can be clearly demonstrated, bm 
even were it true to its fullest extent, it would only add another argument 
in favor of the system ; for in no other way could the burden be ao evenly 
and justly distributed. 

It is worthy of mention, that notwithstanding the smallnees of tbe reve- 
nue in 1874, our State debt has been reduced to the extent of $1 ,230, 186 57 ; 
and it may be added that there in no State in the Union which, in propor- 
tion to its population and importance, is governed at so tittle expense as 
ours, no State where the burdeus of State taxation fall bo lightly, and no 
State whose securities command in market so high a price as those of 
Pennsylvania. Upon these facts we may congratulate ourselves. 



STATU TAXATION' FOR THREE YEARS. 



Statement of receipt* at the Stale Treasury from the several sources 01 
nue Owing the fiscal years ending November 80, 1872, November 30, 1878, 
November 30, 1874 : 




Mil Hi l> HI KI.VKMK. 



Kailroad, canal, express, navigation ami 

mi importation OompudM I3 > 412, 7:'.n ;.. «'J.800,082 80 81,256,459 64 

■ oil, iron, Improvement, mining ami ma 

1 1 Tru-t 11 rillfC OOmpMllM 

nger railway ■ ■••iiipiiiiies. 
iirlrlftv, turnpike imil plunk road ooiii|niiiit>K 

liank.s 

Conation, oJtleaand boroughs. 

mil water rompnnle" 

• uiipiiniOH ' 

Telegraph companies 



llMOMtHM coinpMnioii, (domestic,) .. 

ln«uranceeompanlea, ^foreign,) lleeruws,&e 

Premltum cm corporation iimncrs 

Inanity tor right of way. (Erie railroad, )..i 
All Ot lior Companies and ansociations 

MiictUamou* vacs: 

'\'n\ on personal property 

Noiurii'M pulilic, tax On receipt* 

Notaries public, commissions 

i.i i "ii enrolment of laws 

II logs 

Tux tin writs, will*, deeds, xr. 

m certain offioen 

1 . . 1 1 :it f nil iiiucritunco lux , . . 

lavi rn Ifoenaes 

Kolailont lictintti -. . 

['heatre, ciroua nn<l menagerie IR-euscs. .. . 

ItllllMnl, bowling, saloon and ten-pin alley 

I (censes 

i sting I muse, beer house and restaurant 

Lleen 

i'i '(Idlers' [loeiwoa 

RrOkan' lleenm 

Patent medicine licenses, 

Hrowery and .llstlltery licensee 

Millers' i;i \ 

l'u in pit lot lawn 

uf (Hi bile ullli-era. . 
\ iielloneera 1 eoininisHioii* anil tlntii - 

. in -i mi n«' oommlaalonja. 

and penal 
Stevedore licenses 



71, 184 
»I,3U 

S4 1,021 
lirj,-|iM 
36, 750 
90, 189 
6, IWH 
[U,B8fl 
ST. 1,806 
101,584 
10.000 



■I" 
i:i 
81 

H 

m 

50 ' 
59 I 
08 

u 

00 
Q] 



ceo, 

7-1, 
34, 

107, 

50, 

48, 

7, 

US, 

858. 

■ >\ 

10, 

46, 



588 62 

:u\s ag 

490 63 

057 10 

633 92 

831 :kj 

952 01 

090 76 

WO 7S 

m n 

MM 00 

886 00 



578,379 W 
184 11 

■ n 84 

BM.eos ;tn 

111,322 3.5 

W|OT7 12 

33.909 70 

7,207 11 

87,017 78 

Lift!, 77.-. i '7 

56,498 13 

10,000 00 

82.233 87 



501.816 12 . 
1,688 07 ' 



:;<i,(in) imi 

INK. IMI 

ll'.i. ;;.mi 32 

80,770 86 

3*4,819 !'s 

346, lis 70 

484*841 83 

3,020 -is 



Ml, 607 01 

J, 711 27 

7,450 00 

30,800 00 

1,500 00 

118, 117 69 

10,723 K» 
327,973 99 

■|j|,:i7l Mi 

5,131 7.:. 




STATE TAXATION. 
Statement of Resources at State Treasury — Continued. 



381 



SOURCES OF REVENUE. 


187&. 

t 
1 

$4,938 05 

240 00 

26,202 45 


187*. 


1874. 


Collections on outstanding indebtedness: 


$3,715 70 


$5,340 55 




160 00 






29,666 97 


ioo 66 

945 00 

4,297 97 

63,035 48 

230,000 00. 

87,500 00 






880 66 

4,204 31 

46,724 73 

460,000 00 

87,500 00 






10, 108 50 




32,695 IS 


Commutation of tonnage tax. as per act, 1861 
Allegheny Valley railroad, Interest on 


690,000 00 
175,' 000 00 








6,738,346 95 


7,077,073 40 


5,871,968 27 



The revenue of 1874 appropriated by law : 

First. To the Sinking Fund $3 ,054 ,939 07 

Second. To general expenses of government 2 ,817 ,029 20 



5,871,968 27 






APPENDIX. 



STATE EXPENDITURES 1 : (>R THREE YliARS. 



Ta9lb shh/ring expenditure* of On Commonwealth for the yean 1677,2, LOTS 

and 1874. 



IH7X 



M74. 



$171,845 "i 

l|..;i-i of Roiircwillillivi-s 

Public printing 101,01721 

iimo ilepurtniem . 30,83008 

Judiciary 331,474 30 

Public offices 

Mi iuai--\ expenses 22,122 17 

• id forwarding tows, 1,290 00 

Paid electora Of President ami \ 

dent 

< 'onstitnti'Miiil Convention 

in is ami gratuities 54,831 ii 

1 n1 niiiJUee ifi 81 

Charitable instil m ions 141,827 10 

Soldiers' orphan schools 471,9 



i 'omnion schools 

[••■iinsyi\.ini;i State Agricultural Society-.. 

V monuments to QoasutaUon 

Loans redeei 1, &o . . . 

interest on (onus 

Damagea and old claims 

Harbor master, Philadelphia 

Port warden, Philadelphia, 

i nspectors or ooal mines. 

State library 

Public buildings und grounds.. 

Ilouai 50 



Escheats 

I !< .11 n- • I fees Mid con 1 

Special 01 immlssSoaare 

< ommlssi oners 10 edj as) alaina 

.tit ■ 1 ■ - sppr 

Lucerne county riots 

lioard "i Public • Iharlties 

I !.\. line |-iilllllli---i<>Il'T-. 

Count 

\.--.i aa its of bank stock 



i.i 1 of ox-i iovemor John w , (leery., 

.". . 

w tllUvmspoti riots 

[Ueliiinnn Depot riots 

1 entennial exposition 

I tomeetis creditors 

• ' 1 1 Igfa School 

1 of PardonB 

1 ieologioi l survey. 

I, &c 

Publh ■■ CojiKtii utlou 

Viivcrlislug for I'mjioaals 



607,191 50 

2, 000 00 

-'.-"•II, !• -' 87 
,033 88 
13,81 
174 99 

2, BOO 00 
34,775 08 

ii,,-iMI i"i 

2 1, as 

71,900 imi 

7, ■!■ 

8,332 22 
2,819 B7 

r,9u u 

l,7i 

5,943 18 
1,800 00 

i.'.wu 0.1 



46,074 04 



9107. 1 1: '.7 
980,709 
181,810 

1148,910 
94,513 
73.242 

70S 
410,728 

50,384 

480, 
489, 
804,097 

3,1 

. 
1,661, 

2,708 

r,03 
8,000 



10,071 
1,074 

50,028 



*I34, W 

084 13 

162, 2 
14.lt" LI 
83,800 "■ 

1 11,71 

52«i v. 



86,401 42 
13, R89 77 

41i»,a 
982 - 
9,000 •»> 
140 i" 
1,382,234 72 
1,480. 
1,944 

-'.!' 1'. fl 

3,21 ■ 
24, 1: 

7. 1IM1 Ifli 

08,71 

7, on 08 

11,177 00 



134 00 



903 03 
390 77 

1 ■ -. ■ -- - 

71,81. 

I, 156 

111, 000 

2,020 

202, 7f 

9,7(1 



■ ,' 



RAILROADS IN PENNSYLVANIA, 



888 



RAILROADS IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



C'artersville, Georgia, 

December 13, 1874. ( 

(ioverxuk » — -I wish to Hnd a history of the inauguration of your railroad 
system in Pennsylvania and the inception of the movements for the de- 
velopment of the coal mines in your State. It appears to me that tlnM- 
enterprises were fostered by the State government If you can put me on 
k of what I want you will do me a great favor and I hope Borne public 
good. 

I am a member of the I State Senate and have been in the Legis- 

lature of Georgia several years. I am looking into matters kindred to-tfa 
here indicated fat Georgia. 

1 am, with high respect. 

JOHN \Y. WOFFORD. 
To ill'- Qaiernor of. temuyhnnia. 



BLtztoafeDM, December 28. 1874. J 

JOHM W. WorhitiB, Ksw., 

Sir:— (;-iv.'rn<n- Hart ran ft lias referred yours Of Dec lid to my 

department f&t answer, 
The development in Pennsylvania of her real mineB, canals and railroads 
id require a volume to ahfrwer. Nearly fifty- years since the agitation 

of tliis i our State resulted in an extensive undertaking r by the 

State itself at works of internal improvement. In accordance with the 
notions . ■ t" thi 1 day these were chiefly canals, railroads being only used to 
connect our canals where a supply of water could not be had. The result 
of that policy was the construction*by the State of what was known as her 
"main line," about a dozen of branches tind snbscriptie lals-, Rail- 

roads, turnpikes and bridges in all parts, of the State, OOBl at as fol- 

lows : 

A gg 

Main line, I 12ti miles railroad, 893 miles canal,) $lH.Glf> ,W3 00 

Branch canals and railroads Ill ,484 ,410 00 

Stocks in various corporations. 6 ,194 ,380 00 



41 ,294,402 00 






AEPEND1X 



These corporations were managed by a board of canal commissioners. 
Their management was not satisfactory to the publie. note OB account •■'■ 
their constant interference in politics than even tie loss incurred. The 
most of the profitable corporation stocks had been sold in 1813, the main 
line whs sold in 1857, the branch canals in 1858, and about the same tirai 
the constitutional amendment ol 1857 was adopted prohibiting the State 
from constructing any such works "ii her own account or being a stock- 
h older in any railroad, canal oi other kindred work. 



THevutln line, oosUngfi-vii 
Braaoh oaiwis, <5tc, " 10,-I84,4in, 
Corporation Stocks, " H, 194, 380. 



ivMaold for 17,500,000, 

10,000, 

1,440,180, 



low $11,115 

4,764,260 



4l.2fl4.4<i2. 



12,440,180, 






Fin&nciftUy, therefore, Pennsylvania has not much to boast of in hot in- 
vestmein 'is. She is, however, better oh" than her sister New York, 

which upon a still larger investment in canals has not realized for many 
years past enough to pay the cost of their management. Private < 
panics, in Pennsylvania, have invested over $36,000,000 in the construc- 
tion of canals, about one-hall" of which are paying from three to six per 
cent, and the other half less than that upon the cost of their construction. 

The building of railroads in our State, did not commence until ten or 
twelve years later than her canal system. Tin- now great Reading rail- 
road was many yean it reaching the anthracite coal fields. She has now 
absorbed Bffme Sixteen branch railroads, two or three canals, represents an 
expenditure of about $73,000,000, upon which she lias paid for many years 
ten pas OOht. dividends. This Company has within the last few years. 
bought up about one hundred thousand acres of land in the anthracite ooal 
region, She DOW, therefore, not only controls the entire transports : 
business in the counties through which her roads are I, icutedi but also owns 
tin.' most productive portions of the southern anthracite coal basin. II. i 
investments in railroads, work-shops, coal mines and iron works, eaniiel 
fall bolow $125,000,11011, upon all which 1 presume she is realizing ten pet 
cent, dividetids. , 

The Pennsylvania railroad, a still mightier corporation, wus not OQtn- 
menced until alM.ut.tni years later than the Reading She has now not only 
her own main line, but has absorbed as branches, at least two-thirds of all 
the lailroads in our State; and lieyond our State line has controlling inter 
in all the great, east and west lines, terminating at Cleveland and Chi- 
cago on the lakes, St. Louis on the Mississippi, and Cincinnati ami Louis- 
ville on tin' Ohio river. She also has large investments from Baltimore, 
Washington, and various points southward, even as far as your own State, 
I would estimate the investments of the Pennsylvania railroad within our 



RAILROADS IN PENNSYLVANIA. 36.") 

own State, at about $150,000,000, and without the State, probably double 
that amount. 

Four or five railroads centering at New York, penetrate northern Penn- 
sylvania, and about as effectually control the coal trade of the northern an- 
thracite basin as the Reading does the southern. I am not so well posted 
in reference to those roads as the former, but suppose that there is at least 
$50,000,000 invested in railroads and at least $25,000,000 in coal lauds in 
the Lackawanna, Lehigh aud Blossburg coal fields. 

Tin' Eric and Atlantic and Great Western, centering at New York, pene- 
trate portions of northern Pennsylvania, and accommodate the trade of 
those sections. The value of their investments in our State I cannot as- 
certain. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad has expended about $15,000,000 
in southwestern Pennsylvania. A primary design of nil those investments 
has been to reach the iron, coal and oil products of our State. The State 
of Pennsylvania in her corporate capacity holds no stock in any of these 
railroads. The main interest held by the great corporations pay their 
stockholders at the rate of ten per cent, per annum. Immense amounts of 
individual stock in the branch roads, which had generally been partly com- 
pleted before their absorption by the main lines, are worth very little to the 
holders. Probably not much short of $50,000,000 of original individual 
stock might to-day be purchased at ten per cent, on its cost. 

The effect of the building of railroads has been to add ten-fold to the 
value of our mineral products. It has also greatly increased, hut in a leBs 
degree, the value of real and personal property. 

The- increase of the anthracite coal trade for each period of ten years is 
as follows : 

From 1820 to 1830 359,190 tons. 

From 1830 to 1840 5,210,685 " 

From 1840 to 1850 18,954,678 " 

From 1850 to I860 58,333,469 " 

From 1860 to 1870 106,883,488 " 

The returns for bituminous and Bemi-bituminous, block and gas coal can- 
not be so conveniently ascertained. The aggregate of all these are now 
nearly equal to the anthracite. The value of the anthracite at the mines is 
about double that of the bitumiuous. 

Your State, Georgia, is frequently called the Pennsylvania of the South. 
Your State is probably in a very different position from ours. Yours, per- 
haps, more nearly approximates tu what ours was half a century ago. Our 
individual wealth at that time was not sufficient to undertake the internal 
improvements necessary to the development of our mineral wealth. The 
State was then induced to undertake these improvements. Now the wealth 
25 Statistics. 



386 - APPENDIX. 

of our citizens has so largely increased that all such works are left to the 
individuals Public sentiment, concurring with the prohibitions of our 
Constitution, forbids the State either in her corporate capacity or as a 
stockholder to build such works. In Georgia the condition of things may 
be very different, of which her own citizens are the proper judges. 

I remain yours, 

THOMAS J. BIGHAM, 

1 Cotnmisaioner of Statistics. 



'.' .• t •• 



CONDITION OP NATIONAL BANKS. 387 

CONDITION OF NATIONAL BANKS. 



Treasury Department, 
Office of Comptroller of the Currency, 
Washington, November 18, 1874. 

Sir: — As promised you in my letter of October 10 last, I send you here- 
with abstracts of the reports showing the condition of the banks of Phila- 
delphia, and of Pittsburg, and of those of the remainder of the State, ex- 
clusive of the cities named October 2, 1874. 

Very respectfully, 

JOHN JAY KNOX, 

Comptroller. 
Hon. Thos. J. Biohah, 

Commissioner of Statistics, Harrisburg, Pa. 



Ar8TRact of reports made to the Comptroller of the Currency, showing the 
condition of the National Banks in the Stale of Pennsylvania, at the close 
of business on Friday, the 2d day of October, 1874. 

RESOURCES. 

Loans and discounts $47 ,618 ,432 10 

Overdrafts 271 ,849 41 

United States bonds, to secure circulation 26 ,449 ,300 00 

United States bonds, to secure deposit* 710 ,000 00 

United States bonds on hand .'. 546 ,100 00 

Other stocks, bonds and mortgages 2 ,071 ,322 55 

Due from redeeming and reserve agents 4 ,239 ,534 02 

Due from other National banks 1 ,286 ,824 18 

Due from State banks and bankers 972 ,187 69 

Real estate, furniture and fixtures 2 ,075 ,941 79 

Current expenses 488 ,313 57 

Premiums paid 403 ,410 38 

Checks and other cash items , 519 ,985 77 

Bills of other National banks 834 ,807 00 

Bills of State banks 1 ,759 00 

Fractional currency 160 ,706 90 

Specie 66 ,676 14 

Legal tender notes 3 ,946 ,821 00 

U. S. certificates of deposit- for legal tender notes 40 ,000 00 

Deposit with United States Treasurer 1 ,439 ,884 75 

94,133,856 20 



888 APPENDIX, 

U ABILITIES. 

Cjipital stock paid in , $27 ,075 ,240 00 

Surplus fund 7 ,374 ,302 18 

Undivided profits 2 ,552 ,520 89 

National bank notes outstanding : . . 23 ,272 ,299 00 

State bank notes outstanding 93 ,390 00 

Dividends unpaid 84 ,(568 02 

Individual deposits 31 ,315 ,483 42 

Duited States deposits 375 ,735 56 

Deposits of United States disbursing officers 9 ,882 57 

Dili tfi National banks 1 ,302,375 41 

Due to State banks and bankers 295 ,927 28 

Viis mm! bills rc-diBco tinted "_".'4 ,965 76 

Bills payable 87 ,256 31 



94,133.856 20 



Number "f banks, 159, 



Abstract of the rejjorts made to Ike Comptroller of the Currency, showing 
thr. intetition of the National Banks in the oily of Philadelphia, at the close 
of business on Friday, the 2d day of October, 1874. 

RESOURCES. 

..oan* and discounts $47 ,893 ,261 13 

Overdrafts 21 ,519 97 

United States bonds, to secure circulation 13 ,668 ,200 00 

United States bonds, to secure deposits 225 ,000 00 

United StateB bonds on baud , 321 ,300 00 

Other stocks, bonds and mortgages $1 ,573 ,250 81 

Ihu- from redeeming and reserve agents 4 ,935 ,566 48 

Due from other National bauks 2 ,595 ,314 08 

Due from State banks and bankers , . . , 669 ,605 20 

Real estate, furniture and fixtures 2 ,328 ,346 88 

Current expenses 556 ,196 81 

Premiums paid. . , 188 ,139 21 

Checks and other cash items. 388 ,918 56 

Exchanges for clearing-house 6 ,723 .983 25 

Bills of other National banks , 1 ,229 ,638 00 

Bills of State bauks 819 00 



CONDITION OP NATIONAL BANKS. 389 

tional currency $184,880 55 

• cie... 812,049 67 

,-•1 tender notes 6 ,876 ,459 00 

ited States certificates of deposit for legal tender notes, 3 ,790 ,000 00 

posit with United States Treasurer 698 ,968 00 

93,691,416 55 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock paid in $16 ,935 ,000 00 

Surplus fund 7,169,154 13 

Undivided profits 1 ,922 ,460 62 

National bank notes outstanding 11 ,722 ,725 00 

State bank notes outstanding . . . 42 ,491 00 

Dividends unpaid 47 ,654 28 

• Individual deposits 46 ,734 ,450 55 

United States deposits 150 ,792 51 

Due to National banks 6 ,749 ,007 16 

Due to State banks and bankers 2 ,215 ,049 26 

Billspayable 2,632 04 

93,691,416 55 
Number of banks, 29. 



Abstract of reports made to the Comptroller of the Currency, showing the 
condition of the National Banks in the city of Pittsburg, at the close of busi- 
ness on Friday, the 2d day of October, 1874. 

KBSODBCE8. 

Loans and discounts $16 ,872 ,008 51 

Overdrafts 107,153 99 

United States bonds to secure circulation 7 ,568 ,500 00 

United States bonds to secure deposits 50 ,000 00 

United States bonds on hand 878 ,000 00 

Other stocks, bonds and mortgages 123 ,930 60 

Due from redeeming and reserve agents 1 ,549 ,885 18 

Due from other National banks 572 ,065 53 

Due from State banks and bankers 179 ,817 82 

Real estate, furniture and fixtures 879 ,338 61 

Current expenses 196 ,683 06 

Premiums paid '. 62 ,361 22 

Checks and other cash items 186 ,789 05 



OUR FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES. 



OUR FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES. 



A RKJIEDV, BY CKOKSE HHEY, Edy., OF MILLWOOD, WESTMORELAND CO I' STY, I'A 



A nation is prosperous wheu her people are amply supplied, by their own 
industry, with those things essential to the enjoyment of life, and increases 
in wealth in proportion to the amount received for the BurpluB produce of 
their labor. A sufficient supply of money of uniform value is a necessary 
aid. It is the duty of government to supply this. Gold and silver give 
the uniformity required. Often in the history of the world, governments 
have found it necessary to substitute paper for gold and silver. This was 
the case with our Government during its conflict with the Southern Con- 
federacy. The business of our people became adapted to the condition in- 
cident to the suspension of specie payments. The value of property of 
every description was largely enhanced, the expense of living and the 
wages of labor advanced proportionately ; public improvements of the most 
extensive character were projected and completed, manufactures rapidly 
increased and the area devoted to agriculture was widely extended. Sud- 
denly, over one year since, this activity ceased. The interval has been de- 
voted to idleness and gloomy forebodings. The men who, by their supe- 
rior knowledge and enterprise gave vitality to the business operations of 
the country are powerless. Their money and their credit are exhausted. 
The timid owners of the money of the nation are frightened and hoard it, 
or invest it in government bonds, mortgages, or other convertible securities. 
Laboring people are idle in immense numbers. To resume specie payments 
now would increase the financial embarrassment. It would diminish the 
volume of money, reduce values ruinously, increase the disposition to 
hoard, prostrate the debtor class entirely, and stop all industries until the 
financial revolution would be fully accomplished. 

The only remedy for our temporalilh u to put the people to wvrk producing 
tometkinrj which will sell/or more than they spend. 

We have everything in readiness to do this instantly. We have at least 
8,000,000 able-bodied men in this country to-day possessing the knowledge, 
skill, physical ability and energy required to perform properly the duties 
of all their varied positions. We have a boundless expanse of laud ready 
for cultivation, of unsurpassed fertility, capable of producing every article 
required to sustain human life largely in excess of our wants. We have 
mineral resources excelling in quantity and quality any other portion of 



392 



APPENDIX. 



this world. We have the appliances and machinery in existence and the 
knowledge and skill to put them into immediate use in the fabrication of 
every article needful in life. We have navigable rivers, canals and rail- 
roads penetrating every portion of this country, affording our people ini- 
iqualled facilities for inter-communication and the interchange of commo- 
dities. We have a merchant marine navigating every ocean and sea, dis- 
tributing to every nation on the earth's surface the products of our indus- 
try and skill. 

These resources should make ns prosperous and happy. We are not to, 
No branch of productive industry in properly remunerative. The only 
relief for this depression is an increase in the supply of monoy sufficient to 
arrest the shrinkage of values, destroy the incentive to hoard, reduce the 
value of money, and start the idle people to work. Gold and silver cannot 
be increased sufficiently to do this. Any increase in the amount of paper 
money unless it is based on the credit of Our National Government, and its 
redemption in gold is definitely provided for, would only Tncrcase the 
financial ills which now afflict us. 

Our National debt is about $2,000,000,000. The annual interest on this 
debt is about $100,000,000. 

Our National banks are based on government bonds. Whatever credit 
our national bank-notes enjoy is afforded by the liberality of our national 
government for their ultimate redemption. The bankers receive from the 
borrowers for the use of these notes 8 to 12 per cent, each year in addition 
to the interest received from the government on the hypothecated bonds. 
This is a most onerous and needless tax on the productive industry of the 
country. No public benefit results from it. The bankers alone are advan- 
taged. Why should the government delegate its duty, to furnish money 
to the National banks ? It cannot be sustained by soond reason Let the 
government at once authorize the issue of greenbacks enough to pay off, 
as rapidly as possible, our national debt, and provide for the redemption 
in gold of $100,000,000 of the amount each year and its immediate destruc- 
tion. The adoption of this measure would place in the hands of the 
owners of our government bonds and the greenbacks now circulating 
about $2,000,000,000 of money of unquestioned value. 

The redemption in gold of $100,000,000 of the amount annually, and its 
immediate destruction would establish and maintain the credit of this issue 
i -jual to gold, and in twenty years our frightful national debt would be 
paid off without costing more than would be required, in that time, to 
discharge the interest and leave the debt perpetuated. Our national banks 
wonld be undisturbed in the enjoyment of their banking privileges Green- 
backs would replace national bank notes. This issue would be circulated 
as rapidly as its owners could find safe and profitable investment for it. 



OUR FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIES. 393 

It is reasonable to suppose the great intrinsic and prospective value of 
oar real estate, the flattering promise of profit presented by onr mining, 
manufacturing, railroad navigation and mercantile enterprises would speedily 
absorb it all. If this supposition should be realised, new life and activity 
would be quickly imparted to our depressed industries and our idle people 
would be employed and made prosperous and happy. 

This measure will restore specie payments so gradually and reduce values 
to that point which is absolutely necessary to place the business of our 
country upon a permanent basis, so imperceptibly as to avoid the general 
bankruptcy which is -now impending over us. 

My proposition assumes the inability of our government to maintain its 
credit without affording some measure of relief to the people. 

This is the conviction of the majority in Congress, manifested by the 
adoption of the measure removing all restriction to the increase of our 
national banks. Will that measure afford the relief we require ? I think 
not. The men who have money in the country will not remove it from its 
present hiding places, and its present employment, to invest it in new 
bank stocks. Will we wait until our bankruptcy is flaunted to the world '! 
I hope not. 



:\\> I 



\ i'pkxdix. 



GLASS-WORKS OF PENNSYLVANIA 



34 Clinton Place, ] 
Fftcw York, December 18, 1874. | 

His Excellency Goveruor J. F. Hartrankt, 

Dkak Sib: — Will you have the kindness to let me kjiow the number of 
glass-works in the State of Pennsylvania, their names and the capital 
which each mie represents. 

Respectfully yours, 

AUG. WEYER. 



Bcreau ok Statistics, ) 

IIarrisbcro, December 28, 1874. J 

Alu. Wevkr, Esq., 

Dkar Sir :— Governor Hartranft has referred your letter of December 18th 
to my department for answer. Your questions, though few in number, arc 
difficult to answer. 

The glass manufacturers of Pennsylvania are a sort of close corporation, 
and I have never been able to procure returns from them which would 
enable me to anewer the amount of capital that any one of thorn represents. 
By the last census there were in Pennsylvania fifty-six establishments, 
representing a capital of $2,269,916. 

The annual product of the preceding year appears to have been $8,412,- 
705. These tabularized are distributed amongst the several counties of the 
State in the following manner: 



COlTNTIKfi. 



Allegheny. . . 

Centre..." 

I'Mvtte 

Lawi-en.--* 
Montgomery., 
Philadelphia 
Ti<>ga 

Total 



EaUblmh. 
menta. 



M 



Capital. 



WGO.KOO 
45,000 

19*, 000 
50,000 

100,000 

90,000 



Product. 



15,832,49^ 
129,000 

200,100 
125,000 

80,000 

1,722,ivj:i 

1*5,000 



2,189,916 i 8,322,7a". 



In regard to Allegheny county the report is certainly short. I have be- 
fore me a list of 41 glass manufactories, inBtead of 32 as named in the re- 
port. 



GLASS-WORKS OF PENNSYLVANIA. 395 

A book purporting to give the manufactures of Pennsylvania, puts down 
Pittsburg capital invested in glass, $12,000,000 ; value of products, $10,- 
000,000 ; this, however, is a palpable exaggeration. The same book puts 
down Philadelphia glass 1 production nearly the same as in the above table. 

The census returns I suppose to be fully one-third below the aggregate 
production of our State, which would give a product as follows : 

Establishments, U; capital, $3,284,874: product, $12,484,057. 

I could give you the list of the glass houses of Pittsburg, but neither the 
capital or product in any detail of any one of them. 

These establishments cover every variety of window glass, bottles, phials, 
flint and crystal glass in all forms, and at least two establishments for the 
manufacture of stained glass for churches and ornamental purposes. This 
is about as full as the returns in my office enables me to give. 

Respectfully yours, 

* THOS. J. BIGHAM, 

Commissioner. 



i •■ . ■.'.' t-a.r.i 



APPENDIX. 



COAL PRODUCTION' OF PENNSYLVANIA. 1874 



T. ANTHRACITE. 



Tons. 



Schuylkill 6,114,074 

Lehigh 4 ,7 1 2 ,280 

Wyoming 10 ,204 ,764 



Total anthracite. 



II. SEMI-BITUMINOUS. 



Fall Brook coal company. . . 

Mori is Run. . . .do 

Blosaburg do 

M'Intyre do 

Towanda do 

Fall Creek do 

.Schroder do 

Snow Shoe region 

Clearfield region 

Broad Top Mountain region 

Total Bemi-bituminous. . . . 



258 ,192 

•J Hi ,438 
255 ,086 
138,907 
215,572 

21 ,281 
100,219 

63,540 
703,170 
298 .056 



III. BITUMINOUS. 



Allegheny Mountain region 

Penn and Westmoreland gas coal 

Pennsylvania railroad (west) 

South- WeBtern Pennsylvania railroad 

Western Pennsylvania railroad , 

Pittsburg and Connellsville railroad 

Munongahela navigation company 

Little Saw Mill Run 

Pittsburg,CincinnatiandSt.Louis,(Pan-IIftndle,) 

Pittsburg and Castle Shannon railroad. 

Pittsburg and Eric railroad 

Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago railroad . . . 

Allegheny Valley railroad. 

Pittsburg, Charleston and West Virginia railroad, 
Pittsburg and Cleveland railroad. 



208 ,094 
911,371 
538,771 
7,880 
194,008 
403 ,976 
2,196,153 

89,676 
604 .258 
122,925 
270 ,448 
194,673 
240 ,165 

30 ,096 
291,721 



21,631,118 



2 ,303 461 



OOAL PRODUCTION OF PENNSYLVANIA, 1874. 397 

Keeling & Co., Pittsburg 147 ,546 

Wettingal & Gormley 11 ,877 

J. W. Carlin & Co 3 ,817 

Other local consumption in Pittsburg not carried 

by railroads *50 ,000 

Johnstown, used in iron works *200 ,000 

Philadelphia and Erie railroad *200 ,000 

Mined from country pits and for manufacturing, 
such as furnaces and salt works, and not car- 
ried by railroads . 300 ,000 

Used by railroads and not included in Iheir re- 
ports of coal freights above 600 ,000 

Total bituminous ... 7 ,712 ,461 

IV. MERCER COUNTY BLOCK COAL. 

Lawrence railroad, New Castle and Beaver rail- 
road, Jamestown and Franklin railroad. She- 
nango and Allegheny railroad, and used local- 
ly in iron manufacture, not in above report . . *600 ,000 

Total Anthracite 21 ,631 ,118 

Semi-bituminous 2 ,303 ,461 

Bituminous 7 ,712 ,461 

Block 500,000 

Total coal production of Pennsylvania 32 ,147 ,040 

V. BITUMINOUS OTHSB STATES. 

The bituminous coal produced elsewhere may be summed up thus : 

Cumberland (Md.) region ,, . 2,410,895 

St Louis region 725 ,.860 

Tennessee region .81 ,948 

Kanawha region t 140 ,217 

Alabama region - 48 ,319 

Chicago region 784 ,950 

Pomeroy, Cannelton, Hocking Valley and various other 

places, estimated 1 ,000 ,000 

5,191,698 
Total coke production in Pennsylvania 1 ,624 ,379 

6,816,077 
•Estimated. 



;-,s 



APPENDIX. 



THE ANTHRACITE PRODUCTION IN ISM, 
Pram Um IC uglumi lug «xl Mining loo 

Th'' production Of anthracite coal this year has fail en but little short of 
that of last years', notwithstanding the great depression which existed in 
tie- ir mi and manufacturing trades that usually consume so large tf portion 
of anthracite. The Schuylkill region suffered probably as much as the 
Wyoming, and the reportof the Philadelphia and Reading rail road shows tin- 
falling off there to be but 3 per cent. The quantity of coal mined on the 
line i>t the Lehigh Valley railroad and that mined by the Pennsylvania coal 
company was about 100,000 tons more in each case than in the previous 
year. Th'- Central railroad of New Jersey lost in tonnage about 107,000 
tons ; the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railway the most, or "47,- 
000 tons. The Delaware and Hudson canal company lost 355,000 
Loos. The Philadelphia and Reading lost about 3 per cent., or there were 
pi "bably, in all, 1,000,000 touB less mined in J874 than in 1873, Wttion 
would make tho production in 1873, 22,535,266 tons. 

The quantity of coal mined on each of the several transporting COM- 
(jinn'ris' lines in 1874 was as follows : 

Tin-: psODtrcnos 0* anthracite coai. rot the year endis<; net-Ex ber 31, 1874. 

Tons of 2, 240 lbs. 
Wyoming Region. 

Tons. 

Delaware ami Hudson canal company 2 ,3'.»y ,417 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad 2 ,502 ,769 

Pennsylvania coal company . . 1 ,338 ,663 

Lehigh Valley rail, oa,l 940,987 

Pennsylvania und New York railroad. . , 57 ,596 

Central railroad of New Jersey 1 ,519 ,590 

Pennsylvania canal 321 ,81 1 

Lackawanna and Bloomsbnrg, south 182,646 

Sold and used at the mines 191 722 

Total output of Wyoming region 10 ,"_'i>4 ,76 1 

Lehiijlt Region. 

Lehigh Valley railroad ' 3 ,152,051 

Central Railroad of New Jersey 1 .-.'! ,662 

Danville, Hazleton and W. H. R. R 40,687 

Sold 'and used at the mines 308,280 

Total output of b-high region 4 .712 ,280 



COAL PRODUCTION OF PENNSYLVANIA, 1874. 399 

Schuylkill Region. 

Tons. 

Philadelphia and Heading railroad 5 ,370 ,300 

Shamokin and Lykens Valley 904 ,536 

Sold and used at the mines. 439 ,238 



Total output of Schuylkill region 6 ,714 ,074 

Sullivan Region. 

Sullivan and Erie railroad 33 ,896 

Sold and used at the mines - 2 ,372 



Total output of Sullivan region 



36 ,268 



Total prod notion of all the regions 2 1,667 ,386 

Statement of coal and coke tonnage forwarded by the Pennsylvania rail- 
road, during 1874. 



FROM 



Anthracite. 
Tons, 2,000 foe. 



Bituminous, j Coke. 

Tone, 2,000 foe. , Tons, 2,000 foe. 



Anthracite 

Huntingdon and Broad Top. ..... 

Cumberland 

Snow Shoo. ..'.." 

Tyrone and Clearfield 

Allegheny 

West Pennsylvania railroad. 

South West Penn'a railroad 

Gas coal 

Pittsburg coal 

Danville, Hazleton and Wilkes- 
barre railroad 



791,667 



Lewisburg, Centre and Spruce 
Creek railroad i 



105,970 



164,648 

74,882 

63,640 

644,680 

208,094 

194,008 

7,880 

911,871 

445,582 

875 

262 



849 
118 

46,169 

430,740 

41,600 

68,478 



906,268 



2,715,117 



587,954 



GEORGE M. TAYLOR, 

Auditor. 

Statement of coal tonnage forwarded by the Pennsylvania canal, during 1874. 

Wyoming region 321 ,294 gross tons. 

Shamokin region 51,121 

Lykens Valley region 73 ,096 

Allegheny and Broad Top 12,723 



458,234 



W. CARLISLE, Jr., 

Auditor. 



COKING OP BROAD TOP COAL 



401 



REPORT OP JOHN PULTON, M. B„ 

OS TBI POKUTG 09 BKOAB TOI 1 C"AI, AND ITS CHEAPNESS 18 COMPARISON WITH 
ANTHRACITE IK THE META I.I.I »(i V OK [BOX, 

The experience gathered in the past five years in making coke and in its 
use in blast furnaces, furnish much interesting 'lata in regard to this very 
important industry. 

Iron makirjg at the ECcmblfl furnaces began in 1869. Tlic furnaces ran 
I'm- four years with cuke ;i* fuel, made ('nun the CO*] of the Tegiou as it 
came from the mines ami coked in the bee-hive ovens. 

The result of those feu- years' experience was not satisfactory. With 
good iron ores — the Juniata fossil mrs, with coke well made from good 
• lean ceal— yet a pig iron wiis pi-'dueiil quite variable in character, and 
Beldom attaining a grade which could reasonably be Looked for. 

Careful investigation, prior to the erection of these funiaces, eliminated 
the fact that the ores of the region would, with proper t r<-;it nu-ut in the 
furnaces, yield a superior pig iron. Hence, during the first three years, 
efforts were directed to procuring a good, pure coal, and in having it care- 
fully mined, excluding all the impurities that could be reached in this way. 
Still, the working of the furnace was not as good as expected. The metal 
« .mid he sold in a time of demand, but in a depressed market it was difficult 
to dispose of. 

The furnace men charged the miners with sending out dirty coal, arid 
the latter retorted that the former did not coke the coal properly, or failed 
in its right application in the furnace. 

The very fact that the Kemble company were procuring a very superior 
clean coal for coking, prolonged the discovery of the real difficulty. Like 
all other discoveries it seemed so plain when once reached that the wonder 
was that the thought did not come to light sooner. They required n pttm 
and denser col • 

A year ago a coal washing apparatus was put in operation crushing the 
coal, thus disconnecting the slates and sulphur pyrites from it, and sepa- 
rating them in a further process of washing. • 

The coke made from this washed coal is dense, lustrous and sonorous. 
Its use in the furnace at once produced results both startling and gratify- 
ing. 

The pig metal produced is totally unliKo tlie forme* yield. It is open, 

granular, gray, soft metal. No. - firatldry. The product of the unwashed 

coke was silvery, mottled, fine-grained, and tolerably hard. 

26 Statistics. 



402 APPENDIX. 

Samples of the two qualities «>f pig metal presoiri the most decisive 
ment on this question. 

Thirty or forty pieces of this improved coke were submitted tor thorough 
test and analysis at the Cambria iron works, at Johnstown. Pa., with the 
following results ■ 

Carbon 89.28 

Ash 9.66 

Sulphur 1.00 

100.00 

It was added, verbally, that the Broad Top coke, from washed coal, "was 
equal to the best, and better than most of the Coimellsvillc coke J' 

It is not designed by this comparison to detract in the least from the 
well established good character of the Connellsville coke, but to respect- 
fully, yet firmly, insist on the fact that, by the recent improvement in 
cleansing the Broad Top coal, we can make fully as good a quality of coke 
as the Connellsville. 

In Mr. Britton's valuable circular to furnace proprietors, published in the 
"Engineering and Mining Journal" of June last, an analysis of a sample of 
Connellsville coke, composed of forty-nine different pieces, is given "as a 
standard whereby the value of other itil-es may be asceriairted ." 

Carbon 87 . 456 

Ash 1 1 . 332 

Sulphur 693 

Phosphoric acid . 029 

Moisture . 490 

100.00 



This position is furthei strengthened by I lie- actual work in the Kcmble 
f urnaceB at Riddleshurg. 

The use of thiB purified coke in one furnace, fourteen by Bixty feet, in- 
creased its yield from one hundred and forty tons to one hundred and 
eighty tons of pig iron a week, and permitting the blast pressure to be in- 
creased from three and a half to five and a half pounds per square indi. 

The improvement in the t/uality of the pig metal has been carefully esti- 
mated at four dollars per ton. 

A visit to these furnaces, and a brief examination of the unwashed coke 
pig iron with the washed coke pig iron, will convince any reasonable mind 
that a very decided improvement has been made in this important fuel. 

The cost of Broad Top coke is a very important question in the present 
discussions of the furnace proprietors. Mr. Lauder, superintendent of the 



COKING OF BROAD TOP COAL. 

kemble furnace*, furnishes the following estimate of wa-de-d eke delivered 
in railroad cars : 

l-fo tons of coal, at $1 10 $ 1 76 

Wardiing — not 13 

Coking tio 

Loading in railroad cars 15 

One and thiee-q natters tons of coke Brnolt one ton of pitfiron in the Kem- 
ble furnaces. This, at two dollars and forty-nine cents per ton, gives four 
dollars and thirty-sir cents per ton of pig metal. 

On this question of a cheap supply of excellent furnace fuel there ap- 
pears to exist some want of correct information, or rather the vigorous 
thinking minds of the eastern furnace proprietors have not yet reached out 
of the anthracite circle of their operations. 

In the discussion of this question, at the Philadelphia meeting of pig iron 
manufacturers, November 24th, .Mr. Coleman raid ! "The trade of Missis- 
sippi Valley is in the hands of the bituminous pig iron men. The only way 
was t<> blow out, and thus force the coal men down. They would come 
down if the iron men stopped buying coal. It would not be long before 
men would liud out good coke somewhere else than at Connellsville, where 
it could be transported cheaply to the eaRt." 

The whole scope of these pungent remarks foreshadow a movement that 
has been forced forward by the present condition of the pig iron manufac- 
ture — a searching analysis of the cost of production, with a view to it* re- 
daction in a permanent and reliable manner. This can be accomplished by 
many of the eastern furnaces in the 2one between the line of true economy 
in the anthracite circle and the Broad Top coal field. 

That a movement must take place in many of the anthracite furnaces is 
becoming more and more evident, as coke is manifesting its leading claim 
as destined to become the fuel in the metallurgy of iron. 

Mr. Coleman's view of this is certainly far-seeing; but it will only be Be- 
peating a period in the previous history of the pig iron manufacture when 
charcoal fuel had to be abandoned, owing to its increasing cost, and coal 
and coke used in its stead. 

How soon this new movement from anthracite coal to coke will be initi- 
ated, cannot now be told. It is, however, only a question of time. 

The excellent but limited supply (four hundred and seventy-two square 
miles) of anthracite coal will be reserved for its manifest purpose — domes- 
tic use — by an ever-widening circle of demand, with a somewhat increased 
price, and the present misapplication id" it stopped — just as the former 
slashing down of the primeval forest was arrested when the charcoal period 
closed. 



404 



APPENDIX. 



It requires one and three-quarters to two and one-quarter tons of anthra- 
cite coal to smelt one ton of pig iron, indicating an average of two tons of 
this coal to one ton of pig metal. 

Tin- coat of this coal is a very variable factor — its present average at the 
furnaces indicated previously as being outside of the economic circh' ><t 
anthracite operations may be taken at five dollars per ton costing ten dol- 
lars for fuel for smelting one ton of pig iron. 

On the other hand we have Broad Top coke costing four dollars ami 
thirty-six cents per ton of pig iron — no appreciable difference in the 
fuels but a difference in coat, in favor- of coke, of Jive dollars and si.it u-/ 
cents 10 go over to freights eastward. 

Another lart appears very clear in this connection — the time is approach- 
ing when many of the anthracite pig iron manufacturers will have to cast 
about for ooke, 

How to do this so as to receive a cheap and thoroughly pure coke is a 
vary important Consideration. Evidently, to procure coke at a minimum 
cost, and to Becuro an uninterrupted supply, the furnace owners will he 

petted to control and direct the whole operations of mining, washing 

ami coking the coal. 

They will, therefore, require to purchase the coal lands, and in BOCh ex- 
tent as to afford an ample supply for years to come. 

The iptalilij of the coal for coke-making in such purchases is of prime im- 
I •'<}! mice. 

Many seams of coaj of good quality, and well adapted for many pur- 
poses, are either totally or partially unfit for coking. 

Prom the past five years' experience in coking the Broad Top coals, it has 
been shown that they are peculiarly suited for making a very superior coke. 

The Broad Top coal-field, of eighty square miles, stands out eastward 
from the Alleghanies, inviting development by its geographical position 
and superior type of coking coal. This new industry, furnishing in its own 
field the indisputable testimony dial its coal, carefully mined and icanhed, 
produces a coke that is not surpassed in purity or calorific power by any otln r 
in'ir manufactured . 

JOHN FULTON . 

Mining Engineer. 
Saxtoit, Bepkokd cor NTY. Pa., ^ 

DKtmbtr I, 1874. \ 



CUMBERLAND GOAL TRADE. 



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41" 



APPENDIX. 



YIEI.Ii OF MINES AND FURNACES OF THE LAKE SUPERIOR 

DISTRICT. 

Wo copy Groin the Mining Journal the Iblluwin^ statc-menfc in giogn lone, 
of tin- aggregate J iild of the minis and uia8t fiuhftCOfi Of the Like Superior 
iron district from 1856 Go 1874, inclusive, togetbei with the value of tin- 
same : 



Tew. 

1858 

1887 

1858 

1859 

1860 

[801 

L869 , 

1868 

1864 

1865 

1866 , 

,1867 ...- 
WiS 

ISM 

1870 

W71 

1ST- 

1878 

1874 

Total 



Iron (ire. 


Pig iron. 


Ore and pig 

ir-.n. 

7,000 


Value. 


7,000 , 




828,000 


21,000 




21,000 


63,001) 


31,036 


1,629 


32,604 


2*0,202 




7, aw 


72, 937 


37:.,. -.2'' 


118,008 


... ,-,.-*» 


189, 568 


736,49-; 


(£,480 


7,07k 


53,400 


410, "XI! 


lli,721 


B,8B0 


124, 111 1 


984,977 


1*5,237 


9,818 


195,1170 


1,416,836 


as, m 


13. «:t2 


248, 035 


1,887,218 


106,250 


12,288 


2118, 888 


1,590,430 


898,972 


18, 537 


315,409 


2,4" 


486,076 


:to,!in 


496, K7 


3,475,820 


:..i7,813 


38,240 


546,030 


3,90.', II . 




:v.\im 


erxau 


4,968,435 


s.V,, 171 


40,20s 


905,769 


8,800,170 


£870 


.'. 1,223 


Mil.r.m 


ft U8.88S 


963,066 


08, 198 


1,015,260 


9,188,055 


1,167,878 


71, .507 




11,395,887 


033,488 


90,194 


1,086)885 


7,592,811 


7,648/880 


519,. 't31 


8,187,09-1 


03,366.731 



111! 



APPENDIX. 



PITTSBURG HOMES AXI> HOUSES. 



BBR AVD VALVE OF iirii.iUMif BRSIJTXD Ul'KlNi; THK yi'Ai; 1874. DECREASE 
* FROM I'KKVKHS YKAK. 

The. number and value »f buildings erected in the city of Pittsbnrg dur- 
ing tlio year ending December 31, 1874, is about two hundred Ions than in 
the previous year, as follows, viz : 



\V MCI)-.. 


II 

= i 

5s 


1 


WAKIIS. 


g& 

II 

36 
12 
22 

4 
L-J 

12 
12 

3 
5 
B 

12 
::■: 

2 
13 

8 
18 
SO 


< 

4 




-i 

B 
3 

7 
17 
38 

8 

a 

54 

15 
28 
46 
21 

ss 

oo 

50 
88 

til 


83, IO0 

IB, 700 
89,100 

72,800 

44,300 

UK, 700 

l,B00 

j ;«oo 

1. --1,5011 
10,800 
87,800 

210,000 

117,300 
li'.i, 100 
7(1,000 
74,000 
154,000 


TO, W0 
44,900 




Twenty-third 

Twenty-faurtrj 








8,400 


•MXlll 


;!ii,4<mi 


Nilltll 

Twelfth 


Twenty-ninth 


28,700 

7,seo 

*!. 300 
S, 890 

in,** 

55. 10" 




Thirty-third 


4,000 




27, 1<h> 






1, .".INI 




Tliirlv-si.Y 






Totals 


3H, riw 


l-'iirhlct'iith 






775 


2.157,70(1 







Of the above building* 435' wen bricks, and 301 frames; 35 were ad- 
■ litioDs and alterations, During tLe year, eight buildings were condom 
and (i.k.-n down; six ehimneyei and eleven Are-walls u-.--iv :.Ism ,.■,>, ideinn.-.l 
iii'l repaired. The receipts of the office for the year were 18,124; which 
en paid into the city treasury. 



FAILURES IN 1*7 i 



FAILURES IN 1874 



The statistics contained herein bare k-ru prepared and cnipiivd iritli 

great care, and tlit'if reliability ma v bfl depended DpOD. Wlmt tli-'v pn - 
sent may in truth be regaided as actual ascertained fietk, with nothing • I 
conjecture or inference about them, 

lu tbo figures pieaoosed Bome anomalies an apparent which it would be 

difHciilt to account f'»i' uiid-v any gi-n>:ral nth', ami wi.- U'aw- tln-in t«> the 
ingenuity of our readers. X" . 1 • • t 1 1 - 1 t » 1 - - causes in Bome instances pi 
pnrely local as to make it mi interesting to the general reader to attempt to 
trace them; ns for example, why the number of failures should be greater 
in 1874 than in 1873 in States like Connecticut, Indiana, Blaine, Ma&sa- 
MttBj N«W Jersey, l'l'iiiisvlvaui:., .v-.. Ai-.,and less in Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, Missouri, North Cnr-lina, A c ., &C. Withool t'urthn introduction 
01* speculation, hnwov.T, we submit the figure*, giving in juxtaposition 
corresponding return for years 1871, 1S72 and 1873. 

KAii.iiu-.s |TOB 1873 ash 1874. 



1N74. 



18T9. 



NTATWS. 



Alnkima , 

A rkausas 

< alifornia 

noctlcut , 

Delaware 

District of Colombia 

Florida 

Georjtla , 

Illinois 

Indiana. 

Iowa 

Kiinaas. 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine. 

Maryland 

Mawwolniaetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota ........ 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

»w Hampshire 

Xew Jersey 

WW York 

Xew York C.'i ty 

N". >rl h < "a r< >lin:i 

Ohio 



NO. 


Am. Mint 


N.i. 


Amount, 


of 


Of 


or 


of 


Fail's. 


LialiiliiiM.. 


l':ul'-. 


Liabilities. 


48 


soetvooc 


52 


OLSj&OOO 


22 


40*1. IKHI 


17 


307,000 


as 


2,671,000 


70 


1,5011,000 


i.-.i 


-,-jflfl,O80 


101 


1,452,000 


87 


.',7s, 000 


:ti 


; 1,000 


IS 


sse, 000 


13 


240,000 


14 


;. 000 


to 


£,000 


lis 


1,84 


67 


2,113.000 


S32 


7, £10,000 


BSD 


7. L0D r 0uu 


187 


2,897,000 


134 


2,260,0011 


144 


•J, 034. OHO 


III 


1.!' 17,0110 


!'l 


WS.ihxi 


04 


921,000 


167 


I, 870, 000 


1 ts 


2,887,000 


99 


4,429.000 


74 


2,881,000 


M 


L, 063, 000 


80 


752,000 


iin 


l.iWU.om 


n 


1,280,000 


416 


10.IWNI.IKHI 


HO 


11,234,000 


2S6 


•M77.IHHI 


IMS 


3,9 17, 000 


60 


1, (»■.»',. M> I 


HI 


144,000 


66 


1,555,000 


n 


•01'. IMBI 


175 


:5, 061. INK) 


1K8 


0, 987, IX ni 


42 


01,000 


z-z 


311,001) 


52 


90s. on 


27 


:,1;!,imhi 


146 


8,854.000 


119 


2,482,000 


57 S 


[0,396,000 


,'H4 


1,1,721,000 


MS 


32,580,000 


044 


92,035,000 


56 


542,000 


n 


873,000 


543 


8,481,000 


:$:il 


1 1,320, 000 



FAILURES FOR 1871 AND 1872. 



415 



The noticeable feature in the above is that, while the number of failures 
exceeds that of last year, there is a marked diminution in the amount of 
liabilities. Two causes arc assignable for this, viz : First, that the panic 
of 1873 caused the failure of an unusual number of large houses, thus rais- 
ing very much the average amount of liabilities over all previous years. 
Second, that the volume of business had been greatly diminished during 
1874, so that when failures did occur, the liabilities were comparatively 
light ; and, further, that the houses which succumbed during the year were 
in a great degree a smtller class of traders than those of 1873, and, indeed, 
we may add, than the average of those of several preceding years. 

FAILURES — 1857 TO 1874 UNITED STATES. 



No. 



1867 4,032 

1868. 4,225 

1869. | 3.913 

1860. I 3,676 

1861 0,993 

1862. 1,652 

1868. I 485 



Amount. 



So. 



$291,750, 000 
95,749,000 
04,394,000 
79,807,000 
207,210,000 
23,049,300 
6,864,700 



1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 



2,608 
2,799 
3,651 
2,915 
4,009 
5,183 
5,830 



Amount. 



$63,774,000 

75,054,000 

88,242,000 

85,252,000 

121,056,000 

228,499,000 

155,239,000 



APPENDIX 



AGGREGATE STEAM POWER OF THE WORLD 



Br. En gel, director of the Prussian Statistical Bureau, lias been making 
estimates, on such Btatiatical data as is available, of tin- total horn power 
of Bteam engines in the world, laeverj country has tolerably corrfed 

road statistics, l'r. En gel thinks that the full owing returns with refercino 
is not t=i i- from rfgUl : 



United 81 
Great Britain. 
Zollvetefn — 

Kussin 

AiiMriu 

I!uiif(ar s v 

France 

BW Initio* .. . 
Dalv 







Taw. 


Number. 


1678 


14, 988 


1-7:: 


L0,fl8S 


1. -71 




1st:; 


2,084 


is;:; 


.,::,■,, 




50fl 


wee 




1878 


1,328 


ls7- 


1,173 



Holtan.l. 

•■in 

atnnerlaai 

Sgypt 

Sweden. 

Denmark 

Norway. 

'!••'«! 



Yc»t. Number 



1878 
1870 

1870 
1873 

1871 



46, 107 



It may he BBflBBlfld that there are still four fir five thousand additional 
loco m. itivt-s in countries from which no statistics have been received, so 
that KOiretliing lik' 1 fifty tlniusaiid engines o| that description, of an aggre- 
gate of 10,000,000 horse power are now in use. Dr, Engel estimates all 
the engines in use — locomotives, marine, and stationary at about 14,400,000 

horn power. 
Assuming that the above statistics are approximately ;orreot, it would 
hat i. ne-third of all the steam engines and steam power in the world 
are employed in the United States. This will, in serin • degree, RCCOaM fer 
the extraordinary industrial progress of this country and the high rank it 
maintain! in all departments of practical engineering. The population >! 
the United States is 40,000,000, while the aggregate population of the othei 
countries above named exceeds 950,000,000. 



PART II. 



«' « <•» • 



REPORT ON LABOR 



27 Statistic*. 



LABOR REPORT. 



A PLEA FOR THE CONTINUANCE AND PERFECTION OF THE 

BUREAU. 



If it were possible to free the discussion of the questions; growing out of 
the relat ions of labor and capital, from the distracting glamour of passion, pre- 
judice, and unreality that is made to veil it, and seek a solution through an 
impartial investigation and exposition of the truth, much that now seems 
dark would be made clear, and evils that many hold to be without remedy 
would be found capable of easy adjustment. These obstacles, however, 
will always exist, and deter human progress, so loug as the contest between 
ibltntat right and the right of the strong arm continues, or until mankind 
reach that perfection of moral growth, in which, as individuals, communi- 
ties anil nations, they will recognize pratiicallii, as they now do only Iheo- 
i> taally, the wiBdom of "doing unto others as they would that others Bhould 
do unto them." Until that time the contest must continue. And they are 
aud will be the useful, beneficent workers, who, in the face of such obsta- 
cles, seek to keep so much of the truth before the people, as will prevent 
retrogression, and secure at least some measure of progress. 

The discussion of what we call the relations of labor and capital, is new 
only to our generation. In all nations that have made any progress in 
civilization, and in all ages, so far as we can know, this conflict haB pro- 
gressed in various forms, the form only varying from age to age to adapt 
itself to the progress made in the art of societary organization. And in 
tins fact, and the knowledge we have, that the cause of the toilers of the 
earth is presented from a higher and more advantageous standpoint now 
than ever before, is the best answer to those who hold all such discussion 
to be visionary, demagogical, and what it is now fashionable in some quar- 
ters to denounce as "communistic," and who hold that property is above 
men, and that the suffering and privations of the poor, who starve when 
speculation brings monetary disaster, are among the evils that are incura- 
ble, and must be borne with a spirit of philosophical fortitude. It is also 



420 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 



• ho lirsi encouragement to the humanitarian publicist, that the hope of hu- 
man progress is not an ignis fat una, but a roal and tangible good, to be ad< 
vunced by patient labor and earnest faith in the eventual triumph of right 
dvi-i wmiig-. 

II the discussion in our day tuniR upon what constitutes an equitable 
distribution of the rewards of industry, as between the worker who sup- 
plies the sinews nnd the employer who furnishes the superintend euce ; or, 
between these two, and the capitalist who supplies neither, but reaps his 
profit from tin burden imposed upon industry for use of capital that will 
enable it to work ; the progress it indicates oier the ages when the debate 
w:is, imt whether the workman was entitled to an equal voice in determin- 
ing the share of his product lie should own; but, u-kcthrr he mould own 
himself &• constitute a part ©/ the capital invested, is certainly real, co»- 
BpiCOOQfl and significant. 

And, if this progress has been made, as it has, through the growing ac- 
ceptance among men of the reforms demanded by abstract right over the 
right of the strong arm, there is surely nothing in the experience of the 
past to- discourage liopo for the future or lead to doubt that human progress 
will continue with an advance accelerated bj the momentum and guided 
safely by the light of that experience. There is every reasou to hope then 
that in the near future in the discussion of measures of public polity 
through the press, upon the platform and in legislative halls, the objective 
point will not be so entirely to secure increased profit for the employment 
of capital as if that were the chief or prime necessity, as to secure the em- 
ployment and adequate compensation ol lubor, recognizing it as something 
mora than the mere Incidental of the former. 

Until this point is reached there is little probability that agitation will 
cease. The measure of success achieved in this generation is to be found 
in a marked degree in the recognition of the importance of the subject 
given iu the establishment of Bureaus of Labor Statistics in some of the 
States, conspicuously in Massachusetts ami in this State. 

The creation ol these Bureaus is traceable directly to the demands of 
those who represented the most aggressive labor reform sentiment of the 
time. 

Since the establishment of these institutions there has been less disposi- 
tion to form political labor parties, the hope being that the facts brought 
out by their operation will lead to amelioration more certainly, peacefully 
aud conclusively than by political action. It is much fed be regretted that 
this action has been misunderstood, and that certain journals that aspire to 
cater for the good will of the employing class, in their Buper-serviceable zeal 
have mistaken the faith of labor in the siucerity of this favoring legisla- 
tion, and raise a shout of triumph over the decline nf strength of the labor 



A' PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OP TUE BUREAU. 



421 



reform agitation. This is having its natural effect in inciting concerted 
movements among those who cannot understand the recognition of tin- 
right of the laborer to seek to better the condition of his class, looking to- 
the abolishment of these bareaufl Of to such legislation as will eo&aaoolaft 
their usefulness and leave them without power to accomplish any good re- 
sult. If they succeed it will take but a very short time to demonstrate the 
viciousuess of the advice under which they have a. t-. .1 . 

Th"iv Beemn to be RD extreme sensitiveness among those who are recog- 
i h what are called leading business men, on the subject of the rela- 
tione of labor and capital, that impels them to see everything in con 
tion with it through distorted mirrors, imagining every assertion of the 
rights of labor to be an attack more or less covert upon the rights and 
sscnsjty "' property; and so leading then by their impulse to smother 
inquirer to bring ftboul the very danger they so strongly deprecate. 

Any mind of average intelligence can, if open to tin' plftioesl pei 
and to the teachings of universal oxp<-i-i.-iu'.-, comprehend that it is only 
through repi- the t ruth that danger to (be ri uiity id' 

any can grow. Vet, even in as intelligent a body as the " Philadelphia 
Board oi Trade" B demand is nude that such inquiry shall be smothered 
and that the legislation provided to effect it shall be repealed- 

Is it impossible for those gentlemen to comprehend the fad thai the de- 
mand for such investigation comes from the most numerous, and conse- 
quently powerful class, politically, of our citizen*? And that, if their 
reasonable demand shall be rejected, they have the power, and asdai the 
impulse ol a wrong inflicted, may use it much mora effectively and less 
conservatively than in this inquiry ? 

The- existence of tins jealous dread of unwarrantable interference has 
been tin- chief obstacle in the way of the Bureau in the performance of 
this put of it* work. The act of the Legislator-- instituting the pffioe and 
defining its duties requires the Commissioner "to collect, compiii- and sys- 
temize statistics, with reference to the subject of labor it) its relations to 
'I, educational, industrial and general condition, wages and treat- 
ment of all classes of our working people, ami bow the same effect the per- 
manent prosperity and productive industry of the Geo nweaUb." 

Surely there is nothing in the purpose oi this legislation as expressed 
that transcends the duty of a g... i.t. Vet this IS what is 

claim.-d to !>e in'inisitorial and unwarrantable interference with the private 
affairs of business men. So long as there was no legislation providing 
compulsory process by which the OemmiMtO&ar OOaLd enforce the givifig 
of information required, the subject was only treated with contemptuous 
indifference. Hostility being shown by simply, on the part of a few, 
refusing to give information until compelled ; on the part of a much 



122 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAI. 



larger number, courteously enough, promising to fill and return the blanks 
as requested, but quietly and persistently neglecting to do so. It was not 
until the Legislature of 1874, in organizing the department of Secretary of 
Internal Affairs, under the provision.-; of tag new Constitution, provided 
thfl necessary powers and penalties to secure the means of performing the 
work, that ni.tii-o was taken of the subject other than as above described. 
Now, however, we are given to understand that an eflbrt very formidable 
is to be made to repeal the legislation of 1874, and practically to abandon 
the work that those who asked its establishment believed slmuM be done. 
The temper in which this movement for repeal is initiated, shows clearly 
one of two things to be the truth, either that the officers of the Bureau 
have beetk proposing to moke impertinent and unnecessary inquisition, 
or that its opponents are conscious of the existence of a state of facts 
which in their estimation will not bear the light. Otherwise it can hardly 
be conceived that so dignified and well informed a body of men as the 
Philadelphia Board of Trade or any of its members would have applied the 
epithets, "mischievous busy-body" and "communist," to the author of the 
bill. An examination of the bill proposed as an amendment shows that it 
is intended to deprive the Bureau of any power in the future as it has been 
in the past to accomplish any practical results in the direction of throwing 
light upon the condition of the labor of Ihe State, by providing that each 
individual, firm, or corporation of whom information is sought, shall be 
1 1 1" exclusive judge of the propriety of the questions propounded. Now 
this state of facts renders it incumbent upon the Bureau to show if it can 
that there is no cause for this extreme sensitiveness, furnished by any thing 
it has done or proposed to do, and this can best bo shown by simply in- 
serting here the character of the questions that have been asked ol em- 
ployers with regard to the workmen in their employ. And foT this purpose 
we insert the following copy of the blank we have been using for this pur- 
pose; taking one that waB filled and returned fast year as an example : 

DIRECTIONS. 

First, — Qfcve name or style of firm, and what manufacture: Ilarrisburg 

Cotton Mills; brown sheetings and shirtings. 

Second. — Quantity in measure and value in dollars of annual product: 
Third. — Whole number of persons employed : Two hundred and eighty, 

(23fc) 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 



423 



Fourth. — The number of each class employed, -with the name or title by 
■which they are known in the trade as bosses or foremen, machinists, car- 
penters, laborers, &c, with the average wages (daily) of each class and 
average time worked in year : 



..<•. r PATIOS. 



Spinners — foremen 

Spinners 

Spinners 

Weavers. 

Weavers. 

Weavers 

I 'ardors. 

Carders 

Carders. 

Dressers.. 

Dressers 

Dressers 

Engineers 

Packers 

Packers 

Machinists 

Watchmen unit laborers. , 



13 



87 



■-'"■ 



<>l 



-•■S3 



RBJfABKB. 



Vt?l* 






<=> w- — •** -_ -— 

JIM 



9 

Ie«i b 1 



Signature, 



EDWIN ANDREW, 

Superintendent. 



On the back of this blank is the following explanation : 

Commonwealth ok Pennsylvania, 
Office of Bureau of Statistics ok Labor and Acriculture, - 
Harris.bcrc, Pennsylvania, 187 . 

This blank is intended to cover returns for statistical purposesof allmanu- 
facturing and mining industries. 

It is prepared and issued in pursuance of the several acts of Assembly, 
as follows, viz: 

First, — An act, entitled "An Act for the collection of mineral statistics/' 
approved the 9th May, 1871, P. L. 1874, p. 261. This act requires the 
collection of Mineral Statistics by the Auditor General, and empowers him 
to require answers to his questions under a penalty of one hundred dollars 
for refusal or neglect. 

Second. — An act, entitled "An Act to provide for the establishment of a 
Bureau of Statistics on the subject of labor and for other purposes," ap- 
proved the 12th day of April, 1872, P. L. 1872, p. 59, which imposes the 
following duties, viz : 

Section S. The duties of such officer (the commissioner) Bhall be to col- 
lect, compile and systemize statistics, with reference to the subject of labor 



124 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 



in its relations to the social, educational, industrial aud general condition, 
wages and treatment of all classes of our workiug people, and how the same 
effect the permanent prosperity and pjofactiTe industry of the Common- 
wealth, 

Section 3. It shall also be the duly of such Bureau to collect, collate- an. I 
classify statistics relating to the mineral, manufacturing, agricultural and 
commercial pwduCtlOM Of &is OOMBOQW&AHfo, 

Third. — An AM transferring the powers and duties imposed upon (He 
Auditor General by the first named act, to the Secretary of Internal Affairs, 
providing that, until the Department of Internal Affairs be organized, the 
duties in reference to statistics shall be performed and the powers exer- 
cised by the Commissioners of Statistics. 

It will be seen by the character of the questions on this blank that wc 
seek to avoid any impertinent inquisition into the management or pri\ 
of business men— onr object behlg' merery to obtain such proper informa- 
tion as will enable us tu report foots of general public interest as they are. 

It is therefore Imped that the response to our questions will be promptly 
and carefully given, to the end that the purpose of the law may he real- 
ized, in instructive and useful reports. 

IBHOMAS J. BIG3AM, 

Otm m isaUmer of Statistics. 

It will be Scou by this example what is the character of the questions 
asked, and how far the charges that have been made are sustained by the 
facts. 

It may be said that there is no need of this inquisition in any form or for 
any purpose. That, it must certainly be conceded even by those who make 
the assertion, ia a matter of opinion; aud also' that the number of those 
who regarded it as necessary and desirable, was .sufficiently large and ear- 
nest to convince the Legislature of it« propriety. And there can be no 
doubt, but that those who asked fur this Bureau, are as much entitled to be 
heard and heeded as those who object to it, who, as a class, are constantly 
asking for legislation in their favor under the plea of public necessity. 

We only assert here, that the Bureau was created in response to an ur- 
gent and wide spread demand, and leave the question of the fitness of the 
demand to be determined by the facts that are developed. One thing, 
however, should not be lost sight of, which is, that unless there IB real and 
tangible reason Ibr setting aside the inquiry proposed through this Bureau, 
both by the Constitution and thu laws made to give it effect, it ought DOt 
to be amended as proposed. 

If it is deemed necessary to provide against abuses, the law can be M 
amended as t., provide, that in suits for the recovery of the penalties, the 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 



l-J.% 



courts shall judge of the propriety "I tin- questions asked, in view of the 
purposes of the law as deducible from its text. 

If, however, it is intended by the Legislature, as it evidently is by those 
who are responsible for this memorial of the "Board of Trade,' 7 and the 
bill introduced in connection with it. that the Bureau shall not "collect, 
compile and system ize statistics, with reference hi the subject of labor in 
its relations to the social, educational, industrial, and general OOEtditton, 
wages and treatment of all classes of our working people, and bow the 
Bame affect the permanent prosperity and productive industry of trhe Qom« 
monwealth ;" this portion of the act should bo repealed in terms, so that 
promise should be madn chat in not to be performed. 

The whole subject could then be regarded as plainly remanded to the 
people, and they can consider the question whether such legislation is ad- 
visable or necessary, or whether the repeal is proper, and act accordingly. 
Under the action proposed, however, the law will pretend, indeed, assert 
the necessity of the inquiry, at the same tune that it interposes insupera- 
ble obstacles to its being made. This kind of legislation is not honest, and 
consequently is always a misfortune. The insincerity and palpable double- 
dealing it manifests is unworthy of a great State, and can have no other 
effect than to confuse, embitter and disastrously intensify a discussion, 
(that could and ought to be deliberate ami without passion,) until it be- 
comes the cause of riot, bloodshed and revolution. We cannot do more 
here than repeat some of the reasons urged in the introduction to our last 
report, in behalf of a. thorough and exhaustive investigation, such as is 
contemplated by the legislation of last winter, now sought to be indirectly 
repealed. All our inquiries, all our experience of the difficulties in the 
way of the work, all the indications of public sentiment, and of the actual 
condition of our people, give those reasons a cumulative force, that we 
cannot believe can be safely or justly disregarded. 

"The enormous losses to the general production of the State, the financial 
suffering and disappointments (not unfre<iuently resulting in bankruptcy) 
of employers, the bitter enmities, discontent, poverty and demoralization 
of workmen, and the distress and degradation of their families, consequent 
upon the often recurring strikes and conflicts between employer and em- 
ployed, would seem to indicate that some means should be taken to bring 
about a better understanding of the needs, rights and mutual relations of 
the two classes into which the great and increasing activities of the age 
are rapidly dividing the productive population of the country. Mmv es- 
pecially since, in the contests between the two, great injustice is frequently 
done by each to the other, in the anger aud heat and personal antipathies 
engendered in the mutual effort for mastery. The interest of the whole 
people is too great in the steadiness, evenness and uninterruptednesa of 



426 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 



our productive progress, to make it wise or just that it should be at the 
mercy of factiously contending interests. AVhile the axiom is probably 
true in its legitimate seiiBe that 'commerce between citizens should be 
free and untrammeled/ and that 'the best legislation is the least/ yet it 
is none the less true that the rights and interests of all the people in the 
genet*! prosperity and progress may not be justly left at the mercy of the 
ignorant, or vicious, or reckless, or grasping contentions of a portion ; and 
when these contentions assume the proportions of revolutionary agitation, 
involving our greatest and most important industries, dictating to great 
communities prosperity or adversity, and even threatening the permanency 
of our political system, the right and duty of the Legislature to interfere to 
secure the rights of all by composing the differences or compelling the 
practice of justice by laws adapted to the end in view, cannot be questioned. 
I'ur voars all the great, industrial operations of the State have been dis- 
turbed by frequently recurring contests between employers and employed, 
to the serious detriment of the general good, and have gradually assumed 
such huge proportions as to create a general impression among thinking 
people that some serious defect exists in the relations of capital and labor. 
II* the trouble is without reasonable cause, and, as is often asserted, merely 
the work of visionary and mischievous demagogues, it is to be noted that 
they have achieved unprecedented success. If, on the contrary, as is equally 
often asserted, it is the result of real grievances and oppressions, growing 
out of legislation induced by the general eagerness to promote material 
progress, and the resultant aggregation of enormous capital and power 
in few hands, individual and corporate, in either event it is the duty of the 
Legislature to guard the rights of the people ; and the multiplicity of con- 
tradictory statements from one side and the other makes it necessary that 
some meusure should be adopted to bring to its knowledge and that of the 
people the real facte, in order that it may act, not in the dark or in the 
uncertain light of interested and unsupported assertion, but oi the truth, 
authoritatively ascertained and distinctly stated. To ascertain the facts 
by systematic inquiry, and present them, properly collated and succinctly 
stated, would seem, from all the facts connected with the origin of the 
Bureau, to be its province and its duty, and with this understanding it 
l •mmenced its labors in this branch of its inquiries. 

"If a just regard for the rights and interests of all our people requires 
(us it assuredly does) that such information shall be sought, collated, and 
kopt in convenient form for general reference ; and, again, if it is proboble, 
(as past experience shows it is,) that reference to such archives of authori- 
tatively collected and faithfully stated facts may prevent in the. future some 
disastrous blunder in legislation, or cruel t-yrmouy in enterprise; the fatuih 
of the neglect to provide it, through parsimony in expenditure, or coward- 



A PLEA FOR (JONTI STANCE OF THE lU'REAl". 



121 



ly, or reckless indisposition to look beneath the surface and see what i> 
really there, can hardly be measured in words. 

"The third obstacle arises partly from the second and partly B 
thinking, perhaps unconscious, adhesion to old, accustomed ideas and 
habits of thought — indignant irritability, growing out of the frequent 
strikes among workmen, and consequent conflicts and losses ; together with 
a sentiment, (that inquiry shows yet to prevail to an astonishing degree,) 
that the possession of capital, and the handling of it, gives to the holder 
BonW indefinable access of dignity and right of control over hiin whose 
■illy capital is in his brains or sinews, and the fear of anything that 
threatens innovation upon the existing order of things, as calculated to de- 
stroy this inequality, or, (in the language usually used to express it,) 
•destroy all discipline among, workmen.' It is apprehended that, in this 
craving for mastership, which is not peculiar to any individual, but com- 
mon to all mankind, and the outgrowth of, or rath 'T sediment left by, tin- 
old, effete, theoretically discarded, but too often practically retained doc- 
trines, of the divine right of the strong to rule, is to be found the cause of 
much of the oppression on the one hand, and resistance on the other, that 

r leads to the conflicts so much to be deplored. The capitalist operator who 
tote • it two hundred thousand dollars, and in the prot&afioil of 

his enterprise employs live hundred men at wages, is doubtless pWftrtfB 
the functions of a valuable citizen, in using his means and business ener- 
gies to add to the volume of the general wealth. He unquestionably de- 
serves, and should receive, such legislative protection and encouragement 
as will secure his investment and compensate his efforts. But what of the 
five hundred of his neighbors who, having do capital but their sinews, j 
that to his money to make it available ? Are they to go for nothing in the 
estimate of general, social and political values? Are they any the less 
citizens of the State ' Is there anj'thing in their position in the social or 
political system that should degrade them ; or is their honest toil in their 
employment in itself a degradation ? Are they not, in their sphere, as 
fully, as valuably, and as honorably performing the functions of valuable 
citizens as the other? What reason, then, is there in ethics or sound 
policy why they may not approach the Legislature and ask such protection 
as they think is needful and just? And why may not the Legislature — if 
their statement shows one state of facta and that of their opponents an- 
other — take measures, by the institution of a Bureau like this, to ascertain 
where the truth lies between these contradictions ? 

Capital comes to the Legislature and asks that charters shall be granted 
vesting Special privileges in corporations; conferring on them powers and 
franchises that individual citizens alone may enjoy without legislation. The 
ground upon which such privileges are asked and granted is the develop- 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 



i ofthfl "'alth and resources of the State. These aggregations of capi- 
tal stimulate all productive activities, and their very success intensifies In- 
'lnstrial vigor. The little one-horse work-shop of the past is too slow for 
the seething, surging activities of the present, and capital again applies 
the Legislature for the incorporation of mining and manufacturing compa- 

, and the place of the little shop at, the corner of the street or the cross- 
road, is occupied by the grand manufactory, glowing with the flame of its 
hundred forges and rearing with the clash and turmoil of its thousand work- 
man. Now, does }»■»-. win' to-day in that grand factory, working for wages, 
represents the small Operator of yesterday in tin;, two-benched or one-forged 
simp at th'- cross-road, change his status by becoming, in the new order of 
things, a wage worker ? Is he any the less the citizen, the man, rightly 
the sharer in all the grandeur oi the progXeBfi his labor helps to promote f 
And when be. COmefl to tli«' L'-gislaturc and claims that of all the enormous 
growth of wealth that is produced year by year, he gets less and less ; that, 
u the aggregation of capital progresses, the numbers of his class increase, 
and in proportion to that increase the pressure Upon them becomes heavier: 
that their attempts to organise to secure their share ol the benefits of this 
progress, arc met with charges of conspiracy ; of brutal violence ; of agra- 
rian murders ; that the great supplies of natural wealth that God has stored 
lor the blessing of our age, are being unduly wrested from the many by the 
few; and asks that, in the exercise of its functions as conservator of the 
rights of all, it shall institute inquiry into the condition of affairs for the 
public good; should he be turned away with a cold negative, or a mis- 
leading, deceptive promise of acquiescence ? There can be but one answ M 
to each of these ipi 

"While any interference in the private business affairs of employers, of a 
character that would give color to tie- charge of espionage, as, for instance, 
requiring answers to ft series of questions that would show, or could show, 
Of make known to the public, or individuals, the profits of their business, 
or expose any secret of their trade that is necessary to their success; bring 
to the light of popular or unfriendly criticism the condition of their bank 
accounts or amount of their wealth, would certainly be unwarrantable, and 
beyond the sphere of justifiable legislative inquiry ; yet, as the very breath 
of the life of their enterprise depends anon the protective care of the gov- 
ernment, as they are only integers in the great mass of the body, social and 
politic, that the Legislature is instituted to conserve j as the wage worb 
whose co-operation by their labor with capital and Intelligence, is n< 
to the production "I industrial result-: are equal Integers of that body — 
are Bd part of their bank accounts — no part of the private or secret ma- 
chinery of their trade — and no part of their not profits ; but I Quale before 
the law, and equally entitled to consideration by the Legislature, in ile- 



A PLEA FOR CONTIXl'ANCE OF THE BUREAU, 



129 



terinining the encouragement and protection that shall be given to all, for 
the promotion of the good of nil ; it is certainly difficult to find any just 
or well founded objectiou to the answering of such questions as are neces- 
sary to determine their actual condition, and how tliey have been and an 
being affected by legislation intended to advance the general interests. 

" There is another consideration beside thai <>1" mere abstract rijrht that 
ought to command the acquiescence of employers in the purposes of this 
inquiry. It is to be assumed that they intend as a class to deal justly. It 
will indeed be a dark day in our history, when it is demonstrated that so 
large, so powerful, so enterprising a portion of the citizens of the Stair. 
shrink from impartial inquiry into a subject of such momentous uome^ 
quence. If the relations of labor to capital are as they should be, the in- 
quiry proposed will demonstrate it. If they are not. that will be shown, 
and the light of truth thrown upon the question will show tho way to such 
ameliorations as will secure our progress from interruption As the suc- 
cess of industrial enterprise depends largely upon its security from un- 
booked fur disturbance, whatever tends to prevent disturbance, can be DO 
other than beneficent in its effect. All the facts carefully collected from 
year to year, and honeBtly presented, by removing the uncertainty as to 
what is true, which is the opportunity of the demagogue, and promoting 
that clear conception of the right which must dcvelope mutual confidence 
and kindly feeling, can do no other than result in incalculable good. It is 
earnestly hoped and confidently believed, than when the object sought to 
be attained through the instrumentality of the Bureau is more generally 
understood, this obstacle wilt be measurably removed," 

"There seems to be a general unbelief among the workmen as to the sin- 
cerity of the legislation establishing the Bureau, and nothing, apparently, 
but the publication of a report that will demonstrate its value, will remove 
the impression that the ineffectiveness of the bill was purposely contrived, 
to give the impression that their demand for a Bureau of Labor Statist ics 
was being complied with, while, at the Bame, care was being taken that 
no practically useful results should follow its creation. When pressed, fot 
instance, t(0 give answers to questions propounded for the purpose of fixing 
the comparison between actual average earnings and average coBt of living, 
the reply has sometimes been, with a tone of bitterness and suspicion — 
'yes, you want to find out just how poor we arc ; how little we can live on, 
and use it, either to further reduce wages, or prove the degradation of the 
working classes, that so much is said and written about;' or, 'how do I 
know that the answers I give you may not lead to my discharge ? If tin r. 
was an honest purpose to make an investigation that should secure a needed 
reformation, why did not your law give you power to send for persons and 
papers, subpoena witnesses, and compel answers ? Then, it would have 



430 



A FLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU, 



looked as though your inquiries meant business. We i.oul J have I 
called to give testimony, subject to cross-examination, and it would n ■ • t 
have the effect of is parte evidence, oc be open to the charge of voluntary 
information Without the force of evidence, unavailing lor any good purpose, 
and leaving us open to the charge of seeking the injury of our employers 
by making factious, lault finding statements, calculated to lead to interrup- 
tion of business by exciting turbuleut agitation.' Upon being reminded 
that the Bureau was created in answer to their petition, and for tlic pur- 
pose of bringing out the truth, they reply: 'All that can be readily de- 
monstrated by giving the inquiry the force of law, and then no individual 
would be open to the charge, or liable to the penalty of opposing the inter- 
ests of his employer. Our statements voluntarily given have always been 
disputed, our .iVorts to agitate the importance of organization for mutual 
support aud protection, have always been called eonspiracy and agrai ianism. 
Our right to organize has been called in question, and the whole power of 
capital has been exerted to break down att< 'inpis in that direction, even to 
the extent of prosecutions for conspiracy, which, in at least one instaiio . 
resulted in imprisonment, and even when the great numbers, intelligent 
leadership, and resolute fortitude of our people have given us partial suc- 
cess, the privations and sufferings consequent on the effort serve to warn 
off and debar others from like attempts, If the Legislature really desires 
the righting of any wrong thai may exist ; if, to this end, it i cully desires 
to get at the facta, there is a plain and simple way to reach them, and there 
is no reason for enacting laws for any other of the general purposes of leg- 
islation that will not apply with equal force to this.' " 

We repeut that every thing that has come to the knowledge ol the Bureau 
since these extracts were written gives to the argument a cumulative force 
that it is not safe nor just to disregard. At the time they were written the 
country was enjoying an apparent prosperity which under the circum- 
stances was the wonder of the world. Before they wore printed, the failure of 
one reckless speculator in other peoples' earnings had spread financial pauic 
broadcast over the land, stopped the wheels of industral progress, unset- 
tled values and left the country in a condition in which its labor has been 
reduced in its compensation, what with paucity of employment and \am rates 
of wages at least one-third. When it is considered that the laboring classes 
upon whose industry every dollar of the production of wealth rests, are 
not responsible in any sense near or remote for this state of affairs, and 
that they are the sufferers by it almost exclusively so far as deprivation 
of the power of procuring the means of subsistence goes, while to all the 
various classes of capitalists the only deprivation is a cessation or suspen- 
sion of profit, and while to the dealer in money, as a marketable commodity , 
not even this deprivation has come ; it surely should not be called com- 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OP TOE BUREAU. 



131 



muiiism, demagogism or any other of the usual clap-trap epithets used to 
smother or befog honest inquiry. To assert that in such a condition of things 
there is absolute proof of radical mistake, wrong, or error, in a system that 
renders it possible, ami to demand that thoS tate should sanction and main- 
tain such collection and analysis of statistical information as will lead to 
the determination of what is wrong aud the development of wise and equit- 
able measures of reform is not demagogisrn or communism. Will not a re- 
fusal to do this in the face of the indubitable facts known to exist amount 
to a practical denial of the plainest justice to nearly if nut quite half of our 
people? Is it possible to believe that it can be done without exciting pas- 
sionate, dangerous and even revolutionary agitation ? Be it remembered, 
that if only a comparatively small portion of the classes of the population 
interested in the questions involved have been heretofore united in the at- 
tempts to organize them for resistance by political action or otherwise, it 
is because of the promise of reformatory investigation tendered in the pro- 
gress of legislation in this direction. If this legislation is to be changed 
as demanded by the memorial and bill of the board of trade, it will be a 
practical breaking of that promise, and a decision, final, so far as the Legis- 
lature that adopts it is concerned, against the claim of labor that it is un- 
duly discriminated against, and that without inquiry. 

The present organization of the Bureau ceases to exist in May. But under 
the new Constitution and the legislation of last winter, it should, under the 
Secretary of Internal Affaire, be more valuable than the most exalted ability 
could have made this. And the question to be determined, in the result of 
the amending legislation proposed, is simply whether the labor, represented 
by the wage workers of the State, has a right to direct, definite and protec- 
tive inquiry and legislation, or whether, as heretofore, our statistical inqui- 
ries are to consist of mere columns of figures, showing totals of results of 
earnings of capital, useful as guides in its investment, but leaving labor and 
its compensation, condition and rights, in the position of mcro incidentals 
in the general economy. In our report of laBt year, we gave our best efforts 
to an honest inquiry into the condition of the laboring classes of the State, 
but were foiled in our attempt* to obtain extended information by direct 
inquiry, by the sensitive jealousy of investigation, that stands so obtru- 
sively in the way, and that has its first decided and aggressive expression 
in the bill and memorial we have been considering. Under these circum- 
stances, we devoted the greater portion of our space to the production of 
the analysis of the census returns and classification of workmen, according 
to their compensation and actual earnings, with the results set forth in the 
tables we published. Those results were as surprising to us as they could 
he to any one interested in the question. They were, however, honestly 
reached results, and their approximate correctness has not been assailed. 



1 92 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 



Indeed, so far as the general business classes of the State, and the press 
representing them, MM emu-erned. no notice has been taken of them. They 
are given in such form, that any one of ordinary intelligence, who cares to 
do so, can test their correctness, and the fairness of the use of the data 
iipmi which they are barfed, That they completely discredit the generally 
ived reports of the fiiuirn. ms cmnpeiisatioti of labor during a time that 
will torig be known as « period of extraordinary industrial prosperity, is 
•i f i > r which the Bureau is not responsible ; unless, indeed, it can be, 
and is shown, thai the I lata are falsely quoted, or dw calculations vitally 
.■i mni'iiiis That they have not been assailed is pretty conclusive evidence 
hi' their being unassailable. Another pregnant fart is fVnind in the returns 
Hindi' to the Bureau by the more bin-nil and enlightened of the business 

ii wl n> were applied to, who reODglfized the value of the inquiry, and 

cordially aeqnipsed in Hie demand, which is*, that they beaif out fully tin- 
classification we made, and the results reached. Now, as a matter of leg- 
ralative consideration, the question hi a pertinent one, whether labor, in 

;eJvrng the compensation thus shown to have been paid it, was fairly 
paid ? If it was. (hen that mueh of the inquiry purposed as the work of 
this Bureiiti may be deemed needless, and abandoned. If it was not, then 
it is certainly a showing, that every consideration of social justice and 
good government requires, should lend to such investigation as would 
eventuate in the adoption of a just and equitable remedy. If simple justice 
is the objective point of legislation upon this subject, DO possible harm can 
come of a full, fair and exhaustive examination of the condition of the re- 
lations of capital and labor as proposed, and there can be no rights in- 
hering in 8h# holders of capital that can tie violated by the Legislature 
making that examination practicable. 

We expressed the hope last year, that we would this year be in a position 
to make a much fuller, and more valuable exhibit than then. But the same 
obstacles continued through the Legislature failing to confer the authority 
needed, which is embodied in the provisions for organizing the Depart- 
ment ef Internal Affairs, and which it is now proposed shall be rep. 
before their effect can be practically tested. We can only hope that the 
Legislature in its wisdom and justice, will not embarras our successors with 
the disabilities that we have labored under, but that the value of the Bureau 
may be subjected to at least an honest and practical test. 

The effect of our inquiries and investigations last year, was to dem.-m- 
Btrnte, as we believe beyond the reach of successful dispute, that the geu- 
ertllr received impressions, as to the enormously great compensation of the 
working classes, were grossly erroneous. 

Nothing that has since occurred, of thai lias come to our knowledge has 
tended in any degree to shake the credit of that demonstration. On the 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 



433 



< -i it rarv all additional evidence corroborates the conclusions reached. In the 
face of this fact, the situation must now be recognized as desperate. Our 
"..ih'liisions of last year show tliat out of 421*580 adult male wage workers 
29,848 being foremen <>f mines and shops, railroad conductors and book- 
i, ■-. pcrs of tbe first class, the highest paid skilled labor averaged per year, 
$737 7<»; HI, nil! skilled workmen, educated mnflhminiti averaged peryear, 
$5i3 HI *, •J'JI'i, 220 laborers, unskilled workmen, averaged peryear, $346 95, 

This was for the year ending June 1, 1870, the fflinWIl year. Little 
noticeable change occurred from that time until October, 1«73. There being 
in that time a gradual shrinkage of wages, but not out of proportion with the 
shrinkage of other values, and imtuwiat decrease in cost of living. But 
in October, 1S73, occurred the revulsion in trade (known as the panic) 
which immediately 0heek«4 industrial operations, and which, although 
it was generally supposed its effect* would be temporary, lias continued to 
grow in force and intensity ever since. 

This has materially obstructed the operations of the Bureau in its at- 
tempts to procure returns that could be used for tabular statements, in (ftcl 
making it impassible. Those who have not given particular attention to 
this phase of the subject, would bo astonished in making anything like an 
uded inquiry among our industrial establishments this year, to find in 
nan large a proportion of them, there waa so little being done that de- 
luded reports would bo impracticable. 

Very many are entirely closed, having given up the attempt i,. keep their 
machinery moving a| all. .Many more just doing sufficiont,tO have the ap- 
pearance of running, while those doing what could be called sufficient 
neea i" aovet expenses, were so very small a proportion of the whole 
as to constitute them exceedingly rare exceptions to the general rule. 
Probably never in the history of the country has there been a time, when 
so many of the working classes skilled and unskilled, have bean moving 
ii'oin place to piuce Mekjog employment that yraa not to be had— never, 
certainly for so long a time. 

The effect on wages, though very decided, is not so great as upon the 
-amounts actually earned. In our paper upon the "'distribution of tlie 
rewards of industry," we have estimated the average reduction in the 
rates of wages at thirty-three per cent This is fully within the truth. 
The amounts actually earned must be estimated at a far greater reduction 
than this. In Beaver, Lawrence, Mercer, Fayette, Westmoreland, Alle- 
gheny, the amount of work for miners is reported at from two to four days 
per week, and that fur materially reduced numbers of hands. The follow- 
ing extract from a letter will give a vivid idea of the situation, and is 
Jenouii to be a true and not overdrawn picture. The letter is from and 
refers to Mercer county : 
2$ Statistics. 



434 



A PLEA FOB CONTINUANCE OF THE KURKAI'. 



" I will speak the truth to tlio best of my ability, but if 1 should nol I" 
exact to :i few routs other :nl v i i-cs will readily correct inc. 

" Kimborly. Pilar & Co., bank No. 1, is shut down. Not working at all. 
No. 2. nays ij3 cents a ton ; (a miner digs for a ton 2,150 pounds of eo&l, 
if he buys a ton bo gets 2,0(10 pounds. ) No. 3, Snyder's, pays 80 cents 
per miner's ton; Forkcrs, TO cents-, Philips, TO cents; Spearman, I'lp A: 
Co., 60 cents; Bethel, Nil I, not working; No. 2, 60 cents per ton ; 'Oak- 
land, 50 cents per miner's ton; Westcnuaii's, 60 cents, with notice of a 
reduction of from ten to twenty cents per ton. I novo given here the 
lowest prices paid. In some instances there is paid one doUai per miner's- 
ton, U)d in very lew cases there is more than that paid, but it ie WON the 
eii.il is very hard and low. The coal is nil scrcem d before it i> weighed. 
anil the miner gets nothing for what passes through the screen. The took 
a miner needs cost thirty dollars. We pay fur smithing one rent per ten. 
and four dollars for twenty-live pounds of powder. When it is He 
to blast the coal it takes about ton cents per ton for the powder, Suppos* 
ing each men mined throe tons per day ior twenty days in the month, ;it 
sixty cents per ton, it would amount to $36. Deduct $1 for oil, powder. 
smithing, wear of tools, &c, and he has left $2it for his month's work, m 
$1 40 per day for twenty days, and this is fur more work than lie can get 
BOW. Sell the same coal at Sharon for $2 To per ton of 2,000 pounds, and 
it produces $17T 37 J. Deduct the $36 it costs to mine it, that is for mi net -'s 
•wages, and you have $141 37J to pay all other expenses, and for margin 
for profit. This looks pretty large, but it may be that the operator cannot 
afford out of it to pay more for mining j that 1 know nothing about, but one 
thing I do know, and that is, that 1 cannot maintain my family, which 
numbers seven persons, to be fed, clothed and sheltered every day. whether 
in panic times or not, on twenty-nine dollars per month." 

Another letter limn the same county, \nhr alia, speaks as follows 
-'Around here the men are helplessly poor. Large numbers have not 
earned ten dollars since last June. While a great number are making from 
ten to fifteen dollars per month, ■ small number may be making more, very 
few indeed are making enough to iced their families. Yet, another ion pei 
cent, reduction has been started in the valley and will undoubtedly find its 
way all around before it stops. There is something terribly wrong in a 
gyatem that imposes helpless poverty upon so large a class and then suffers 
th.it poverty to become the means of crushing out their very manhood. 
* * * It has almost literally lcaiheil the point in which the children 
of workmen <-r\ for bread and there is none to give them. Under the cir- 
cumstances work means starvation. It may be a little slower, but resis- 
tance only means the same at a quicker pace, I believe the workmen will 
stop work to resist this last reduction, and 1 do nol believe they will 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 



435 



quietly stand by to see their families starve, nor can they be persuaded 
that they ought to in a land of plenty. 1 fear the climax of misfortune 
will reach us soon, As it is the last feather that breaks the camel's back, 
mi it is the laat outrage 11 1 n>n right that breaks the patient'- of suffering 
humanity. As an example of the manner in which the Ibftitode nf the 

peOplfl is strained, 1 may mention the following: Mr. , one nl our 

Mjii'iiitnrs, came to his men and said if they would work four months for 
goods to b<* taken from his store lie could give them steady work, ami b1 
the same time they would be helping the company. The nun, under the 
inducement of steady work, agreed lo dd it, and necessarily quit tin- sfe 
in which they bad many of them been dealing fol years, ami, owing to the 
hard times, some of them doubtless left them in debt. After working ■ i> -w 
weeks on these terms the operator appeared one evening at their lodge 
king ami tnhl them they must submit to a reduction of ten per cent., 
and he would give them steady work. The workmen reminded him id his 
previous agreement of only a few weeks puBt ; but the work has been 
ped lor the last four weeks, and he has closed his store to them. This 
is the way faith is kept. Alter inducing them to leave their nieniiant 
friends, who, as far as they could, have and would again aid them to pull 
ih rough a crisis like this, they demand further reduction, and as the men have 
lost their right to credit from their former storekeepers, and can get D0 
supplies there, close their own stores against them until they an: sta; 
into submission. 

••Bethel No. Si has done no work since June last. No. I has been work- 
ing, and the operator has offered to start So. 2 if the men would RgDM if) 
another ten per cent, reduction, (this is the second ten per cent, reduction 
nince September.) they have agreed to tin' terms, and work is to bo resumed 
tn-morrow, (this letter is dated December 31,) while No. 1 has been 
notified to stop." 

From Morris Run, Tioga county, under date of January <i, 1875, 
we have inter aim the following: "At Arnot and Fall Brook the 
companies and men h*\ e agreed upon terms for the new year, at a uniform 
reduction of ten per cent, per ton without any contract. The workmen at 
Morris Run asked for a settlement on the same terms, but the agent de- 
manded a reduction of eighteen per cent, with no contract. The men arc 
very mnch dissatisfied with the terms offered. Owing to the great slack 
ness of work during the year, a great many of the men are in very strait- 
ened circumstances. Over fifty have applied to the township authorities 
for relief, and if there is not great improvement soon the number will be 
doubled." 

Since the above, in a letter dated Fall Brook, January 19, we find that a 
settlement has been made at Morris Run on the same terms as at the other 



A 



UHEAU. 



coliiei its mentioned. Wurk, however] is very slack, Bays the writer : " We 
only get two days work in the week, a:,ti it is about the same in Mori -is 
Run; ii( Anii't I hey get a little more." 

In this Tiuga region the feeling between employees and employed is bet- 
ter (linn it bee < \ ei been before. The settlement that followed the Contest 
<>f hist winter, seems to have been entered into, and carried out in perfect 
good faith by both parties, and all that appears to be needed is such a re- 
vival of business as will make a market for their coal, to give them a fair 
degreo of prosperity, Among others, is a statement from Altoona. as fol- 
lows, viz : Am R h>>use painter by trade; my wages are $2 25 per day ; 
only h;i\ re work about half the time, and it has been so for about one year ; 
have t Witt and five children ; none old enough to work ; my expenses are 
about $36 00 per month ; my earnings average, per month, $30 25 ; my 
rent is $3 50, making my total expenses $38 50 per month ; my brushes 
and tools coBt about $& 00 per month in addition : have, during the year, 
run behind about SI 3 25 per month 

Another says ; Am a laborer; wages $1 12 per day, eight hours work 
to the day, and get twenty -two days for the month ; earnings monthly will 
average $24 64 ; this has continued for a year ; I have five children, none 
of them earning anything ; my grocery and provision bills amount to about 
$35 00 per month ; I have a property worth about $600, mortgaged to a 
building association ; unless things change greatly it will be swept away 
from ne in a very few years. 

Another says : "Am a painter by trade, working in the car shops at 
Altoona; have three in family ; my wages are $1 28 per day ; my grocery 
and meat bills average about $23 per month ', my rent is $8 ; I am going 
in debt every month from five to seven dollars.'" 

And so it goes in all trades and occupations the same depression and the 
name breaking down of cherished hopes in the individual workmen, which 
to too many means the reception of charity, the loss of self-respect, diss: 
peted energy, and through the closing years of life, useless, hopeless detei 
ration and vagrancy. 

The sickening record is long enough. There is not one who reads this 
who will not have instances enough in his own knowledge and expert 
to nil any htoka occasioned by its brevity. And wo will ouly add, in con- 
elusion, that this condition of things most emphatically calls for the duly 
authorised and fully supported inquiry which the creation of the Bureau 
waB professedly designed to secure 

That such thing! CM bs in a new and free country groaning with the 
weigh! Of Ita natural resources, while those groans of over-laden natural 
garners of wealth are drowned in the loader agony of hordes of its sutler- 
iag citizens, is prool beyond dispute that something is terribly wrong in 



A PLEA FOR CONTINUANCE OF THE BUREAU. 437 

its administration and policy ; that there is difference of opinion and donbt 
as to what that wrong is, is proof just as incontestible that this inquisition 
is necessary for the public safety ; that there are those to be found who 
seek directly or indirectly to obstruct the inquisition, is also proof that the 
evil is the fruit of a consciousness of practices requiring ventilation ; and 
the issue becomes one between the determination of the people, through 
their, representatives, that justice shall be done, and the evil influences that 
are equally determined that it shall not be done, if by power of cajolery, 
ridicule, misrepresentation, intimidation or falsehood, it can be defeated. 

We repeat that in pleading with the Legislature to maintain the Bureau 
and clothe it with power by law to do its work, we are seeking the gratifi- 
cation of no personal ambition or advantage. This will.be the last report 
by its present incumbents. It passes into other bands, bnt its duties are 
not partisan, and he will indeed be unworthy of his citizenship, who, en- 
tering upon his duties, beginning his inquiries, and seeing the facts unfold 
before him, does not, under the pressure of the impending necessity that 
the truth shall be known, work earnestly and honestly to bring it out. 



438 



DISTRIBUTION' OF REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 



DISTRIBUTION OF THI: REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 



The distribution of the rewards of industry constitutes undoubtedly the- 
question that underlies tlic whole issue involved in the discussion Of the 
relations of labor and capital. If this could be so adjusted as to put all 
doubt as td the equitable distribution at rest, or even reach a reasonable 
approximation ta that result, all other causes of discontent would be capa- 
ble ufi'asv ;iuil friendly adjustment. 

In looking for the reasons for the difficulty of a just solution, we ate 
forced to the conclusion that it is to be found almost entirely in the avidity 
with which each individual watches all the conditions that affect the - 
cess of his own immediate pursuit, and a tendency inspired by that avidity 
to lose interest in, and indeed the capacity to give thought to, any r.u: 
sideiatimi of the various influences that affect exchanges in the eomim 
between the citizens of the state and country. Every man striving to se- 
am himself in the shortest possible time against the consequences of re- 
versos thai a sad experience teaches each oue to expect, becomes so ab- 
sorbed in the iutenseness of his effort to push his own fortunes, that he for- 
gets that his best security lies in preserving an equitable balance of 
chances for all, comes to regard his own operations as the only matter 
worthy of consideration, and ji : all proposed public measures as 

they appear, or he may be persuaded to believe they appear, to bear upon 
his own individual operations. From these and perhaps other causes any 
proposed legislation that promises invitation to the introduction of capital 
hi- pome to be regarded as all that could or need be done on the part I 
government to promote the welfare and prosperity of the people. Asa 
COUfceojience, the liberal legislation in favor of banking and other corpora- 
tions has been advocated as a means of developing the industrial reeour 
of the people; and those win i have raised a warning voice against the 
effects of a poliey that must eventuate in placing our great sources of 
wealth in the bauds of a few. ami clothing thorn with a dangerous power 
over the freedom of action and fortunes of the many, have been held, even 
while the correctness in theory of their views was acknowledged, to have 
been overcautious, or mischievoui and visionary croakers. 

In the mean time the policy of stimulating the Investment of capital has 
gone on with the granting of one extraordinary privilege after another, un- 
til the whole character of out industrial enterprise has been changed. Our 
successful industrial establishments have growu to be those almost exeln- 



DISTMJil'TlOX OF REWARDS «>!•' IVUl'STRY. 



139 



■sively in which immense capitals an- invested, while the avi-inn m to sue* 

-till ( ■utcrprisc have bean nearly closed against the individual operator 
with email means. The jjioprntion of employing, or master mechanics, has 

ally decreased, while the number of those who work for wages perma- 
nently liaB largely increased. Thirty years ago there were in our State at 
least forty master mechanics in every hundred. Now there are not more 
iiian twelve to fifteen, while the apprentice system is nearly if not quite 
obsolete. This condition of our industries presents considerations of the 
rvest import. If it were true, as has been so often asserted, that the 
change has inured to the advantage of the class which, thirty years ago 
the small master operators, are to-day the permanent wage workers ht tne 

it firms and corporations that have swallowed tlieni up, the outlook 
would no( be so gloomy. But it is nut true. If in the review of the pro- 
_ ri — rs of thirty yearn, we find a larger number of reading, thinking, and in- 
teliigont mas sjnoog the working classes, it must be remembered that the 
extraordinary and successful efforts to bcc lire educational facilities for all, 

-i Ik- credited with the exercise of a powerful influence against deterio- 
ration, And, under the circumstances existing in which fur more 
than a year, at least one-third of the wage workers nave been idle, 
and the community has suffered a degree "of demoralization that twenty 
years ol war could not have elicited, it is not too much to say, that the pa- 
tience and self-respect that have enabled the suffering classes to bear it 
without violent and agrarian outbreaks, are to be attributed tb the con~ 
r*ervutnc influence of our school system, ami mil to any special virtue in 
I lie policy of concentration of wealth which has resulted from the kind of 
legislation under consideration. Neither is it too much to say, that a policy 
which, circumstanced as this country is, makes it possible for the vices or 
errors of mere dealers in money, or speculators in the industry of the masses 
to utterly and for so long a time prostrate that industry, is big with rotten- 
ness and danger, for the removal of which no remedy can be too heroic. 

Another eharaiteiistie of the effect of this legislative pandering to the 
desire of the few to Obtain mastery over tha many, is the confusion of ideas 
that is growing in prevalence, as to what constitutes legitimate, and per 
consequence, honest business pursuits. The door being practically closed to 
the gratification of honorable ambition in industrial pursuits to all of small 
means, those whose intellectual activity should make them the leaden of 
industry as master mechanics, turn their enterprise and inventive genius to 
devising and discovering means by which they can escape the condition of 
the workers! insufficient and precarious wages ; and out of the material from 
which the wear and tear of industrial energy should be supplied, spring 
i horde of leeches who, under guiBc of brokers, bankers, &c, become 
what are popularly called dealers in money, shavers, &c, who make their 



440 DISTRIBUTION 01-' REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 

account by speculating in the currency through tlie hundred <li'\ ices fitcj 
have invented, so as to control its price in the market, and load industrial 
pursuits with all tlie burden it can bear; and, becoming mere rapacious 
with success, periodically load it down, and bring about panics and pros" 
tretion like the present. 

It is no part of our purpose here to outer into a labored disquisition as t. 
t hi ■ laws of trade, <>r the monetary questions that grow out of them J but to 
m*ke an honest use of statistics for any valuable purpose, BO much of the 
truth must be promised as will illustrate the results reached. We prop 
then to call attention to two or throe propositions that in old fashioned 
times uvie held to be true, out that in the new dispensation arc, for practf. 
eal every day purposes, lost sig-lit of: 

Pirtt. Tlicn, tin ri • is DO wealth hill that wliich is created by industry u|i- 
|ilied to production. Then-tore, the only producers of wealth are those who 
labor in the creation of values. 

Second. Capital IB the surplus product of industry, over and above what 
it requires lor consumption while producing, and tin- only legitimate use of 
capftflil oilier than the Support and maintenance of the owner of it is to aid 
industry in farther production. 

Third. Capital while engaged in aiding industry is entitled to norm- doI 
clearly defined share in the CQBNBOJ) product. If the share thus conceded 
to it is of suieh proportion us industry can give without tainting under tin 
burthen, its use for this purpose is to industry beucliconce and strength 
But if the share exacted is so groat M to Weaken industry and lessen its just 
reward, it becomes oppression and extortion. 

Fourth. The form in which capital can he and is made available as an aid 
to industry is money and this brings us to the question what is money? 

Fifth. We might here go into a long disquisition upon tin- history ol 
money and the various forms and mimes under which ii has been known, 
yet in all, still, substantially money as we kuow it; but that would uvail 
nothing, its character is well defined. Money, according to all authorities 
ignized as valuable and reliable in our civilization, and as defined in the 
wording and embodied in the theory of all OUT monetary laws ie repn seotes 
tive of Value, medium of exchange, currency, circulating medium. Kach 
out- of thete definitions is ft natural corollary of the other. Its iiatuic, 
objects and uses could hardly he so clearly and understaiidingly put 
pages of illustration. Simply tokens representing certain values l>\ com- 
mon consent to be a convenience in the exchanges of those values one with 

another. 



OF INDUSTRY. 



441 



N"W, wir.it lira tic differences I" \\\ • en capital ;«ti- 1 RlOMy thai iff 

milt to the issue before us 1 They may be stated thud : 

Capital is value eivnted by labor in air^ Of the amount of raid* COO- 
Mimed by In bur in tlir process of production; in Other "WOrde * " 1 1 1 • • surplus 
production of lal"'i." "Saved up labor." Thus, a man works thrOUghotli 

the year on bis farm and produces twice as much as in required for him to 
live "u i tin- excess of his pi-o.iui - 1 i ■ .• 1 1 is his capital to inure to hi* ojdff and 
exclusive benefit. No othej Demons have any right in it buihimeell . he p 
pile it in his bams, limy it in his cellar and thus hoard it without violence 
t*' tbe rights of ;in_v othcre because his possession of it does m>t inter) 
with ox obsirui-t the freedom of production of others. There is no law, 

natural &I kOCietery, that putt 0* seeks to put a limit bu the amount that. 
may be produced; On the contrary, all natural OonsidnrattOM and BOOietary 
influences favor and encourage activity in production. "In the sweat of 
the brow sliiilt thou eel thy bread,*' is no more a divine than a natural re- 
quirement. In obedience to that law DO such tiling as over-production can 
Ik: known ; and to those wl bey that law all the fruits of their industry be- 
long as absolutely anil exclusively and as independently Of the claims ol 
others upon them as do their lives, But, tins farmer requires, in his pursuit 
of happiness, some things that his farm dors not produce. These lie seeks 
to obtain by exchanging his surplus product Of capital for the other pro- 
duets he requires with others who produce those other products and who 

wed Ins, and this is the whole philosophy of trad ' ■•niiimcivr betWI 

man and man or between nations. As society advances the growth of a 
disposition to seek greater variety in the enjoyment of life which Consti- 
tutes better living and higher refinement, leads to greater activity in the ex- 
change of values and to diversity of industries. 

This diversity of industries calls for greater activity in the exchange of 
values, and to facilitate those exchanges, tokens representing values Ol diff- 
erent quantities are invented and in time come to be called money. Those 
tokens are of (linen.- 1 it material indifferent ages and nations, their only essen- 
tial property being that they shall be accepted by all among whom they are 
tu circulate as representative of the value they bear upon their face. Thus, 
if A. has a load oflray which is equal in value to a cow and wants a mw in 
exchange for his hay he may :neet I'., who wants his hay but has no COW to 
give in exchange, so that A. must continue his ipicst until lie finds some one 
who bus a cow and wants to exchange her loi hay. While It. likewise! must 
continue to search until he finds some o M e who has hay that he wants to ex" 
change foi the particular article) of value that he happens to hold. This i» 
natural exchange. But with tJietnkens representing value and Called money, 
A, meets B. add they agree upon tin- value of the hay and B. gives the amount 
<>f money tokens that represent the value ol the cow A wishes tu procure, 



MJ 



MSTBIBI HOS OP BEWARDS OF IXIM STIIY. 



and. without, further trouble Lukes his 1 1 ay ami uses ii. wlii h- A, with the rep- 
resentative of value in his pocket proceeds bo find BOOM one win) Iwa tin- 
row tn exchange and with these tokens makes his bargain Bad receives his 
com". This is called buying and selling, ami is simply bb exchange •.>!" values 
facilitated by the use of the tofceiis sailed money. Now, there is do prop- 
erty requisite to suable these money tokens bo nerfbtan the office fbc which 
they were created exeept that A, 13, C or 1). may feel certain that if thc\ 
receive them in exchange I'm 1 their values, they can lUM them in Inlying other 
values equal in amount to those sold. And this confidence depends not 

upon tin- value of the tokens < tailed tn 1} , their intrinsic Value, hut upon 

the certainty with which they can he converted into other values equal in 
amount BO those rot which they were received. It ma Iters not wbethei 
tokens are stamped upon iron, Copper, leather, or gold, OT printed Spoil 
paper; whatever the material of which they tee made, still for the iiscthex 
an intended in the civil and racial eOOBSSSe their only legitimate valim 
ists in their interchangeability at a fixed, non-varying, conventionally agreed 
upon, standanl of value. And herein is the ditlonmec between money and 
capital. Genital can he legitimately aodi beneficially produced ml iajbiittnu. 

It is impossible to create SO iniirli value as to impose burdens upon the o - 

innuity. While a greater quantity of one commodity may he produced than 
is needed for consumption, it is palpable in the nature of things that it can 
CPOTlb no evil to the community. For while to those who overproduce, it 
means working for less returns, to t In • oorarannitj it mesne the enjoyment 
«d the use of that particular commodity at less than its normal cost. This 
mattoi of overproduction adjusts itself naturally ho the public wants. Ami 
this self adjustment constitutes what is called the law of supply and demand 
But how is it with money? That being rapvuseuLatnVo-of value, not being 
value in itBelf, but mi irerj bycosmneB BSfclSOMt representing the value of some 
one conimodity as compared with that of other oonuoodities in order bo 

maintain its .(iiality ofunifoi'mity, must he limited in its amount, ll is lht>u - 
fore held to be me and tha Inyhent prerogative of all civilized government.-, 
tn determine its quantity ami regulate its diameter. In the COO rm of IMS 6 
the nations from which OHM has sprung have grown to regard gold and sil- 
ver SS the b. -t material of which to make thSBS tokeiU Oi value. Iieran- !, 
iii coiiseipieiice of their limited quantity, they are less liable to iluct nation 
in vales than any other material, lint it should he noted here, that before 
this COsld become a reason fbr the adoption of these metals as the material 
upon which to stamp the [cite: - which make a medium of ex- 

change, the powers, purposes, attributes of that medium must have I 
Changed from theiroriginsJ intent. For if their sole use is to aid in the ex- 
change of value*, there is BO need that they should have intrinsic iralfli j 
while that intrinsic value would necessarily he detrimental to their useful- 



DISTRIBUTION OF BEWAJID8 OF INDUSTRY, 



443 



\ for tile purpc •■»!« ■■ I . by introducing < - 1 1 ■ ■ i qualities, powers and 

chanictcri.sticay fotmga to-or-difieetDg from t.li-'su wliiuli constitute them t 
move medium to facilitate exchange*. Ami this is just what < Li«J happen, 
The <; - reat usefulness of those tokens of value in facilitating the exchange 
,,f commodities .me with another gradually brought about an entire cessa- 
tion of the exchange of values except through their interposition, and as 

gradually led through their desireability as mediums of exchange to their 
being regarded and treated as value in themselves and not as represent;*' 
Of value. As a consequence, from time immemorial the nations have gone 
mi regarding the effect as primary, and the cause inc iil.-ntiil : the product 
as of in". |imin.'o than the producer: property as mow valuable than 

man: the representative as greater than the principal: money as better 
than value. 

If this idea. as practically carried int.. effect by out QUBtome is tin ti lie one, 
tlie laws should he made to conform to it. II money is g marketable com- 
modity the individual has as- potrfeei a right Ie main it as he has to apply his 

cnergios Co any otbej pursuit If it is i c aodity to be dealt in, its pi 

to go up or .lnwii as ojtftei nuaoditica do according to the laws of uupplj 

and demand, the govor ont has no tnore right to arrogate to itself a mon- 
opoly jo ils production and us,- |'ot it- "Wii ami la\ ,.rit,s benefit, than it lias 
1" a monopoly in the production of emu, wheat, (ioal OH any thing else. 

If, on tin- contrary il ie wbal the law and all authority ii< •> l ;> i •-.- it to be, tm- 
diuin nf flTflfWingHt rrirnnMltntiTTl of value, currency created with intent to aid 

11 xehaagffofiralueBainoBg the people and having no other purpose, or Iflgtyi 

mate character, the law oaghl to proted the pcoalu agaiflel abuses in its use 
that withdraw it (roni circulation, andthue embarrass the movement sot trade. 
Pop, that to Bach abuses of the functions of money fee disastrous deprosaiori 

now afflicting the country, and indeed every otliei «jf similar diameter i,, 

ibis m any other i onntrj can be distinctly traced is undoubtedly toae. 

This p,,w,'i of working tuiaehief by I bxi abuses of tltc functions of mou< ) 
■which consist in treating it ami dealing in it at value or marketable oonuno- 

dity, and the dill'ereine between it and capital or surplus labor, as to then 
several natures and powers may be made clear by the following illustration: 
B. resides and is doing business iii i>ne of our inland business centres, and 
has in his possession, no matter how obtained so thai it is his, out hundred 
thousand dollars el circulating medium or money. This hundred thousand 
dollars is that nun li of the whole volume of circulation thai I hat e,.m m nn it \ 
has wilh which to effect its exchanges, Ot HI other Words t,> cany on its busi- 
ness. 

B. looks about him with a view to determine the best us, to make "I' (In, 

money ; he fade upon inquiry thai there is a great demand in his neighbor- 
hood for In. isc.-, and determines to invest his moiic_\ in the purchase ofthOfiC 



DISTRIBUTION OF RGWARBS 0*' INDUSTRY. 



animals, lie buys tlii-iii where they MG in excess and brings them 1" his 

neighborhood nt a cost that enables him tC et- II them at the evessga 1'ii' t 

ono hundred and fifty dollars, and after .1. iiu.-ting all eoeta bjM rawombfa 
profit on thom, and that is 1 1 n • price at which be e*n readily sell then l" 
the equitable market price. But J', upon b iutvuj of the situation belw 
that bones are BufBciently needed and hanl to get, to enable him t" force a 
higher than equitable price upon his neighbors, and t" make large protit by 
taking advantage ol their necessities Ito bolds Wa boraes at two hundred 
dollars each. Now, although this practice on the part of B. ie morally 
unjtiel and exorbitant, his right to pursue it is uaejues^onatfe. Be* the 
value of those horaee iahta capitals It is btspropertj with whieh bo baa 

entire right to doss lie pleased and bj eCse baa a right to i nt-i lerc. 

They bare a right however, to refuse 'I"' 1 '! at bja priced and ac they ten pro* 
cure thetn wheyc be did at the same coat, their supply not being arbitrarily 
limited, they refuse i" pay it. Now what it* the result? B. holds his horses 
for his price and they refine to buy them, and at the end •>! six months il 
he Could si ll them nil at two hundred dollars) the lose est then fbr cost of 
keeping, and deterioration team sickness, accident kt., would be such that 
l»e would not be reimbursed for his outlay. Tins is dealing in real valueB, 
and it in hardly possible to conceive any circumstances under which tin- 
most p«'rl<"Ct freedom of buying, polling, exchanging Or even withholding 01 
hoarding real values or commodities could work pei mam-nt or considerable 
injury to the community or any part of it. The loss from deterioration by 
waste and accident, and the possibility and even certainty id the plaoe of 
values withheld or boarded being tilled by farther production, constitutes a 
perfect safeguard to the public against abuses of absolute ownership and 
freedom oi trade. 

But is it so, when dealing in the representative of value or money!' We 
are fully aware of thfl storm of vituperation that will be raised against 
touching the snored right Of properly in money, by those who now control 
tin' public policy on questions of finance, if by ani/ UOtUeM it as <•>• 
taryjbr thai aiojaa to notice litis report at all. Hut as we are not writing tor 
their favor, bat rather with the bope of clearing awny some of the fog and 
confusion raised by these gentry to mystify the general mind and prevent 
it attempting to deliberate upon and determine questions of gravest import, 
that tdUOfl the general interest men nearly than any other; without an 
early BOlntion of-whieh, in the interest of our common humanity, hecatombs 
of patriots may lay down their lives for an idea; eloquence may exhaust 

itsill in vindioaii if the dignity and rights of labor? the nation may 

shout itself hoaree Orer tin- triumph of government bf the people, by the 
people, and for the people ; and yet in spite of it all. men will starve, de- 
generate, and freedom will die. Inasmuch as this is our purpose, we pro- 



DISTRIBUTION OP REWARDS OF IMH STKY 



ii.. 



pose to answer tliis question : is it so, when dealing in representative oJ 
\:ilne or money. ;is we deal in other commodities ' [jet ub sec. Our illus- 
tration of B dealing in horses, showed that greed ami a v:»rioo in dealing 
in values, is estopped from working mischief by the destruction of interest 
that follows the attempt to Inri-sta!! ; and that Ii, dealing in D0TO0S, Of others 
denliiigiii any other values, are forced by natural conditions to deal with at 
least some approximation to fairness in order to secure their own profit and 
even capital. Now, we will look at the obverse of the picture. B, having bis 
one hundred thousand dollars, and anxious, as he naturally is, to make the 
most of it. observes that those who bare money ami use it fur loaning 
to others wlm take all the risks of profit or logs in business, prove li> be 
most secure of tlmir profits, determines that he will not invest his money 
in manufacturing, mining, fanning, or any oi the productive pursuits, but 
will become a private banker, street broker, o* whatever other name this 
class are known by in the various business centres. He therefore offers 
Mb money on rent or loan, to those who are engaged in productive entcr- 
I u-isos, and who need to borrow capital to aid them in their operations. 
Common consent and the laws, say that five Of six 01 seven per cent, is the 
lair, norma!, equitable wageB that money may earn without overloading 
industry, and this industry is willing and glad to pay. But, under the 
theories prevailing. B has as absolute and complete right in his money as 
he would have in horses, grain, coal, manufacturing establishments, of any- 
thing else that in real value, and the only question that enters inlo his cal- 
culations is, in what way he can secure the largest returns fOf the use of 
his money, with the least risk «if toss lie therefore puts his money where 
he can lay his hand upon it at any time, and waits until his neighbors, who 
are engaged in operations adding to the general wealth. a«k for the use of 
it His disposition is the same now as it was when lie bought his horses, 
lie is not willing tf> receive the equitable. just compensation that experience 
has fixed ns the just compensation I'm- the use of money, not because it is 
not sufficient compensation, hut because he thinks he can get more. He, 
therefore, when approached by aiiy one and asked for a loan, considers 
first the sufficiency o( the security- This being satisfactory, the next con- 
sideration is, not what eipiiiy and fair dealing fixes as the charge he should 
make for the use of it, but how much the necessities of the borrower may 
force him to pay ; and this necessity is the measure of the market price or 
value (as financier* of this class call it) of money. It may be nine, ten, 
twelve, fifteen, even thirty percent., depending entirely upon the amount 
of money asking employment in the market, as compared with the amount 
nf the demand lor it. Inasmuch as B is here to illustrate the whole money 
lending interest, and their effect upon trade, we assume that the hundred 
thousand dollars he holds iB a sufficient proportion of all the currency in 






DISTKIKUTIOX OF REWARDS OF INDUSTBY. 



tlie market, to enable liitn, if he withholds il from circulation 1'ur any ivusun. 

to create such a stringency or scarcity of money, that in order la keep 
business going', his industrial neighbors must pay just wli.it he asks For its 
age ur go without Now, wliat does iroing w itlioul mean f • > these pruduc- ' 
ing neighbors? Simply failure to meet theft wage's roil on pay <l:iv, pro- 
tested bills in bank, loss of credit in fcheaupply market, bankruptcy. What 
does compliunrr with die exorbitant demand mean to the producing neigh* 
bor? Simply paying the profit of his business to the capitalist for the use 
of currency to carry it on with, anxiety and cafe tlmt affects his disposi- 
tion and his health, necessity for making uji the forced depletion hy radtie- 
expenses wherever they cm 1» reached; redaction after reduction in 

the rates Of "Wage* paid,' consequent ruinous contests, strikes ami Btispcn- 

sions of production, gradual impoverishment, postponement of bill paying, 
loss of credit, and bankruptcy that carries' loss to oreiy interest 
to which and to whom be is indebted: Mm what is the effect upon 
the man Who by 'haling in money as if it. were value, maintains this con- 
trol over the fortunes of tlie useful classes by controlling the movements of 
the currency? Simply this; If those useful classes refuse n Mbmit to 
his extortion of ten, twelve, fifteen, eighteen or thirty per cent., he puis 
his money in any one of the hundreds of investments that grow out of tin 
pestiferous theory that justifies and makes respectable his robbery of indus- 
try, fete it lie there producing its certain though smaller profits, until his 
itions have resulted in industrial ruin, when he quietly removes it and 
makes twenty, thirty or fifty per cent, by buying up the depreciated valin-s 
Of those Whose ruin lies at his dour. If they accept his termB the final re- 
sult is the same. The bankruptcy ami ruin is sure to come in either event, 
with the same general result-.. 

For the purpose of this exposition, it matters not whether B is an indi- 
vidual operating within a limited Sphere, where his capital, put in the form 
of money, constitutes a sufficiently largo proportion of the whole circula- 
tion to effect a Stringency in the supply by its withdrawal from circulation, 
hi whether he represents the whole of that honorable class who, making 
the effect of the various monetary dialings the study of their lives, are 
known under the ijeneric title of financiers, the result in both cases is the 
same. 

And this is what we call our periodical revulsions in trade, that those 
wiseacres who assume to lead the people, content themselves with saying 
have always been, and. in the nature of things, always will and must be ; who 
admit that money i« not value, but only its representative, but deplore the fact 
that time out of mind it has been dealt in as value, aud because onrfathers 
were unwise or weak, we must continue so; and who, when confronted with 
the question so pregnanl with great results, lor weal or woe, cower and 



DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 



447 



shrink fn.'in a contest with the cormorants who ore eating the vitality out oi 
one civilization prato ill. out the sacred rights d£ propeity., and prom 
the suffering innasoa that when this generation has passed away in mi.- 
privation ami degradation, some indefinable accident or circumstance is to 
revive trade and give cur successors a few years out of their lives of a 
fevi iriflh, fitful, Meeting prosperity , and say that we must accept the situation 
an philosophically aa we can, and without adnptiug any measures to bring 
il about, wait in faith and patience for the good time coming. 

How is it tint men who can readily compute the difference between two 
and I' 'in , who rim ti,|k and write by the hour and week most learnedly and 
eaiitnglij about the laws of trade, ami denounce, with lofty disdain ami 
hitler invective, as "mischievous bu>y bodifii and communists,'' those who 
liceko that attention shall bo given to the plea of suffering iudustry for a 
bearing ; how* is it that these haughty dictators of public opinion cannot Bee 
the difference between freedom of comuieice in values and freedom of com- 
merce in money : between absolute ownership by the producer of the product 
of the lubor Qi his humls, which every poison hj equally free to create 
by his toil, and wliieh, therefore, cannot be monopolized except by the a'- 
Of money, and the absolute ownership of the circulating mud in in which no in- 
dividual can make without being liable to the painB and penalties provided 
against counterfeiting ; circulating medium made and furnished exclusively 
by the, (iovernmeiit M ilm highest exercise of its sovereignty ; furnished in 
Ubitraruy limited quantities, distinctly and explicitly to facilitate ex- 
changes .- which while used and treated as such is an unalloyed help 
and beneficence ; but when diverted from this, its purpose, an unmiti- 
gated curse, furnishing the appliance by which the rewards of in- 
dustry are seized by those who do not toil ? When recognized as 
circulation and not as value, it is the means by which the sel£shueBS of 
human nature may be toned up to a noble ambition to add to the general 
k of comfort and enlightenment ; when recognised as value, it is tie 
temptation to, and inspiration of every rapacious disregard of publie right 
and private virtue, dividing the state into the three classes of luxurious, prufil 

. despotic extortioners ; welt fed, senile, mere. mury t inn-servers ; and 
half rebellious, half submissive, half starved serfs. 

\\ "bile inon.v is hold to be a representative of value, or retains any of the 

.i>-i.-nsiics witb which the h-w and our civilisation clojkea it, the 

charging of mure than tag conventially fixed rates for the use of the value 
■T capita] it represents, is as much an act of flagrant robbery, despite the 
halo of respectability that custom and immunity throws around it, as the 
seising by fore.' and arms would ■ je - The practice jig the outgrowth of that 
natural Belfishness and greed ol power ID man, that led him in the state "I 
barbarism to prey upon his fellows; that in the infancy of civilizatioOj 



448 



DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OK INDUSTRY 



toned the hand of the strong against the weak, and then against esdi other, 
until by conquest and compromise the strongest was pots] the top, with the 
rest graded in accordance with their several powen in the several ranks of 
nobility around him, and kingdoms were founded. What avails it tn the 
betterment of the condition of humanity, if, nndei the inspiration of Chris- 
tianity, »v haw overthrown monarchies, and erected republics rounded 
upon theories drawn from that inspiration; while, regardless <•' its teach- 

ings, we permit the same social wart" continue, merely substitutmg money 
wrenched from its origins] purpose and uses, for the iwm>1 <<f tin- frc. ■ 
Oau any one believe that >•■ eminent can continue to exist, while thi 

,nls of industry are wrested from ths industrial dast>ee, and distributed 

among those who do not produce at all ; and among these, the largesl por- 
tion going to the class the furthest removed from the |>roducer, while to 

those win, ise hiind.-s.and ingenuity, arid h>bof, actually create all 
glebed except jast what will maintain them in working condition, tin 

of their compensation being practically held t<> bo the dead level <>f starva- 
tion wages? It has been said (so completely is the truth oi these promisee 

confessed) that ho who will devise a moans by which the interest ehar 
tipon borrowed capital for industrial uses will sol exceed sue per cento snd 
at the same time, keep the supply sufficient," would be wbfthy of a menu. 
ment in gold." Now we an no. writing with a vftwtosjtrning this moon- 

ment, for we do not claim to be financial •■xj.eits, even in the degraded Bf 
and upon the low plane alike of morality aud intelligence on which reason- 
ing on that subject is made to rest; Imt with an honest desire to fix atten- 
tion n 1 1. in some of the primary and indisputable facts, that, glossed overand 
hidden by the mistiii' at inns and unmeaning generalities that are ».• weH 
adapted and so pertinaciously applied to frighten the public mind from the 

contemplation of the Subject, arc hist si^-hr. of in all discussions of the topic 

whether by President, representative, journalist or pamphleteer. 
From the premises we Itave tried to make clear, these points msj be n> 

garded as unquestionable : 

Firs'. — Capital in- the result of industry, and consists of the values pro- 
duced over and above the amount of those values consumed in their pro- 
duction. And tiiis value is rightfully, and with entire safety t<> "tiers, the 
eneiasrVe property bfthose who produce it, or of their heirs or assigns, aud 
may be created ad libitum. 

Second. — The owner of capital, if the use of it is asked for by others in 
aid of their industry, is entitled to some compensation for its use, the 
amount of which compensation is a question m hi. -h ha* been held to cctte 
properl\ within the purview of the authorities who represent the sovereignty 
of the people to be determined and fired by statutory decree. This odtt< 
peusation is called hltereflt, 



DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OP INDUSTRY 



149 



Third. — At* a part of the prerogative of ownership, the holder may loan 
his capital or withhold it, as he elects. For while, as a part of the body 
1 < -Li tic, it ia his duty and interest to use his means, as without injury to his 
own interests to advance those of all, yet as compulsory loans for other 
than public purposes would be a restriction of his right of absolute owner- 
ship, aud so weaken the incitement to industry, the instincts of civilization, 
acting upon reasons growing out of the ex perience of ages, leaves the owner 
of capital to accept the inducements offered for its use or to reject them, as 
he may elect ; because, if he does the latter, all others are free to and will 
create values to supply the place of hip, and his lack of sympathy with his 
fellows, or miserly unwisdom, will leave him almie among- men, while so- 
ciety moves on as independently of him and as unaffected by him as if he 
were no part of it. 

Fourth. — Money, from time immemorial, lias boon the iikmImiim through 
which men have made their exchanges of values, and in our civilization, 
while in practice little if any progress has been made, in theory its char- 
; i < - 1 < - r and uses have come to be clearly and distinctly defined as representa- 
tive of value for a medium of exchange or currency. 

Fifth. — Unlike capital, money is not value, being only representative of 
value for a purpose, as above defined. It is not a commodity to be pro- 
duced ad libitum. Its quantity or volume is determined and limited by the 
sovereign authority. The same authority also regulates the currency, de- 
fines not only the amount and conditions under which it shall circulate, but 
the material of which it shall be made. The individual who attempts to 
increase the supply by the same application of labor and ingenuity, as he 
not only may but is encouraged to apply to the creation of valueR, corn, 
wheat, wagons, ateaui engines, or anything else, is obnoxious to the pains 
and penalties provided for the punishment of counterfeiting. 

8i#th — This being the undisputably true definition of money, it follows 
as certain!)' that using it as value, dealing in it as a commodity, must pro- 
duce very different effects upon the interests of the community from those 
following dealing in real values. Money having grown to be the only medium 
in the exchanges of values, and being supplied in limited quantities for 
that purpose, it i8 necessary that to secure the benefits intended to be de- 
rived from its use in the steady sufficiency of the supply and the uniformity 
of its representative value, it should be used for that purpose, and for no 
other. Therefore, 

Seventh.— While a capitalist possessed of half a million of dollars worth of 
wheat, and withholding it from sale or exchange, can make but a very 
slight and ephemeral disturbance of the relations of trade, and will cer- 
tainly lose by deterioration and loss of" place in the market, by stimulating 
thfl production of wheat much mote himself than any loss he can inflict on 
29 Statistics. 



450 



DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 



his fellows; yet, if he sells hiB wheat, and having received half a million <>l 
circulating medium lor it refuses to purchase other values with it at pre- 
vailing prices, or to loan it at the rates fixed by law, because they are ad- 
judged to be the normal and equitable rates and which the. law should fix 
and enforce, because it reserves to itself the sole power of creating and 
regulating the enrrency, he will, by such hoarding or withholding from 
circulation this amount of money, by the stringency he so creates, force up 
the cost of its use, unsettle values, disturb the movements of trade, par- 
alyze industry and breed panic, confusion and ruin, lees or more limited 
in extent or wide-spread, jiiBt in proportion as the amount of circulation 
withheld is a less or greater proportion of the whole volume of the cur- 
rency furnished. 

The inevitable conclusion then reached by anything like honest reasoning 
is, that the government should see to it that the currency is used as cur- 
rency, and not as value. The authority reposed in it to rogulute the em - 
rency, imposes upon it the duty to protect the useful classes of soeic-ty against 
the glaring and atrocious violations of the laws of equity ami fair dealing 
in this direction, by which the industrious laborers and the honorable in- 
dustrial business men of the country are driven from their high estate u 
the missionaries of a noble progress, and made the mere tenders to a horde 
of rapacious usurers, stock and money gamblers, S|>eculato is in other men's 
■earnings and creators of monopolies and false values, who arc rapidly ab- 
sorbing the richest heritage God ever gave to a people, and driving that 
people out by thousands as wandering nvmada, vainly seeking leave to toil 
for bread, in the midst of plenty that would have put to shame the Hebrews' 
promised land. 

By every consideration of fair deduction, this looks us fully and fairly in 
the face as the point at which to begin reform. Money withheld from cir- 
culation for the purpose of affecting prices of values or rates of interest, 
should be by legislation, backed by effective execution, declared forfeited and 
confiscated. The robber who steals a horse or a watch is not permitted to 
profit by his crime, yet all the offenses in the calendar of crimes since the 
organization of the country have not produced so much mischief and de- 
moralization as has been inflicted upon it in the last eighteen months, as a 
consequence of the abuses growing .-ut erf dealing in money as a com- 
modity. 

It is time, full time that the wretched twaddle of statesmen and jouTOal- 
ists nboul I xpansion, contraction, coin or paper came to an end, and that 
they meet the "impending crisis'' honestly and courageously. A few years 
more and it will be too late for peaceful and orderly solution. Let us by 
reference to notorious facts look al the effect produced. One of the lead- 
ing citi?ens of the western part of the State, who in a large holder of su- 



DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 



451 



b urban improved property, Bays that "n<.> one jn his uoighlMtthood expects 
to borrow money at Icsb tlian ten per cent,, even on real estate mortgage/' 
and that "the coat of discount* on paper, notes and bills or drafts, ut IV.mi 
thirty dayB to four months, what with the interest (at legal rates) all. >wa 
to cover taxation, exchange, re-exchange, &.c, the rates will range from 
seven to nine per cent, in the National banks, and this for the very beet 
i •uiimiereial paper." Now, when there is added to this the other well 
known fact that a general rule prevails that a dealer with the bank is ex- 
pected to keep to hie credit a line of deposits, approximating in a greater 
orleeB degree, the line of his discounts, it can very readily be peon that 
the assertion of Representative Mitchell, erf Tioga, in debate last winter 
on the usury laws, that "the average cost to industry for discounts in the 
National banks is at least ten per cent.,'' is not in excess of the truth, if it 
is not under it. 

Then, again, we have the State banks, the savings banks, trust compa- 
nies, Ac, whose usual charges must be largely in excess of these; for as 
much as the Comptroller of the Currency has been compelled to note in hie 
report for 1872, page 27, under the caption "Savings Ranks," that savings 
banks in some portions of New England, New York and Pennsylvania, as 
well as other States, have recently become formidable competitors of the 
National banks, by offering much larger rates of interest for deposits than is 
usual in well regulated banks, and "for the purpose of attracting the deposits 
of business men and others, * * * the custom prevails, to a large extent, 
of offering high rates of interest for deposits before dividends have been 
earned." * * * " The result is that savings deposits are, to a considera- 
ble extent, endangered by investments in Btreet paper, in loans to the mana- 
gers of such institutions, and in speculative securities/' Beside this evidence 
of the Comptroller of theCurrency, there 1h abundant evidence that the rates 
in these institutions are much higher than in the National banks. One 
fact we will mention in illustration. In'the summer sf 1873, we were dis- 
cussing with a member elect of the present Congress, on the street of one 
of our inland industrial towns, this question of the inequitable distribution 
of the rewardB of industry, aud had mentioned the fact that our investiga- 
tions had shown that the average income of workmen was under $450 per 
year, and the difficulty of reconciling that result with the assertion of an 
eminent statistician, that "seventy out of every hundred of those who go 
into industrial enterprises, with capital ranging from five thousand to fifty 
thousand dollars, fail," and asked his opinion as to the correctness of the 
latter statement. He said he believed the estimate was fully within the 
truth, and proceeded, as nearly as we can recall his words, as follows : 
"All the appliances promising, and which were intended by legislation to 
aid industry and facilitate the distribution of its rewards, are wrested from 



45a 



DISTRIBUTION OK REWARDS OF INDUSTRY 



their purpose, and turned into instrumentalities of oppression and extor* 
tion by the inexorable spirit of competition and brutal lust of gain, that 
through "in financial legislation and customs have become the leading 
characteristics of ourbtuuneM activities: Practices in usury, that fifty years 
since would have consigned the man engaging in them to exclusion from the 
recognition of honorable men, have beeottti so common, so shameless and 
bO successful, that the public sense of honor cowers in the presence of 
greed, made bold and aggressive by immunity iVmu penalty. You need 
iu>t go far to find the reason why seventy out of every hundred who enter 
upon industrial enterprises with small capital come to grief, or why the ave- 
rage income of (hose whose only capital is their brains and sinows will not 
reach $450 per j e u . while tin- moat economical estimate of the cost of the 
decent maintenance of a family cannot be brought within six hundred dol- 
lars per year. All you have to do is to look across the street at that build- 
ing with the sign "Savings Bank" on the frosted glass of its windows; 
that in an institution chartered by the State for the ostensible purpose of 
in. .unaging the working classes to husband their resources. They cau de- 
posit their savings there at low interest in small sums, relieved of the diffi- 
culty of finding small investments. The difference between the low rates 
paid and the legal rates they should receive are adjudged to be about snfti 
cfent to Cbvei es. Their charters are applied lor and granted, aw kj 

semi-benevolent institutions; yet, in a live years' practice at the bar of this 
county, I have come to know that the first time a producer borrows money 
tlimc is the beginning of the end to him, and that his failure sooner or later 
is as sure as anything can be, except death and taxes." The venerable 
Benjamin Batman, late editor of the Miner*' Journal, told Ufl last year "that 
it was within his knowledge that one bank (a State bank) had made Buch 
enormous profits by thcBe practices that, to avoid attracting attention to 
the matter, they, at least on one occasion, disposed a large amount of their 
funds among the directors or stockholders, for the pur/mse uf reducing Ihr 
apparent profits or dividends down to ten per cent, fvr the half year. Tin- 
records of nearly, if nut quite, every county court in the State will show 
the prevalence of the practice of taking enormous usuries in the form of 
itus" and interest on bonus, in suits for the recovery of judgements m 
■cut throat" notes and other forms of confessed judgments, bonds and even 
mortgages, in which the defence has plead usury as a set off, and had it 
allowed. Of course there is no means of estimating how many, or to what 
amount persons MG I tXtOttOd UpOD in this manner, but the frequency of such 
pleas being mado good, and the fact that one who makes such a plea 
places an obstacle in the way of his borrowing again, shows indubitably 
that the practice is common and general. It is regarded as entirely within 
the limit* of truth to estimate the average discounts In these two classes 
of institutions at fifteen per cent, per annum. 



DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OP INDUSTRY. 



453 



The next class of money dealerB and generally the must rapacious, are 
those who are classed an private bankers, street and pawn broken, and the 
horde of unprofessional raouey lenders who infest all centers of business 
activity and lie in wait to take advantage of the necessities and sometimes 
ignorance of their neighbors. Two instances are within our knowledge that 
illustrate the methods of their transactions. The first was a ptmotiaieg law- 
yer who was applied to- by the widow of a deceased client who washed to 
borrow five hundred dollars to complete the purchase of a house she was 
buying with the proceeds of a policy upon her husband's life. He told her 
he could get it for her, but she would have to pay one and a half per cent. 
per month for it as money was hard to get. She wanted the money for a 
year ami acquiesced in his terms. The result was that she signed a"cut 
throat" note to this effect. One year after date she was to pay to the loinler 
five hundred and ninety dollars with interest at six per cent from date with 
confession of judgment, and waiver of the benefit ol all laws exempting 
property from sale, «fcc, and ol stay of execution, and with live per rent Tee 
for cost of collection. 

At the time of payment she refused to pay the collection fee, oil the 
ground that she had paid the lawyer twenty dollars for his services at 
the time of the transaction. He sued on tho judgment, and she made her 
defence good, judgment being rendered for the face of the note, $590 OU, 
and six per cent, interest, $35 40, the collection fee being dropped because 
it was proved tu have been nine paid. Of course, had she plead usury, she 
could have escaped the payment of the ninety dollars and interest on it; 
but she either did not know this, or was controlled by her sense of the 
sanctity of her contract. In this transaction the iiscoofft charged is seen 
to have been 30 per cent. 

The second was a similar note payable at sixty days for sixty dollars. 
This was taken by a pawnbroker, for which he charged, and was paid Jive 
tlvllara, just fifty per cent. And we are credibly informed thnt this is rather 
under than over their usual rates. We estimate tho average rates of these 
last named classes at thirty per cent. 

Now, to show the extent of the burden of these drafts upon the produc- 
tive energies of the State, it is only necessary to approximate as nearly as 
may be to the amount of paper discounted in the State in a year. 

Taking the report of the Comptroller of the Currency for 1872, as a guide, 
after making allowance for the percentage of annual increase, we find the 
average amounts of discounted paper in the United States banks of this 
State for each quarter of the year 1870, to have been $86,849,078 74. The 
average time of these discounts we put at ninety days, and the total am onnt 
for the year would be $347,360,314 16, the interest at ten per cent, would 
be $34,736,034 49. 



454 DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OF INDUSTRY 

Of State and savings banks, taking- the Auditor General's report for 1873, 
and making due allowance for increase, ftc.j the line of discounts foi 
1870. would stand ;it. $17,568,487 92. We estimate their average time at 
sixty days, and this will give fin the year, $105,398,927 52. Interest atfif- 
l per cent., $15,809,839 12. Of all other kind of money lenders, as pri- 
vate bankers, street and pawnbrokers, and characters like that we have 
given an illustration of, Mr. liigham estimates the resources to be $1 
090, 990, this is below the usual estimate, most writers, among the in Henry 
C. Carey, putting them much higher ; for the purpose in view, we estimate 
the time of their paper also at sixty days' average, though it is probably 
much shorter, and at an average rate of 30 per cent, interest. This would 
make their annual discounts $361, 175, 781 96, and interest on them$108,:: 
744 53. These give a total aim unit, of discounts in this State for 1870, of 
$813,935,0'-' I 11. at an average cost to industry of 19.5 per cent, on the 
discounts, amounting to $15\f>'.i8,(il;j 10, as drawn from production to pay 
for the use of capital. If six percent, is a fair rale of interest, and that 
had been the average the sum would be $48,835,901 46. 

If our estimates are near the truth, this is au excess of $110,062,713 To. 
Fur every man, woman ami ehild in the State that year, $31 25; for every 
one of the 1,020,544 persons in all occupations, $107 84. To show the 
effect of this drain upon imlm-tn of 13.5 per cent, above legal or equitable 
rates, it is only neoess&ry In refer to some of the statistics of industry in 
the census. Under the head of "rm vhanical and manufacturing industries," 
"Table IX. ( B.J The State of Pennsylvania. By industries." Tin- United 
States census report gives the following totals, viz : 
All industries — Number of establishments 37 ,2iin 

Total hands employed 8H 

Males above IG 256 ,543 

Females above L8 43,712 

Youth 19, •-'32 

Capital employe.! $406 ,821 ,845 

Wages paid 127,976,594 

Materials. | cost of,) 421 ,107 ,673 

Products, (value of. ) 711 .894 ,344 

Deduet from the total product the total cost of materials, and six per 
cent interest on the capital invested, and estimate two pi - to each 

establishment, to (Sake n|> for COSl of super in ten dance and other expenses 
that may aol be included iu the return of material, (which is a liberal mar- 
uin.i and we li.ive, foi every man, woman and child engaged in these in- 
dustries, the annual incoum 

ii; . suppose the earnings of females and youth go to swell the inc 
families, as they usually do, ami in making up the account, estimate the 



DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OK INDUSTRY. 



455 



Value of tlieir earnings as three wiim-n and yiuth to one full wage worker, 
■{the usual estimate, | and we -have, as a result, $156 as the share annual' • 
every adult engaged in these industries, or u the average income of ram:- 
lies. Now, let us take from the apparent profits, as we have thus fooad 
iIh-ih, this 13.5 percent, excess of interest, and see what it shows then. 
In the first place, it gives to each man, woman and child, engaged in these 
industries, still counting two proprietors t" each establishment, $:-c 
per year, against $676 at six per cent. Or, reckoning the female* ami 
youtli as three to each full earner, it gives to emli family, dependnt mm 
them, $(>2T 2S per year, against $756 :tl six pel rent. Let us see if we 
cannot make use of these figures in another shape, that will make p lan er 
still the amount and effect of this harden of usury upon industry. 

Thus : Allowing six per cent, upon the capital employed, and dedadasg 
that six per cent and the cost of materials from the total product, we awe 
as apparent creation of wealth for the year in manufacturing $26»j - 
Of this amount, as per census, there is paid to wages account | 
leaving as apparent profit to the proprietors the amount of JlivClfr.Ml, 
or to each establishment in these industries incomes of $3,712 65. 
when we reiiect that at least To out of every 100 of these are wcall ertrib* 
lishments, in which the hands employed do not number more tbaa fruoi war 
tu six, and in which the incomes certainly do not exceed flJXW yw jmm 
average, this extravagant showing of profit will be at lea* 
With a return rd wages paid that only shows an average »»:«.•. 
wage worker's family of $462 25 per year, if it could onceLfi 
that employers enjoyed average iiicmiies of $3,712 65, and ' i fwAfirad and 
contested by lock-outs and association to resist the demand far an *dv*uv» 
(il 10 or 20 per cent, upon t lie- pittance their workmen feed aei- 

fest injustice and selfishness or worse, of such a coursf wouJ 
them such a storm of general indignation as would iv 
effort. Hut this is not true. Its falsity is absolute ia>.f 

that long and damaging suspensions are constantly occurring iv reebt; 
of audi demands for increase of wages, in which i: 
prove fatal to their success as business men. As men •••■ 
pacity as to enable them to become proprietors cannot be mckumd m • 
sumate ignoramuses, it cannot be supposed that they w 
magnificent profits in resistance to so small a reduct 
concession would be. These facts we regard as strong eOffMb 
the substantial correctness of our information and eatin 

Now let us see what results arc reached on the basil at omrt 
•the average rates of interest paid by production 
we have added to the expenses the legal rate of inU-re 
and most likely are other items of expense or leaks not iu>'l«*4i • 



DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 



census report >>v in our calculations, but certainly none that would materi- 
ally affect the result. We now reduce the apparent profit in these indus- 
tries by the remaining 13.5 per rent, of the 1U.5 per cent, we estimate as 
the fcTflgftgti 'nst for usury. 

This 13,5 per cent, on the capital invested in these industries amounted 
to $54,920,949, leaviir apparent profit to production in them $ v 8,- 

■>'.'.868, or as the apparent income of each of these, 87,200 establishment - 
$2,241 60, 

This, doWfctUWi is veiy near tin- truth. That a few exceptional csLab- 
I isliments had incomes largely in excess of this, of course is true ; but as we 
have before remarked, the vast majority — a greater proportion, certainly, 
than three-fourths, oaanot he put at mora than m average of $1,200. All 
the indications point to tin's BOUClttSion* Notice that many of the lATgfil 
establishments, the proprietors of which make a display of wealth tjbal 
inconsistent with these figures, are con :..-.-i ••■ I through those proprietor- 
with banking institutions and participate in their profits. Also that the 
-sitv (©I borrowing falls upon the operator with small capital, and is 
such a drain upon his rOBOUOOJ that he is frequently driven to the Avail in 
his attempts to struggle against hie fate, and sinks at last to become the 
wage worker to some giant i-orpojtation, where an aggr e gation uf capital 
relieves it of this burden of usury. Ami further, that this aggregation of 
capital, encouraged inordinately by the legislation that ha* prevailed dur- 
ing the last fifteen years, has been and still is rapidly absorbing the devel- 
opment of our grout industrial resources, as iron, coal and the mor«' promi- 
nent manufactures, adding its competitive power to the obstacles in the 
way of individual enterprise ] and we think that no one, upon reflect 
will see cause to doubt the Approximate correctness of these general re- 
sults. 

Wc have sought carefully for data upon which to base an • I" the 

number of persons whose entire or chief income ifl derived from dealing in 
money iu this State, and although no inquiry could be more difficult to pur- 
sue we believe we KM Dot far wrong in putting the number at 2,000. This 
is not intended to include the subordinate officers or clerks in banks and 
banking houses but only those who as principals participate' in the profits 
and the number is not far from the mark. 

Wo luno (hoi, u thfi actual diltribatioa Ol the rewards of industry in this 
State the following certainly not flattering exhibit. 
2,000 dealers in money average income, letfl expenses fof Clark- 

ing, &c.,eacli $27,4004" 

87,240 manufacturing establishments average incomes each. . '_' ,241 60 

277,524 inuinihirtniing wage v-orkers, adult males or full 

earners incomes each 4i! L 10 



DISTRIBUTION" OF REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 



457 



Of course we do not claim that this exhibit presents the facts with mathe- 
matical exactuess, bat every thoughtful and observant person can see from 
uur data and his own experience that it is uot far from the trutli. 

In further illustration we have prepared the following table as showing 
the distribution of the proceeds of industry in 18T0, taking from the census 
return of mechanical and manufacturing industries for Pennsylvania over 
one hundred of the representative occupations returned, being all that nTe 
given as employing five hundred hands and upward. 

In this table we have estimated as nearly as our judgment, aided by gen. 
tfral knowledge would admit the probable cost of incidental expenses not 
1 1 -turned in the cost of materials. 

The first column shows the number of establishments returned. 

The MCOnd column shows the average number of hands to each establish- 
ment. 

The third column shows the estimated incidental expenses. 

Tlie fourth column shows the percentage of incidental expenses in the 
total product after deducting material. 

The fifth column shows the average earnings of hands for the year, coun- 
ting the females and youth as three to one full earner. 

The sixth column shows the percentage of wages in the total product 
after deducting material. 

The seventh column shows the apparent average income of each establish- 
ment after deducting cost of material, incidental expenses, wages, and eigh- 
teen per cent, calculated on the product, after deducting material for dis- 
counts. 

The eighth column shows the percentage of income of establishments 
calculated on the product after deducting material. 

The ninth column shows the apparent forfeit on the capital investment 
after deducting incidental expenses, cost of material, wages, and eighteen 
per cent, on the product less material for discounts. 

In making up this table we have put the average rate of interest it 
eighteen per cent, for greater convenience in the calculations. 



DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 



459 






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DISTRIBUTION OF REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 



It will be observed that in this table we base all our calculations upon 
the amount produced in the occupations given, in the time for which the 
returns are made Therefore, the cost of materials are deducted from the 
total product, and the percentages are calculated upon the remainder. The 
18 per cent, discounts are also calculated upon this remainder, rather than 
upon the capital, because for obvious reasons we believe it represents more 
nearly the average volume of the line of discounts as demonstrated from 
the data already referred to. The proportions given as the result of the 
calculations are big with significance as bearing upon the subject we are 
discussing. Of the products of industry for the year, it is thus seen that 
leaving the 9.8 per cent allowance for incidental expenses out of the ac- 
count, 246,015 workingmen receive 40.9 per cent.; while 29,249 establish- 
ments where labor iB employed receive 31.3 per cent.; while capital in its 
various forms, as of profit on money invested, 28.5 per cent., and discounts 
on business paper, rendered necessary to the business man by that dealing 
in currency as a commodity which wo have been deprecating, 18 per cent. 
Showing, as the share capital receives out of the rewards, or product of 
industry, 46.5 per cent. We have already given the estimated number of 
of those who deal in money in the State at two thousand. Let any fair 
minded thinker contemplate these results even for a few moments ; not 
with a view to find some captioiiBj hyprocritical plea upon which to pooh! 
pooh! them out of sight because they are unpleasant; but honeBtly and 
bravely, with a resolve to fathom the real truth and courage to confront it, 
and see if he does not feel in all their ghastly insincerity the wretched twad- 
dle and driveling fatuity of the manner in which questions of finance are 
discussed from President's messages down through all the grades of the 
tenders to the money kings, even to the journals that will shout ptnans in 
honor of cent per cent. ShylockB for the 6mall patronage of a twenty dollar 
a year advertisement. 

But the wretched failure to secure equitable distribution, through the 
kind of legislation inspired by the theories that prevail over common 
sense, among those whose opinions control the character of that legislation, 
and still stronger demonstration of the truth of our position, is found jf we 
remove from the foregoing tables, those occupations in which tbe very 
large incomes and small proportionate percentage of profits on capital in- 
vested, show the possession in the operators of capital in sufficient amounts 
either as corporations or wealthy firms, to place them generally above the 
necessity of borrowing at usurious rates. A glance over the table will 
show to any one which these are, and their elimination from the table 
leitves as the average incomes of the remaining establishments about $1,900 
per year. 



DISTRIBUTION OP REWARDS OF INDUSTRY. 461 

But it is needless and would be useless to extend the illustration of the 
manner in which the rewards of industry are distributed further. 

Those who have sufficient sincerity to desire, and sufficient courage to 
seek, a solution of the problem of social reform, who are not so wedded to 
the leadership of the money kings that they are unwilling even to inquire 
whether change is needed, will find sufficient as it is to aid them in their 
inquiries. As for the rest, were the subject held before them, arrayed in 
the clearness of a sun-beam, they would not see it nor look at it ; but, os- 
trich like, hiding their heads under the bush of ignoraut and insolent pre- 
judice, imagine their ungainly bodies are also hidden from the retribution 
that nothing can shield them from but the greater wisdom and self-sacri- 
fice of their truer and braver compeers. 

We will only note that if it is a just, normal and healthy distribution that 
gives to the actual creators of wealth who are beyond doubt the workers, ave- 
rage incomes of $473 12 ; to their employers, who are next in usefulness, 
five times as much, or $2,379 10; to the money dealers, who are of no use 
at all, fifty-eight times as much, or $27,460 47. If, we say, this is a 
healthy distribution, calculated to secure the permanent peace, happiness 
and progress of the nation, we should go on as we are. If it is not, the 
sooner the leaders of public opinion quit their twaddling, cease to re-echo 
the misleading platitudes that are vented as financial wisdom in the selfish 
and conscienceless circles of the money dealers, and make an honest effort 
to find a real remedy, swift, sure and conclusive, the better for themselves, 
the country and humanity. 



DISTRIBUTION OP REWARDS OP INDUSTRY. 



463 




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ACTUM, EARNINGS VERSUS QUOTED WAGES. 



ACTUAL EARNINGS OF WORKMEN VERSUS QUOTED WAGES. 



In the foregoing paper and tables, we Lave given the distribution of the 
rewards of industry as they are determined by the best data within our 
reach. In this, we propose to give the rates of wages collected by tin- 
Massachusetts Bureau, in many foreign countries, and in that State. This 
collection is the result of great expense and effort, and was intended, M 
explained by that Bureau, to show how the compensation received by labor 
in other countries compares with Massachusetts. We might have added 
to the curious interest attending this labored collection by putting in it the 
'(in >ted wages in Pennsylvania ' This wc have not done, however, because 
we Btill adhere to the opinion expressed last year, that it is little different ■•■ 
to the result we are called upon to reach, what the wages in foreign coun- 
tries are, and how they compare with oura, whether higher or lower. The 
only use made of such comparisons having been to make texts to be quoted 
in our journals, upon which discourses are founded, glorifying the superior 
treatment and condition of our working classes over those of other coun- 
tries, a sort of "whistling to keep our courage up," while our streets swarm 
with mendicants, forced to become such by a system that has thrown at 
least one-third of all our workiug population idle and kept them so for a 
year and a half. We still believe the plan we adopted last year ia the best, 
and every thing wo have since learned has confirmed us in the conclusions 
we then reached. We, therefore, along with this collection of curiosities 
from the Massachusetts report, reproduce the pages showing our data, 
classifications and conclusions of last year. 

Only adding, by way of further introduction, that extensive trawl 
through the State, and personal observation and inquiry compels us to say, 
that to reach the actual earnings of this year, a deduction of at least 3o 
per cent, must be made from our last year's figures. 

Extracts from last year's report, page 345, Schuylkill county. 

A table showing the amount actually earned and received by the several 
clauses of mine workers during this year of high wages, winch our cl.. 
ration and the census will enable ns to give, very closely approximating 
the truth, will be very instructive ami suggestive. The following table will 
show the 



ACTUAL EARNINGS VERSUS QUOTED WAGES. 



465 



ACTUAL AVEBAOE EARMNCS Of EACH CLASS KOR THE CENSUS YEAR. 



93 74.78 : Minors by contract 

2 49.85 i Miners by wages 

2 14.16 I Inside laborers 

190.3 I Out-side laborers 

1 07.08 i Boysinflida 

«0. 31 ' floya outside 

Nuiriborof miners, laborers and boys. . 
N'mniii'i- and |»y ol' full time hand*. . . 



5,056 $3,890,401 26 

1,134 428,52121 

2,249 734, 687 80 

2,550 763, .547 .,7 

886 144,714 80 

3,094 379,021 27 



118, 948 87 
2,809 31 
4,816 45 
5,005 65 
8 i.s Tfl 
2,464 79 



14,959 5, 340, WW 00 
B19 698,880 00 



35, 013 79 



Totals of oensiiH tables. 



I. -..77s 6,030,774 00 



■571 68 

KM '■' 

163 34 

122 50 



OTJR ESTIMATE Of HUE MONTHS AS A JTLL YEAll'S VOHK COKROBOKATED. 

This table fully corroborates our estimate of 9 months of 24 days each as 
a full average year's work; by dividing the total amount paid by the total 
earnings of one day under this classification and these wages, it will be seen 
that the average time made in this year was a little over 152J days. This 
gives less than 6$ months of 24 days eachTor the year. When it is remem- 
bered that at least 6 months of this time, from the middle of June to the 
middle of December, 1869, under the impulse of high wages, everything 
was pushed to its utmost capacity, and from that until the first of April, 
1870, three months, work was not entirely suspended at any time, and the 
most of the time pretty full, this shuwing will be very BUggestivc of the 
interruptions attendant upon the trade, and go far to vindicate the average 
adopted here. If, in the ten months from June 1, 1869, to April 1, 1870. 
six months of which work was pushed to the fullest capacity, and the re- 
mainder sub jert t" very little mi- than the usual interruptions, only six 
months ami less than a half could be made, it is hard to understand how 
the general average for twelve months could be more than nine. 

In the year 1870 there were but five months worked as per this table. 

APPROXIMATED AVERAGE EARNINGS \H 1870. 

The following statement shows an approximation to the amount of the 
average earnings of each class of workmen during these live months. The 
same rule that reduces the time made in the year to nine months, when "no 
unusual obstacles intervene, holds good here, and this five months cannot 
he counted as more than an average of four. More especially is this the 
since work slacked off very greatly through the latter half of Decern- 
30 Statistics. 



AlTtAL EARNINGS VEKSUS &R0TEI) W u, i 

ber. The wages averu ged For * 1 »< - live niuiiths eighteen and > m- -t>' ,i h per 
'. below the basis. The account, therefore, stands thus, viz : 

Miner? by C&nteict, uinH y-six days, at $2 80.65 per day $275 18 

Miners by w a gee Ifr. . . ,d$.. J 01,1 ...do I8| !•"• 

InBide laborers do do.. 1 65.5 ...do 158 88 

(iiitsi.le laborers do do.. 150.15. ..do IU II 

ACTIAI. A\T.H.M,K KAHNINOS, 1 87-. 

a the deduction of 8| per Cent, ftach foe the months of April and Hay, 

Ws ao average d'-din'tioii for the year, of 1.37-5 per cent., tin: following 

will be the actual average earnings, supposing <h-.- average '''"' mtxtt to 

have been "ur estimate of nine month.-, of twenty-four days each, for the 

y-'iu ; 

Miners ou contract, 216 days, at $2 B6.83 $634 67 

Miners on wages do 2 13.66 , 461 37 

Inside laborers do 180.80 390 52 

Outside laborers d 16-1.40 35510 

Boys inside do «8.80 l"l 30 

Boys outside do fl«.«0 ' l-P v, 

For the rest of our extracts we will give the whole "I the pages as they 
are, explanations and all, thai the reasons for the conclusions we reached, 
may be seen. 



Ll'ZERME COrVlY. 

AVh.u ii.-i- dd nt'ihc causes ami Kse of the W6rkilignicn's Benero- 

lent Association in Schuylkill county will . 1 1 ■ i ■ I \ also to Lir/miio and Car*- 

■ c-v'ii'|)t that the un»voment in the tWO latter begun bind rnlminali'd 
.•arli.-r. Win!- S.-lmylkill and Northnmh-:l.rinl, to'ge'ftier wifll Coitllhbii 
■seem to have becorne ripe for \he movement Just ttt the time when what 
be --.ii'1 i" li experimental inovetifeutB in the iippcV counties 

had prepared the way for o'taore' thorough, practical arid benevolent oi* 
j uiizfition than hid hitherto been knmvu. The gront raining companies 

titOi bjf Concert ftf action thflrt enabled tln-m to cmitrol, to a jrreat decree, 

the issue of (•■mt<'>ts h etwee n employers ami employed, did much to pro- 
vent the isolated conflicts ami strikes that in Schuylkill and Uic othei 
lower counties were so prolific o,f dissension, bit^rnesa and disaster. The 
sequence was, as the figures we arc about to present will Bhow, that at 
the time the great movements wq have hern treating of in Schuylkill coin- 
menccd, the condition of labor in tin- northern field was muofa better. The 
census tables jrire for Luaerne county, as follows, viz : 
Total number of collieries returned 1>0 



ACTUAL KtfKNlMGS VERSUS iiI'-OTED WAI 

Total hands employed 28 ,016 

Total men above ground i 772 

Total men under ground 16 ,588 

Total boys above ground L ( 6?C 

Total boys under ground 1 I 

The classification of workmen iu Schuylkill ci unity was lusud tijmu in- 
formation derived frum personal inquiry anil very intimate knowledge of 
the trade there. In this and the other anthracite counties, modifications 
are needed to meet the different conditions existing, and to show these dif- 
ferences (in part ) tin- following comparative table is given, collated from 
the census tables : 



COMPARATIVE TaUi.E 0* CBSSOfl BBWCBHS FOB aNTHHa.i IE i-uVSTies. 

__ _ ! 









-? V 



■1 



ft 

h \l - 



■ I 



if 



Carlion 

I 1-IUUlllllL 

Dmiplilii 

LaaevM 

NuriliuiiilKTlainl . 

>-lill>!«lll 



4M..T4 

i.wi.aw 

3. MR. 1*4 






. £» > 



t.v:.:ai 
m.aei 



rat &S H 

•IM I l.l-.i 

i , it: 

1,187 H.lill 1.0M 



imi wo.Mfl 

M K.2T1 

n .iT.i-i 



Xf.i 
SUil 

1 B, I 
! 



:ec.2 

171 






■ 



.... M.SK 



0,014 









■ 



Iii collieries so large as the average in Luzerne and Carbon, the Dumber 
of j>ersoiis who are called full time hands must be largely in excess of thoBe 
in the smaller collieries of Schnylkifl, Northumberland and Columbia. 
The statement of Mr. Sharpe, in the Appendix, gives the number at his 
colliery at 29, The outside and inside superintendents mentioned are 
taken to be breaker bosses and mining bosses, as they are not others 
specified, lie only gives the wages of the engineers, machine superini 
dent, stablemen, «fcc. Tbe.se. we put at his figures, and the rest we estimate 
at wages proportionate with |he general estimate for collicrios of the Lu- 
zerne county class. His statement would show 29 full time hands to ei 
322 employed. Hut as his colliery is a little larger than the average of all 
in the couuty — that being 311.3 hands to the ocjliery — we rednCe tin: nurn- 
ber of engineers by one to each colliery, making the total 2fj instead oJ 29, 
The full time hands to be deducted in this county from the whole number 
of bands, with their pay, will tfcereforG be as follows, viz: 

Mining bosseB, 1 to each colliery, at $1,500 00 ... $135,000 00 

i'O IS.-ak.-i- do do 1,200 00... 1 OS, 000 00 

90 Machine superintendents., .do I ,200 00 108,000 00 



rUAL EARNINGS VERSUS QUOTED WA( 

90 Carpenters, 1 to each colliery, at $1 ,000 00 . 

180 Ticket bosses, 2 do €75 ,00 . 

540 Stablemen, &c, 6 do 675 00 . 

1 ,440 Engineers, 16 do 825 00 . 

2,520 



90 ,000 00 
121 ,500 00 
364,500 00 

1 ,188,000 00 



2,115,000 00 



By deducting this amount from the total wages paid, it will be seen that 
the miners, laborers and boys receive Ill .154 ,206 00 

And by deducting from the whole number given in the census, 28,016, the 
Bbove2,529fuU time hands, we have 25,496 miners, laborers and boys to whom 
it is paid. Now, we assume that the proportions of the classes, and the 
wages represented as having been paid at Mr. Sharpe's colliery, as per his 
statement, presents a reasonably close approximation to the general ave- 
rage, in these respects, of collieries in his county, as also in Carbon. We 
an 1 , therefore, governed by his figures in making the following table, except 
as to the wages of boys, which we are sure are too high inside, and too low 
outride to be accepted as a fair presentation of the average in the county. 
We make this first table up, with the contract miners daily earnings put at 
$5 00, because that is the amount testified to, both by Mr. Sharpe and Mi 
Waddell : 



Miners on contract 

Minors .ill WEgei, . 

Miners lalx>ror8, (average). 



I 



7,810 
1,403 
4,801 



? 



f 



Laborers inside for company -'■ 305 



Mechanics and help? re outside.. . 
Outside laborers, (ordinary) 
Boys Inalde 



1 , 11.VJ 
1,470 
1,985 



Boys outside 1,070 



139,050 00 

J.886 31 

10,668 -- 

,-,,IK)l ,S", 
2,59* 41 
7,599 00 
2,481 25 
1,252 50 



?7,.rJV"N, ihi 

, KM 80 

1,918,479 00 

900, &33 00 

467,719 20 

1,367,820 00 

440, 836 00 

225,450 00 



J300 00 
4.1W 60 

:«» oo 

3!H 90 
144 60 
808 HO 
225 00 
135 00 



25,498 72, SOT ST ] 14,054,968 60 



The table demonstrates the wages as given in Mr. Sharpe's and Mr. 
Waddell 'b evidence, as entirely too high for an average. It will be seen 
that the amount earned for the year is, at these rates, 11,900,576 60, 
about 27 per cent, too high, or rather, that much more than was actually 
paid. The year's work is put at 180 days, because we estimate 9 months 
of 24 days each as a full year's work ; and inasmuch as all the collieries in 
this region lost two months by suspension in this year, except those of the 



ACTUAL EARNINGS VERSUS QUOTED WAGES. 



469 



two great companies alluded to in the paper on Schuylkill county, we re- 
duce the time proportionately. Ab nine months is three-fourths of twelve 
months, seven and a half months, or 180 days, is throe-fourths often months. 
Now, as the wages of the time-workers purport to be Bworn abstracts from 
Mr. Sharpe'a bookB, we cannot reduce them ; but the daily earnings of con- 
tract miners being only estimated by these witnesses, and their estimates 
being held by the miners themselves as being very greatly too high, it is 
manifest that the reduction must be made there alone. We, therefore, re- 
duce the contract earnings by 27 per cent., and the following table furnishes 
its own evidence of approximate correctness. In this table we also include 
among the miners by wages, the mechanics and helpers, as from their pay 
1 1 1 . • v should rate as skilled workmen. Also, we tbn.w togethai the miners' 
laborers, and company laborers, inasmuch as the difference in the rate of 
their wageB is very trifling : 



Miners on contract 

Miners on wages 

Laborers inside, (average, ) . . 
laborers outside, (average,). 
Boys inside 

ltnys outside 



7,810 

•:,-!-■ 
T.iii.; 

4,470 

].f,70 



•28,506 50 f5.130.309 SO 
(5, 0<I5 75 1,170,838 71 



15,033 2(1 

T,on oo 

•J. 4« i 25 

1,252 50 



1,367.690 36 
446,550 16 
—.-..41:: Q 



lot! as 

476 91! 
BBS 98 

BOB W 

•-34 96 
134 9H 



Number and pay of miners and laborer! . . 25,496 
Number and pay of full time hands 2,520 



61,976 20 11,154,206 00 

2, 110. (MO (W 



Totals of census tables. I 28, 016 



i::,26'..2.h, i»i 



This we think is very close to the truth, both from the manner in which 
it corroborates the testimony of the workmen themselves, (see Mr. Wil- 
liam's letter,) and the demonstration it furnishes of itself, that the wageB 
could not have been higher than are here stated. If there is difficulty in 
reconciling the difference between the estimates so confidently given by 
the operators and these results, and if our figures fail to corroborate them, 
it must be borue in mind that the duty imposed here is as nearly as pos- 
sible to present the truth as it is, and not as we would like it to be. It 
cannot be possible that more money was earned, aud at higher wages than 
are given here for the census year, for the estimate of wages must be kept 
down so as to bring the earnings for the time that must have been worked 
within the amount that was actually paid. That the result thus necessarily 
reached is a corroboration of the workmen's assertions, is a fact for which 
we are not responsible; our duty going no further than to be sure that i 
is re natural and truthful remit, arrived at by honest inquiry and analysis. 



ACTUAL EARNINGS VERSUS QUOTED WAGES. 



471 



DAUPHIN COUNTY. 



ACTUAL AVERAGE KABN1NGS OF EACH CLA8S FOB CENSUS TEAK 



"3 
1 

a 
p 



$2 30 

2 00 

1 83 

1 75 

75 

50 



CXASS. 



Minora by contract . 
Miners by wages . . . 

Inside laborers 

Outside laborers. . . . 

Boys inside 

Hoys outside 



'4 

a 

3 



415, 
129 ' 
379 
309 

90 I 

62 



if o. and pay of miners, laborers and boys ... 1, 384 : 

Number and pay of foil time hands. 32 

Number deducted from census tables j 316 t 

Totals of census tables. 1,782 i 



if 

si 



15 



rf 

5 o 



■ • 

$954 50 

258 00 

693 57 

540 75 

67 50 

31 00 . 


$204,153 94 

' 55,181 04 

148,843 49 

115,658 35 

14,486 90 

6,630 28 



2,545 32 






'5 

3 



1491 93 
427 76 
391 40 
374 29 
160. 41 
106 94 



514.404 00 ■ 
27,520 00 "J 



571,924 00 ! 



NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY. 

ACTUAL AVERAGE EARNINGS OF EACH CLASS FOR CENSUS YEAR. 



M 

sr 
"8 



CLASS. 



_- : . i 


$4 20 


2 80 


2 40 


2 20 


1 20 


90 



Miners by contract . 
Miners by Wages . . . 

Inside laborers 

Outside laborers. . . . 

Boys inside 

Boys outside 



No. and pay of laborers, miners and boys. . 
No. and pay of full time bands. 



c 
B 
t 



i 



J 



2 o 

h 



3 a 



•"3 



Total of census returns i 3, 839 



880 i 
274 
808 1 
975 j 

60 ! 

627 ! 

1 


(3,696 00 

767 20 

1,924 80 

2,145 00 

72 00 

564 80 


$590,973 26 

122,671 63 

807,766 35 

342,975 47 

11,512 34 

90,228 95 


$871 56 
447 70 
383 74 
35176 
191 87 
143 90 


3,618 ! 
221 ! 


9,169 30 


1,466,128 00 ' 
186,825 00 

1 , 



1,662,953 00 i 



RECAPITULATION OF LABOR IX ANTHRACITE MINES. «5 



It will be seen by an efttuftiB&tioi] of this table Umt in some of tl 
ties, the amount produced ami paid sue bo exceedingly small tbat 
tin y serve as a demonstration tliat they are not the exclu^-iv bnaiMMt of 
t!i"?«.' engaged in coal mining in them ; those Counties are, more prominent- 
ly than others, Indiana, Jefferson, Somerset and Warren. Lycoming would 
belong (•' the same class, if there ib no error in the return, hut as there is 
well known to be a very large colliery at Ralston, there is Gtidi ntly ci 
al error in making up the babies, We throw but Lycoming then, aloug with 
those named above, in making our classification ami averugi s, to show ac- 
tual earnings for the year in tlii.s industry. The following five returns have 
been received from ope rotor b in the western bituminious field, upon which, 
and the sworn evidence of the- miners at Pittsburg, together with the state" 
inent of the workmen taken In Fall Brook, Tioga county, W« "ill mainly 
base our estimates of the actual average earnings. 
Joseph Turnbull, miners .28, at t i 60 per day, 9 months. 

Do ...... do . . , drivers 2 . . 8 25 do 9 So. 

Do do. . .laborers outside. . .2 2 75 do 11 <l". 

Do do. . Mil.- Iiuud at $60 00 per month, 12 months in year. 

James Rntherfbrd, bosses 2 sit $3 00 per day 

Do ch. miners 311 .' , 

Do do.... boys. 5 J 

Do do,-.-, .pit drive* 1, at 

D" do. . w .tipple men, &C. ». . . . . 'I, at 

ns, Bailey, Dalzcll, & Go., bosses 1 , at 

Do do do minere...i 6fl, at 

tin do. . . . .driverB&laborerfiinfiiile, 10, at 

Do do. . . . . .do.. . . .brakemen t, at 

Do do do teamsters and ttotside 

laborers 6, at 

Do do do trappers, boys. . . 2, at 

Negley & Co., busses and superintendents 2, at 

Do minors 92, at 

Do pit drivers, &c 20, at 

Do brakemen 3, at 

Do teamsters arid labore r8 11, at 

Do trappers, boys 3, at 

Hartley & Marshall, bosses 2, at 

Do do ... . miners 120, at 

Do do pit drivers, &c 10, at 

Do do... teamsters and outside laborers, 3, at 

Do do ... trappers, boys 4, at 

Do do. . . .engineers 2, at 





do, 


2 75 


aw 


■i BO 


do, 


2 -11 


do. 


a 37 


&J. 


1 87 


d... 


2 00 


dO. 


50 


do. 


B 3S 


do. 


3 61 


do. 


2 50 


do, 


2 88 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


T5 


do. 


3 00 


do. 


8 50 


do. 


2 50 


do. 


2 25 


do. 


ao 


do. 


2 00 


do. 



CAPITULATION OF LABOR IN ANTHRACITE MINES. 



The return of Mr. Joseph Turnbull, of Fayette City, in the matter of 
wages, was so much in excess of any other, that it was supposed to be an in- 
advertent error, and he was address' 1 a sie.ond time calling attention to 
it. The following is his reply : 

Fayette Cit\", November 8, 1873. 

Sir : — My last report was as near the truth as I can make it. The facts 
are as follows: Fm- each month of 1873, January and February, $2 50 per 
day ; March and April, $2 75 per day ; May, June aud July, $3 00 per day ; 
A Ugnst, September and October, $3 25 per day, 

Tours, \r., t 

JOSEPH TURNBULL. 

Mr. Tiirnhull gives as the lime made in a year by miners and driver*. '.' 
mouths, (which we put at 24 days each) outside laboreis, 11 months; one 
hand nt $60 per month, full time. 

Lewis, Bailey, Dnlzcll & Co. — all the year, holidays and unforscen a> 
denta excepted. This cannot, in all likelihood, be more than 11 months of 
H i lays days i-mli. 

James Rutherford — 9 months average in the year. 

Hartley & Marshall — bosses constantly employed ; average for remain- 
der, 250 days — about ten montliB and half. 

George Archbold in his evidence at Pittisburg, in answer to questions 
put by the deputy commissioner, puts the proportion of wage-workers to the 
whole, exclusive of boys, at about ion pet nut.— ■boot fuur boys to the 

hundred hands erqn 

Average wages of contract miners, from $2 to $2 50 per day, or $25 to $30 
per pay of two weeks, at 4 cents per bushel rates. 

\ vcrage drivers' wages, $2; pit drivers, $2; boys, from 50 cents to 75 
rents per day. 

Eli Enscoe, (also of PitteboJfg e\idence,) puts the average wages in the 
bank were lie wurks, $2 50 per day for 8 or 9 months, 12 hours per day. 

William Chalmers (same.) "The mines where I work employ 120 
hands. Of those, are 6 drivers, 3 trimmers, 1 is weigh-boss, 1 tippleman, 
1 nudsinaii, 1 pit boss, 1 check weigh master, 2 blacksmiths, 1 carpenter 
and one boy greasing wagons — in all, 18; average earnings of contract 
miners, not exceeding $2 50 per day. Average will be nearer $2 26 ; for 
day-workers, from $3 down to $2 ; in some cases as low as $2 00, and even 
$1 75 pei day.'' 

The workmen at Fall Brook, Tioga county, gave the deputy com tide* 
: -the loll-. wing liguroe : 

To every 100 men there would be about the following proportions of each 
class, with the wages given opposite: 



RECAPITULATION OF LABOR IN ANTHRACITE MINES. 477 



Drivers 14 from $1 25 to $1 80 per •! . \ 

Dumpere 6 1 6'2| 

Slate pickers. o from 1 37 J to 1 50 '■ 

Of other hands at colliery, 

Repairing roads 2 men at 2 00 " 

Carpenter 1 man at 200 

Blacksmith 1 man :it 2 00 

This is about the average for the last five years, except they are ab<>ut 
live per cent. lower than in 1870. 

We are paid 55 cents a ton for mining coal, and the operators claim five 
tone for a day's work on the average, but men more frequently make less 
than more. 

The result of these statements would be about as follows : 

For the western part of the State we take the statements of the operators, 
somewhat modified by those of the workmen in the evidence given at Pitts- 
burg. This is rendered the more appropriate, from the fact that in the an- 
swer to the inquiry made of Mr. Turnbull, it is indicated that these returns 
show the highest earnings made by any, and not in any just sense an aver- 
age; for instance, in his return, pit drivers, whom we put in our classifi- 
cation among first class unskilled labor, are given as receiving $3 25 per 
day, while in his answer to our second application he Bhows the average to 
have been, at his own figures, $2 86 per day. Now if this is to be taken 
as the conception of the operators, of what constitutes average wages, it is 
certainly no violent assumption to conclude that the very flattering rates 
given are the rates paid to the highest earners, at the exceptionally highest 
times in the year. If, therefore, we examine their statements in the light 
of the sworn statements of the workmen, estimating each at its appareut 
value, and striking an equitable mean between tbc two, we will probably not 
be far wrong. 

It will be seen, also, that the cost in wages per ton of coal varies con- 
siderably between the counties favorably and unfavorably situated fox 
shipping, and it is believed that while some of this difference is attributa- 
ble to the more favorable conditions of the seams in some places than in 
others, yet thit more of it grows out of lower prevailing rates of tcagt* in 
the regions less favorably located for market. We, therefore, modify the 
rates in the Pittsburg region as given in the operators' return, by the sworn 
statements of the workmen there, and take that average for the rates in 
all counties in which the cost per ton in wages is $1 or more ; while in 
those in which it is less than $1 we reduce the rates so found by one-half of 
the percentage of average difference. Thus, there are ten counties in which 
the cost per ton in wages equals or exceeds $1 per ton, and these will show 
a general average of cost in wages of $13 38 per ton, while there are eleven 



RECAPITULATION 0F UABOB IN \ VNI RACITE MINES. 



counties in which the cost is less than si per ton iu wages, and these show 
d average of J)0. 3 cents per ton. The remaining fire omniies are 
left out for reasons already [riven Sow, without confusing our statement 
by multiplying figures here, showing the calculations, we present at 
i table Bhowfbg the classification, average daily earnings, ami carnfngs for 
tin? year of each class, with actual average earnings of each person for 
year, leaving? those who Bare te'do so to-test "their-correctnesa npontheri 
explained above . 

i!. iveraob i iBStptea or ba< b i i itbsb: 









J- 



. • •.—. 



B3 00 1 '.esses, it*.-., full time hands 820 

2 SO Skilled workmen 12,888 

2 0(t laborers, first class I.fea 

175 L»l««t>rK,soeonil class 1/166 

K34 



Oti Boys. 
Totals of I lima. 



$2, 47900 

S3, 2U7 50 

3,*H <ki 

H| mi 

am -hi 



*74:t. -loo oa $o.m on 

7,048, 328 US U6 71 

722,588 73 

442:, 402 10 i 3«_ : n 

4*, 825 14 132 21 



10, yi I 40,212 V0 - 



There ran be but. littli 1 doubt that this table approximates very olosely 
the real average ttfagtia for the whole tu-enty-six bituminous coal counties 
ii the (HUMUS year. In some localities they rule higher — in some lower. 
In very few. however, of localities or trades, are quoted wages ever real- 
ized as averages, the tendency being 9U the part alike of employer and em- 
ployed to over-state rather than under-stale them. This fact furnishes the 
reason why, when we attempt to reconcile the quoted with the rea- 

sonably estimated lime worked, Bad the amount actually paid, it is found 
necessary to reduce the quoted rates to bring the earnings for the time 
within the limit of the amount. In the estimate for the bituminous fields, 
the full tame hands arc given bob having been employed 300 days in the 
year ; while at the rates adopted lor the others there is only 218 days and 
a 6tnall fraction mm. Mw results readied in these industries indicate 
following general averages of earnings forlhe year ; being agenda! avfi 
lit the classification and earnings of all ihe coal count ies I 









RECAPITULATION OP LABOR IN ANTHRACITE MINES. 479 

CLASSIFICATION AND AVERAGE EARNINGS IN ALL COAL MINING. 



CLASS. 



! 2 

I 5 

: y 



Full time hands 

.Skilled workmen 

First class laborers . . . 
Second class laborers. 
Boys 



4,626 
31,970. 
12,845 
10,591 

9,385 

69,417 



s- 2 

e | 

a 

■ a 

: o 

. or 

■ a 









J 



6.7 
46.0 
18.5 
15.3 
13.5 



ll 

p 



300. 

185.9 

178.7 

175.5 

169.6 



$852 19 
566 82 
386 64 
320 87 
156 12 



.:■ 1! 



480 



MINING OTHER Til AX COAL. 



MINING OTHER THAN COAL 



In the mining of the following productions, it has not been in the power 
of the Bureau to obtain definite information, in the way of returns, and we 
must ba86 our estimates on a few personal inquiries and common report ; 
the census gives the following figures : 

RETl'RXS FOR MINING OTHER THAN" COAL, FROM CENSUS. 



1-Iiuiii I i . 



Ooop*r 2 

Ip.ii ore 18(t 4,880 

Marble II M 

Nickel 1 48 

Petroleum. 2, 148 4,070 

Rl&te 28, 732 

.stone 135 i,U4 

1 400 






2.408 



2,139 



180 



I 



196 
"22 



K.G40 

2,051,345 

19,890 

6,400 

3,797,818 

896. 447 

446,277 

167,721 



*7,800 

3,944, Hi : 

101,000 

24,000 

18, 045,987 

618,229 

873,879 

235,555 



2,319 



981 I 6,886, i*W 23, H50, .'.7(1 



Iii this statement it will be Been that the earnings in the production of 
petroleum exceed more than twice those in the other products noted. 

Upon application to the Hon. A. L. Campbell, of the House of Rcpre 
sentatives, whose large experience in this pursuit enables hirn to speak 
with authority on the subject, we were informed that the wages paid in the 
oil operations are largely in excesB of any other occupation in the region, 
and that the returns undoubtedly present a correct statement of the facts. 
He estimates the number of foremen at wages at about one to every two 
wells throughout the region, with wages from $3 50 to $5 per day ; stilled 
workmen, drillers, tool dressers, engineers, &c, wages from $3 to $4 50 
per day, and Laborers Irom $2 25 to $3 50 per day ; the two latter classes 
about equally divided in numbers. "We, therefore, give the following as our 
classification, wages and earnings, based upon his information : 



MINING OTHER THAN COAL. 



481 



ACTUAL AVERAGE EARNINGS OF EACH CLASS FOR CENSUS TEAR. 



ff 



Q. 



$4 25 
3 60 
2 60 



Foremen 

Skilled workmen . . . 
Laborers, first class . 



c 
3 

% 



1,074 
1,498 
1,498 



Total of census tables i 4,070 



o g 



8* 

^2. 



14,564 60 
6,243 00 
3,745 00 



13,652 50 



$1,279,109 67 
1,469,246 68 
1,049,461 80 



8,797,818 00 









• 3 



$1, 190 97 
980 80 
700 67 



The seven remaining mining industries are so nearly alike in the amount 
of annual earnings, (with the exception of nickel, which is so small in 
volume as not to affect materially the general average,) that in the absence 
of definite information, we are not inclined to multiply figures to no good 
purpose, and therefore present them all in one table, under the same gen- 
eral proportions as have been adopted in coal mines : 

ACTUAL AVERAGE EARNINGS OF EACH CLASS FOR CENSUS TSAR 



S 

I 



CLASS. 



1 

c 
3 



$2 75 
2 25 




Foremen i 510 

Skilled workmen j 2,900 

Laborers, first class ! 1,797 

Laborers, second class ; 1,805 i 

Boys I 261 



$1,402 50 

6,525 50 

8,144 76 

2,617 25 

182 70 



$397,249 33 

1,429,667 78 

688,937 87 

573,375 45 

40,029 67 



Total of census tobies I 7,273 1 13,872 70 1 3,039,150 00 



$602 25 
492 97 
883 38 
317 66 

153 37 



As this is the conclusion of the consideration of mining industries, we 
give on next page a final recapitulation of the results reached, as follows : 



31 Statistics. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 483 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 

We now give tables showing all the returns received at the Bureau, 
together with the statements received (not written) on personal applica- 
tion. These returns are, as has been before remarked, very few in number, 
and valuable more as showing the necessity of such legislation as would 
enable the Bureau to secure them largely, than for the aid they furnish to 
the work they were intended to promote. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

In this industry we have only received two returns, one from Chester 
county and one from Dauphin county. 

The Dauphin county return is as follows, viz ; 

Foremen 8, at $8 00 per day 

Machinists 6, at 

Carpenters '. 8, at 

Moulders 2, at 

Blacksmiths 1, at 

Painters 1 , at 

Brass moulders ". . . 1, at 

Laborers 8, at 

Engineers... 1, at 

Apprentices and youth, 18, average of 

The return from Chester county is as follows, viz : 

Foundrymen 2, at $2 SO per day. 

Blacksmiths 3, at 

Machinists 5, at 

Wood-workers 6, at 

Painters 1, at 

Laborers 2, at 

Engineers 1, at 

Apprentices 2, at 

The only value of these returns would be to show the proportion of 
skilled to unskilled labor, and the prevailing rates of wages in these two 
somewhat widely separated localities. 

The census gives the following figures for this industry, viz : 

Number of establishments 286 

Number of hands employed 2 ,286 

Number of men employed 2 ,248 

Number of youth employed 38 

Total wages paid $1 ,025 ,618 00 



2 26 


do. 


2 25 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


2 25 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


2 80 


do. 


1 50 


do. 


2 25 


do. 


75 


do. 


2 50 per da 


2 50 


t 


2 25 


i 


2 25 


t 


2 00 


4 


1 50 


1 


1 60 


« 


75 


1 



484 



M"ANrFA(JTTRING INDDSTBiES. 



Iu the returns wc have given we have reason to believe that a very just 
and fair statement of the average in this State may be found. The census, 
it will be observed, gives all as men over sixteen years of age. In these 
trades there are very few boys go to learn their trades until they are six- 
teen, and cnnst'ijuently many of those enumerated as males above sixteen 
are apprentices in all the stageB between sixteen and twenty-one. For the 
purpose of this inquiry, therefore, we take the proportions as shown in 
these returns, and present the following table as the result : 

ACTUAL AVER.lfiE EARVIVGS OF EACH CLASS I'OB CEXSL'H YEAH. 



CLASS. 



Foremen 

Bkilled workmen 

.Second-class l»lx>rors. 

Boys, apprentices, Ac , , 

Totals of census returns. 



114 

i,;i7i' 
339 
571 



2,2*1 



fef 



f.142 «0 

3 r It4 44 

343 50 

428 25 



•83,057 Sfl 

735,458 H7 

83,331 7fl 

103, 879 28 






*727 70 
MO 83 

181 OS 



4,228 19 I 1,025,618 00 



This calculation gives an average of a little over 242J days worked for 
the year, or 10 months and 2£ days, of 24 dayB each. This is believed to 
be about the real average time made. It will be observed that in the Mas- 
sachusetts reports and also in the very excellent but rather rose colured 
essay of Mr. Loriti Blodget, which will be found in this report, that the 
quoted wage* are treated to a great extent as averages, and that tlie short 
time worked that they indicate is attributed to " ease and choice," or love 
"I leisure on the part of the workmen. This, all the information we hav.- 
been enabled to gather leads us to regard as erroneous. The prevailing 
characteristic among workmen, on the contrary, is an anxiety to make the 
fullest time possible. That there are constitutionally worthless men — 
idlers from a slothful physical habit, or from the demoralization of drunk- 
enness — is not to be denied ; but to assume that these viceB prevail to such a 
degree as to affect, in any appreciable sense, the average in a calculation 
like this, is certainly a mistake. In the inquiries instituted by the Bureau 
a good deal of attention was given to this special point, and the result 
would indicate that the idlers from these causes are about three in every 
one hundred w.-.rkm.-'n. 

COTTOX (iOODS. 

The two following very satisfactory returns have been received from 
cotton mills; the first from the Messrs. Garsed, of Frankford.and the other 
from the Harrisbnrg OottOD Mill Company. It is greatly to be regretted 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 485 

that business men engaged in this, as well as other industries, have not been 

able to see the ultimate good to be derived from this inquiry, or that the 

power and means had not been placed at the disposal of the Bureau that 

would have enabled it to procure fuller returns : 
First return. 

Card room hands 1 boss at $3 00 per day. 

Do.... do 1 at 

Do ... . do 3 frame tenders, (women, ) .... at 

Do do 4 helpers, (youth,) at 

Spinningjoom. . .hands, 1 boss. at 

Do do do. . 7 helpers, (youth,) at 

Weaving room do. . 1 boss at 

Do. . . .do do. . 2 second bosses at 

Do do do.. 64 weavers, (women,) at 1 

Beaming room .... do . . 1 boss at 

Do .... do do . . 3 beamers and twisters at 

Do .... do do . . 1 helper, (youth,) at 

Cloth room do . . 1 boss .- at 

Do .... do do . . 1 assistant at 

Do. . . .do do. . 1 assistant, (youth,) '.at 

Do do do . . 3 burlers, (women,) at 

Doubl'g & spool'g room, 1 boss at 

Do do -do. . 4 doublers, (women,) at 

Do do do . . 10 spoolers and rulers, (women, ) at 

Dyers' room 1 boss at 

Do 5 dyers and sisers at 2 00 

Do 1 sizers' assistant, (youth,) . . . at 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Engineer I, at 

Driver 1, at 

Machinist 1 , at 

Watchman 1, at 

General laborer 1, at 

General helpers, (youths,) 3, at 

Second return. 

Spinners 3 foremen at 

Do . . . 8 women at 

Do 91 youth at 

Weavers 7 men at 

Do : ; 67 women at 

Do ... j 7 youth at 



1 66 


do. 


1 33 


do. 


1 00 


do. 


4 00 


do. 


65 


do. 


3 00 


do. 


2 33 


do. 


1 42 


do. 


8 00 


do. 


2 16 


do. 


50 


do. 


3 00 


do. 


2 16 


do. 


75 


do. 


1 00 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


1 00 


do. 


1 25 


do. 


3 00 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


1 50 


do. 


2 33 


do. 


2 33 


do. 


3 00 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


50 


do. 


2 41 per day 


1 05 


do. 


50 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


92 


do. 


50 


do. 



486 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



Carders 13 men at $ I 57 per day. 

Do 25 women at 

Do 2T youth at 

Dressers 2 men at 

Do 1 women at 

Do 8 youth at 

Engineers 2 men at 

Packers ... 2 men at 

Do 8 women : at 

Machinists 6 men at 

Watchmen and laborers, 5 men at 

As these are all the returns we have from this industry, we must use 
them as conclusive of the wages and classification. The census gives mulct 
iIh' head of "cotton (roods (not specified)" as follows : 

Number of establishments. 

Do. . . .hands employed 

Do ... . males above 16 

Do ... . females above 15....... 

Do .... youth 



75 


do. 


62 


do. 


2 45 


do. 


L 16 


do. 


50 


do. 


2 66 


do. 


1 85 


do. 


66 


do. 


2 40 


do. 


I 58 


do. 



121 

12,281 

3,729 

5,965 

2,587 



Ti tal wages paid f 3 ,386 .2 I B 



These we classify as follows, under the guidance of the above returns, 
determiniug the average wages therefrom, rating an bosses, only those 
whose pay is $3 per day and over, and putting the fureman at less than 
that among the skilled workmen. It will be seen also that we put all over 
$2 among the skilled workmen ; those at $2 as first class laborers, those be- 
low $2 as second class laborers ; as youth, all above 62 cents, and as chil- 
dren all below it. The result shows 228 days as the average year's work. 

TABLE OK CLASSIFICATION, WAGES AND EARNINGS IN COTTON MAMFACTIRE.S. 



*3 JO 



Foremen 

skilled workmen 

laborer*, first class 

l.ai«.)r.'i>-v >•/■•' ni'l nlaim 

Women 

Youth 

Children 



r.,hiU..l eensua tables 12,281 



c 
2 

? 


p 


if 


II 

h 




^2, 


•42, 


s* 


'. 


?! 


S 2 
PS 


" z 

-1 s= 
a 


■ 


. sr 


: 3" 


■ T 


298 


«94l 08 


1314,529 79 


*719 8!> 


1,007 


8,386 50 


543.702 80 


539 92 


746 


1,493 00 


339,900 26 


455 83 


1,044 


1,670 40 


380,539 68 


364 50 


5,965 


6,501 85 


1,481,228 81 


248 30 


634 


saa sa 


119,880 43 




2.587 


1,946 24 


306,468 23 


118 46 


12,281 


14, 863 98 


1,888, 248 00 





MA N UFACTUIUNG INDUSTRIES. 



487 



CA KrKNTEKlNli AXI> BUILPIN'-.. 

Id this industry we have but ono return, that of Mr. Ezra Cockill, Br., 
of Schuylkill county, an extensive breaker builder and house carpenter. It 
is as follows: 

Number of foremen 4, at $3 00 per day 

Number of carpenters 40, at 2 50 per day. 

The classification that Mr. Blodget speaks of in his essay before alluded 
to, would be invaluable in its application to the object we have in view. 
In the absence of anything of the kind, we must substitute for it, for this 
year, estimates based upon the best data attainable. The above return of 
Mr. Cockill giveB one foreman to every ten skilled workmen. IIo does not 
give any statement of the number of unskilled workmen who operate iu 
conjunction with these, or who are a part of them, as helpers, and of whom 
there are always some employed. Mr. Blodget puts the wages in Phila- 
delphia at from $2 to |3 per day for carpenters. As we cannot believe. 
and do hot think any one else believes, that any skilled carpenters work in 
Philadelphia at the lowest of these figures, we put those who receive that 
rate, and are reckoned amoDg the numbers of carpenters, down as these 
unskilled workmen, or, as we classify them, first-class laborers. Careful 
inquiry and observation leads us to put this cIubs of workmen in this trade 
at the same proportion as foremen to the whole, viz : 10 per cent. The 
wages will also have to bo reduced somewhat betov Mr. Biodget's esti- 
mate, and Mr. Cockill 's, to show an average for the whole State, inasmuch 
as the rates of" wages generally in Philadelphia and Schuylkill range higher 
than in localities where the industries are not so diversified and extent: 
For instance, in the coal region of Tioga, the wageB of carpenters and 
blacksmiths are quoted at $2, and Hon. Mr. Burkholder, of Lancaster, in- 
forms us that as many, if not more, carpenters, machinists and blacksmiths 
are employed at less than f 2 per day as there are who receive that much. 
Wi' estimate, therefore, the average wages for foremen in this trade, all 
t the State, at $2 75 per day ; skilled workmen $2 25, and first class 
laborers at $1 87. 

Our table then will stand thus: The census gives — 

Number of establishments 1 ,846 

Do hands employed 10 ,538 

Do males above 16 10 ,436 

Do youth 102 

Total amount of wages paid |5 ,335 ,181 00 



We estimate also, that at least 10 per cent, of the whole number arc ap- 
prentices, the youth under 16, not being more than a very small portion of 
jthe whole DOfflfcex. 



48* 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



This calculation shows 239.1 days worked, on the average for the y< Ml . 
CLASSIFICATION, wages ash average earnings. 









Foremen 

Skilled workmen .. 
i aborem, ttrst elo^s 



... 



1,058 
7,378 



---• 



Apprentices, Sw 1,068 



1004,188 51 

. B23 7 1 

l.fclfl II JT.'.Oltl 40 

7«U 75 | 189, ai.1 29 



me (9 

sae m 

4-IS 25 
170 68 



a of ■•en«a» return* W.flUB 22,257 8(1 5,335,18100 1 



CARRIAGE nrn,l»IN<i. 
The operatives in this industry we divide into live principal classes, viz.: 
Wood-workers, blacksmiths, painters, trimmers and laborers ; among tin- 
latter are included blacksmith's helpers, porters, filers, &c, whose rat' 
pay, as compared with the former, would indicate that they are not skilled 
workmen The names of those making the returns are not inserted, but 

instead, the number of the blank which was put upon it, in th <dtr in 

which it was received. 



TABLE OF RETTRVd RECEIVED. 



g 



H 00 



00 



I 



2 50 

2 50 

■1 M 

3 25 



*4 IMI 

2 50 

a 28 

:>, mi 



8 



*2 75 
2 SO 
2 50 

2 25 

2 50 



S g rfrg « 

: :- 3 * 



u «2 75 

i a as 

i a bo 

:. a as 

1 :: B0 



■< R 



19 «1 95 



Avg'a 175 



4 33 I 30 



a 07 



2fi 3 17 30 2 f<\ 



22 I 2 84 ! 10 t 1 05 34 72 



These returns are all from the localities where wages rule the highest in 
the trade, Philadelphia, Pottsville, Hariisburg, and Mount Joy in Lancas- 
ter county ; that they are too high to be taken as an average for the State, 
is evident from the fact that at this rate only an average of 149.2 days 
could have been work in the year. To those familiar with this industry, 
the knowledge of this fact will be sufficient demonstration of the necessity 
of reducing the estimated rates very fur below these returns, to give any 
thing like a true ftvange In the table following, however, the reduction is 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 489 

so great that it requires some explanation. This is not an industry that 
depends at all upon "weather, the operations being always carried on in 
shops, nor are there any special seasons in which business is active — on the 
contrary, its operations run quite evenly throughout the whole year. There 
is, then, no loss of time except from sickness, dissipation, or change of em- 
ploy from one shop to another. We cannot fairly reduce the time estima- 
ted to be worked in the year below a nine months' average, but it will be 
seen that even at the rate adopted below, there is only an average of 220 
days worked in the census year. The census gives the following figures : 

Total number of establishments returned 1 ,449 

Do. . . . do. . . . hands employed C ,252 

Do....do....maleB above 16 6,199 

Do .... do ... . females above 15 5 

Do .... do ... . youth 48 



In our calculations we include the females among the youth, because wo 
have not, and cannot get any information as to the proper classification to 
make of them, and because the wages usually paid to women conform more 
nearly to those paid to youth than to men. 



CLASSIFICATION, AVAGES AND AVKBAOE EARNINGS. 



I LASS. 



Foremen 

Skilled workmen. 

Laborers 

Apprentices, Sx.. . 



125 

VJ..1 

1,188 



•312 50 , *68, 750 00 

S.U7.S w \,m,mv 

1,032 00 | 227,03170 
712 80 i 158,811 85 



Total* of census t- b! e! i I ft, 263 i 10, 134 20 J. 229, til 00 



8S50 00 
417 OS 
320 08 
1S1 89 



CARS— FREIGHT AND PASSENGER. 

The only return received of this industry is that of the Harrisburg Car 
manufacturing company, whose enlightened and public spirited manager re- 
sponded promptly to the application. The return is as follows: 

Foremen 16, at $3 00 per day . 

Blacksmiths 53, at 2 25 do. 

Moulders 35, at 2 10 do. 

Do . . . .apprentices 7, at 1 00 do. 

Machinists 30, at 2 25 do. 

Do. . ..apprentices 10, at 100 do. 



490 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



Pattern makers 4, at $2 38 per day. 

Do apprentices 1, at 100 do. 

Carpenters 230. at 2 00 do. 

Do ... . apprentices 5, at 1 00 do. 

PainterB 17, at 2 00 do. 

Do apprentices 13, at 75 do. 

Laborers 375, at I 50 do. 

The census returns give in this industry the following : 

Total number of establishments 49 

Do .... do ... . hands employed. .............. , 4 ,076 

Do do males above 16 3 ,975 

Do. . . .do. . . .females above 15 11 

Do .... do ... . youth 87 

Total wages paid $2,193,857 00 

In all these tables we classify the workmen substantially, according to 
the returns received. Thus, in this the foremen are 2 per cent., the skilled 
workmen 46 per cent., laborers 47 per cent., and apprentices 5 per cent, of 
the whole. Here again are 14 women returned. It is presumable that they 
are employed about the upholstering. But as we have no data to go upon 
in regard to them, we classify the whole as above. 

The table then is as follows : 

CLASSIFICATION", WJGE3 AND AVERAGE EARNINGS. 



I 



*3 00 

1 50 
01 



Foremen 

SkllUd workmen.. 
Laborer*. .,,,..,,., 
Apprentices 



81 

1,875 

1,916 

204 



Totnln of census returns 4, 076 



*M3 00 

3,f*Sl 25 

2,874 00 

180 M 



7,183 89 



I 



•74,200 37 

1,185,277 10 

877,<57: M 

56,692 59 



2, 193, 857 00 



|91« 10 
632 US 
198 06 

277 90 



According to these rates of wages and classification, the- averge time 
worked for the year in this industry was a little over 305 days. This is 
very full time, and would seem to indicate that the average wages should 
be a little higher. But inasmuch as the difference would not be great, and 
as we desire to leave the wages as near the rates returned as a fair regard 
for probabilities will admit, we will not disturb them 

CLOTHING. 

We have received from this industry but one return, and that from Phila- 
delphia. We give it as follows ■ 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



491 



Number of tailors 10, at $3 50 per day, 9 months in the year 

Number of tailorcBses 10, at 2 00.. .do 9 do. ... do 

This return is accompanied by the following remarks : 
"The manufacture of clothing 'to order' is done by having the materials 
cut at the establishment and given to men and women foremen, who have 
others to do the work, foremen making from $6 to $7 per day and their 
hands $2, but the table is made to show the production of our labor em- 
ployed singly." 

If the above return is true, and a true presentation of the condition of 
the employees in this industry, the general representations made are oat* 
rageously false and mischievous. It was the earnest desire of the Chief 
of the Bureau that this should be made a special inquiry, but the character 
of the legislation under which we acted was so ineffective, the means at 
our disposal so very small, and the indisposition to submit to the inquiry 
voluntarily so palpable, that the effort had to be abandoned. It was the 
more desirable to investigate the condition of labor in this large branch of 
industry, because in it female labor is very largely employed, and, it has 
been especially charged for years, with oppressive exactions and inad- 
equate compensation. The most we can do uuder the circumstances, for 
this year, is to submit it to the saute test that we have applied to other 
industries, trusting that the importance of inquiry, indicated by our ap- 
proximations, may impress the Legislature with the necessity for more 
efficient legislation. 

We include in those analyses all the divisions in the census under the 
head of clothing, showing first the results of a table with wages rated ac- 
cording to this return, and of one reduced to the requirements of probable 
average time worked. The census gives as follows, under head of clothing : 

Establishments, children 12 

Do total hands 114 

I> males above 18 "...... 38 

Do females above 15 76 

Do .youth — 

Do .total wages paid $36,700 00 



Establish nt.-, men.. , 

Do total hands 

Do. males above 16 . 

Do femaleB above 15. 

Do youth 



1,364 

17,973 

7,781 

9,917 

275 



Do, 



.total wages paid $4,758 ,807 00 



492 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



ErtabliahmeaMi women 162 

Do total bands employed I ,"H' 

Do males above 16 83 

Do f.'inalee above 15 039 

Do youth , 27 

Po total wages paid $244,766 00 

Tlie grand total of alt these will be as followB : 

Total number of establishments 1 ,538 

Do hands employed 19 ,136 

Do males above 16 7 ,902 

Do females above 15 10 

Do youth 302 

Total wages paid 15,040,272 00 

As the same facts with reference' to the youth reported in the census will 
hold good here as in other trades, viz: That they do not represent the 
number of apprentices, we, in our classification, allow about the usual pro- 
portion, 10 per cent., to be of that class. Now if the rates in the above re- 
turn Me the average wages paid in this industry, say for 9 months of 126 
days in the year, the earnings would be as follows : 

We make the foremen, to be one to each establishment, and the appren- 
tices to be 10 per cent, of each class, men and wotixmi. 

Foremen 1 ,538. . .234 days, at, say $5 00 per day. . $1 ,799.460 00 

Tailors 5 ,864. . .234 days, at 3 50. ...do 4,802,616 00 

Tailoresses. . . 9 ,975. . .234 days, at 2 00 do 4,668,300 00 

Apprentices.. 1 ,759. . .234 days, at. Bay 60 do 246,963 60 



19,136 



11,517,339 60 



By lookiug at the statements in the return entered here, then at the totals 
of the census return, then at thie extraordinary result, the preposterous 
exaggeration of such statements of wages are unmistakably seen. An 
analysis of the census return of the three divisions of children's, men's and 
women's clothing, will develop no reason why they should be classified 
separately, for it would seem that in children's clothing the earnings to 
each person are greater than in either «{ the others ; while in women's there 
is ouly about as much deficiency as would naturally result from the diD'ei- 
ence in the number of men employed as between that and men's clothing, 
Much of this discrepancy, between the wages quoted here and the census 
demonstration, might be accounted for if upon anyjunt hypothesis we could 
assume that the hands who work intermittently, those untold and unknown 
thousands ol overburdened women who toil at the needle in the intervals 
of household duty to eke out their insufficient incomes, were included in 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, 



493 



this return ; but this assumption would be violent, for the returns indicate 
only a little over twelve bauds to the establishment, and the number of es- 
tablishments being so smalt as to demonstrate that only the larger ones 
have made returns, would be a very sure demonstration of the fact that 
these are the regular bauds who pursue the calling exclusively for mainte- 
nance.. The excess of earnings at the rates and for the time here given is 
equal to a little more than 50 per cent.; but as niue months is the time 
mentioued in the return, and that may easily be mure than the aver 
time made, we reduce the wages by 50 per cent., and give the result as 
the nearest approximation in our power to the true condition as to wages 
iiinl earnings in this industry. 

CLASSIFICATION, WAGES AND AVERAGE EARNING.* IN CLOTHING 51 ANCFACTCRES. 



N BO 

1 75 

l DO 

50 



CLASS. 



Foremen 
lors . 



Apprentices and youth 
Totals of census returns 



I 



j,aas 

S, BS4 
|,7N 



a.ff 



W\ 



19, 136 



$3,845 00 

10,263 00 

&,975 00 

879 50 



24,961 50 



#776,302 10 
8,07gqiB 17 
•j,.im,i:-_' 13 

177,589 60 



£504 80 
353 3.1 
201 92 
100 96 



<h 0*0,272 oo 



It will bo seen that this table indicates an average of a fraction under 
202 days wotked in the year, or. 8 mouths and ten days of 24 days each. 

8ADDLERY AND HARNRSSMAKING. 

In this industry we have one return, and that from the city of Lancaster ; 

it is as follows : 

Foreman 1 , at $3 50 per day. 

Saddlemafcer 1, at 2 00 do. 

Ilarnesfimakere 6, at 2 00 do. 

Collar-maker 1 , at 250 do. 

Jobbers 2, at 176 do. 

Apprentices.. 3, at 58 du. 

The return of the census is as follows : 

Number of establishment* 90S 

Do ... . hands employed 2 ,488 

Do ... . males above 16 2 ,431 

Do ... . females above 15 96 

Do . . . .youth 31 

Total wages paid $662 ,347 00 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



The eenrop here, it will be Been, gSvefl not gotta three hands bo eadi es- 
tablishment ; as shops so small would hardly have a foreman, the proprie- 
tor most probably acting in that capacity, we will estimate the number of 
foremen at one-fourth the number of establishments, and throw the wonieu 
and youth among the apprentices, as in other trades where women npi 
to be exceptionally employed. 

At the wages noted in the return, it will be seen that only 183 duys' work 
could have been averaged in three 903 establishments, As this is far be- 
low the time that Bhould be made in a trade not influenced by weather or 
change of season, and, as the return is evidently from a large concern, in 
which wages above the average are paid, we estimate the average of fore- 
men's wages at $2 50. and of skilled workmen at $1 75 per day. 

CLASSIFICATION' , WAGES ASH AVERAGE EARXISOS IN SADDLERY AND HARNESSMAKING . 



&! no 

1 75 
60 



Foremen , 

Skilled workmen 

Apprentices 

Totals of census returns 



225 

2,oi5 
248 



2.48S 



I 



issa so 

3,528 25 
148 80 



4.2:57 K 



«OT,fta>fl6 

551, 168 0.1 
23,257 99 



062, 317 00 



MM :;, 
273 SS 

93 78 



This table, even at these low wages, only bIiowb an average of a small 
fraction over 156 days, or six months of 24 days each and 12 days over. 
IRON— ROLLED, CAST, FORGED, Ac. 
In this industry, which the census divides into eleven separate divisions, 
we have received three returns, one each from Philadelphia, Pottsville and 
Williamsport. We have notes of the statements received at Allen town, 
upon personal application. These latter will be put first on the list. 

Allentown, per furnace, 2 keepers at $2 58 per d:iv . 

Di i do 6 helpers at 

Do do 8 fillers at 

Do do 2 engineere at 

Do do 2 cindermen at 

Do do 1 founder at 

Do do 8 laborers at 

This was given by the very courteous manager of the Allentown iron 
company's works, as the outfit of hands and their pa3', of an ordinary fur- 
nace, say of 16 feet bosh. Full time can be made by the hands, inasmin ib 
as the furnaces are working day and night, so that the only time not lost 
voluntarily, is from sickness, loss of employment or dissipation. 



2 40 


do. 


2 40 


do. 


2 25 


■ 1,,. 


2 00 


do. 


3 00 


do. 


1 65 


do. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 

Philadelphia, 2 draughtsmen at $3 no per day. 

Po 2 blacksmiths and boiler makers at 3 00 do. 

Do 3 patternmakers M 

Do 2 mill-wrights at 

Do 10 machinists at 

Do 4 laborers at 

Do 1 engineer. . at 

Do 8 apprentices at 

"Our works hare the tools and buildings capable of employing one hun- 
dred haeds. Our business is dull now and has been for four months past." 
The time given, as worked in a year in this return, ib 300 days. 



9 25 


do. 


i to 


■ i . . 


2 60 


do. 


1 62 


do. 


2 33 


do. 


53 


<3o. 



Williawsport, 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



1 foreman at $4 00 per day. 



3 50 


do. 


4 00 


d w . 


2 00 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


3 00 


do. 


2 75 


do. 


3 00 


do. 


2 00 


do. 


2 76 


do. 


1 75 


do. 


75 


do. 



3 foremen at 

I draughtsman at 

1 engineer at 

1 ■watchman ... at 

23 machinists at 

5 patternmakers at 

3 blacksmiths . at 

4 helpers at 

7 moulders at 

Jl laborers at 

Do,...,.. 3 apprentices at 

PottBville — furnaceB — 85 furnace men at $1 95 per day, (12 hours.) 

Do 4 carpenters at 2 50 do. (10 hours.) 

Do 2 blacksmiths at 2 50 do. do. 

Du 59 laborers at 1 50 do. do. 

Pottsville — passenger rail mills — 2 machinists at $2 12J per day. 

Do do 2 carpenters ... . at 2 37 J do. 

Do do 2 moulders at 2 29 do. 

Pottsville — passenger rail mills — 291 laborers, from boys at fifty cents to 
one dollar per day, to laborers, outside, from $1 41 to $1 58 per day, and 
laborers, inside, from $1 12 to $3 75 per day. Puddling furnaces — 160 
puddlere, at $6 60 per ton, should make $4 per day. Fifty rail mill men, 
at from f2 60 to $5 per day. 

The census gives the following figures in the iron manufacturing indus- 
tries — machinery, in the four census divisions, not specified, cotton and 
woolen, railroad repairing, and steam engines and boilers being included : 



4915 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



CSBSUCi tahj.es 01 IRON MAWT/PAOTUBJM- 



[RON. 





Blooms 

Forced and rolled 

Anchors and cable chut us 

Bolts, nuts, rivets, ,Vr. 

Nulls anrl spikes, <u I A; wro'l. 

Pipe, wrongbt 

Ruling 

Ship building and eogLoes, , 



Cntinga, (nol ■peafied) 

Stovea, heaters, «fcc. 

Machinery, four AMalona . . . 

Totals 



■3 "3 


*g 


•Sf. 


& — 

7 P 


tz 


' » 


- 
■ A 


: § 


• I 


* < 


- a 


! ^ 


■ - 

■ ■ 


: H 



1,47s 

31,885 

48 i 
1,553 

1.2» 

in, BS1 

1 7,587 

2, (>.VJ 

17,090 



1,43a 

ao, m 

H 

L280 
LfiM 
L1M 

54 

852 

[0,890 

7,259 

1,807 

17,314 



9 


te 


SO 


871 




I,". 


IB 


;:■•:, 


93 


420 




o:i 




l 


" 10 


339 


• > 


330 




155 




321 



I7B7, 
IS. 34ft 

is. 

ajG 

1,106, 
709, 

18. 

210, 
5,014, 
ft 81ft 
1,139, 
a, 944, 



we oo 
In oo 

500 OO 
323 '»' 
214 00 
710 00 
176 00 

IMMI 00 

455 00 

n:s7 (hi 

Kl DO 

130 00 



1,400 66,880 03,953 



138 2,779 35,730,:; 



Two of the preceding returns include book-keepers and clerks which we 
have left out because they were not intended to be included in the census 
return, (as we are informed by Mr. Walker, the superintendent of the cen- 
sus ;) only one of them includes foremen or overseers, which all large es- 
tablishments have and must have, and, as usual, the a turn of youth cannot 
include apprentices, and Ave know nothing of the place the females have in 
this industry ; we therefore divide the whole by the percentages indicated 
by an average of the returns, allowing 4 per cent, to be foremen and L0 per 
cent, apprentices, aa is estimated generally to be the average. 

t'UABUIFUATION, W.Y.il.s \Mi AVEHAUK KAKNINOM IN IKON .MAM:F.\ni'BE». 



I LASS. 






Si 50 
300 

1 .80 

1 00 
75 



foremen 2,005 

Skilled workmen 30,72* 

Liiln.r, first cIajw.. HI, 389 

Ijalmr, seormd class 18, 052 

Apprentice 0,06(1 



Total of census table* 66, 880 



f7,OI7 80 
93,181 00 
84,900 M 
37,078 00 
5,014 50 



SI, 841, 007 24 
16.818,031 80 

9. ].V.,!«'2 IV, 
7, 108.896 58 
1,315, WO 23 



„> 



I 



fMH 20 
787 04 
472 22 

183 75 



136,104 00 ! ».7*»,R68 00 



It will be eeen that we have rated foremen's wages less than in the re- 
turn, while the other classes are put within a few cents of the exact aver- 
age wages reported. The time worked at these rates to earn the amount 
paid as per census return, is ten months of twenty-six days and two days 
over. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 49t 

LUMBER. 

In lumber we have received one return from Williamsport, -which is as 
follows : 

Foremen, four, at $3 00 per day for the year; engineer, one, at $1,200 per 
year ; filers, three, at $4 00 per day, employed eight months ; sawyers, &u., 
-sixty-three, at $2 15 per day, employed eight months ; wages of men, from 
$2 25 to $2 75 per day ; wages of boys, from $1 25 to $2 00 per day. 

In this return it will be seen that we are left entirely to surmise as to the 
proportion of boys to the whole number, and as to their average wages 
We must, therefore, estimate in both these particulars. In the matter of 
planed lumber and staves and' shooks the conditions are so near the same 
that we include them in one table. The figures from the census are as fol- 
low : 
Number of establishments for planed lumber 188 

Number of hands employed 1 ,859 

Number of males above 16 1 ,813 

Number of females above 15 2 

Number of youth 44 

Total amount wages paid $958 ,817 00 

Number of establishments for staves, shooks, &c 1 

Number of hands omployed, men 3 

Total amount wages paid 1 ,500 00 

Total amount paid in both divisions 960 ,317 00 



CLASSIFICATION, WAGES AND AVERAGE EARNINGS IN LUMBER. 



r 

s 

1 

a. 

3 



C2 50 

2 25 

1 60 

50 



CLASS. 



Foremen 

Skilled workmen. 

Laborers. 

Youth, Ac 



Total; i of .census -return!;. . , . . . 



s 
s 



188 

920 

710 

46 



II 
a* 
fj 

: §• 



•466 00 

2,070 00 

1,080 00 

,23 00 



ft! 



•128,258 37 
548,677 49 
282,291 14 
.6,095 00, 



.1,862 ,l. ; 8,flW.fli.L. WO, 817, 00 



3§ 



It 

• 8 



1662 60 
696 88 

S97 50 
132 60 



This table shows an' averaage of- 266 days worked in the" yea*.- Ab"W6 
have no information' as to the employment of apprentices here, we assume 
the youth to be errand boys and the like. 
32 Statistic*. 



498 H a N rj r \ ra i Kim.; i niiustruis 

The oeasus return in the matter ■>!' rnved lumber, which is tin- subject of 
tin.' return from VVilliamsport, give* the following figm 

Number nl establishments 3,788 

\>n . . . . bonds employed 17,4 ^4 

Do. I . males above lfi . , 17 

Do lomalcs above 15 15 

Do.... youth i:ti 

Total wages pan i. $5,2fl0,0T6 00 



\ teal of I lie wages us given in the Williamsport return as an ttvei 
for III-' State, would show that only four months' work wax done in the 
census year ; this is just hall' the time named in the return, and proves that 
the wages paid over the State will average at least 40 pel" Kent. loss than it-' 
here given as prevailing at Williamsport. The table below shows 171 
days and a fraction ovei as the average time worked at these wages iii the 
year. 

vVD AVERAGE BASSI1 



. 



. 



Foremen L74S 14,855 00 

Skilled workmen 7,H»U 15,728 00 

laborers. ; 6,250 9,375 00 

I'-ys., Ao 1,606 1,176 00 



Totals of census returrn 17,494 110,631 oo 



■ B r a 

■ — • t 

747, 883 22 W.-O S5 

2,700,* « 44 

l,609,f>l;! 13 -iS7 6H 

201, 4 3J sa MB ifl 



:,,i:rni,ii7.i (hi 



It will be Been that in tins classilieatioa wo have entirely disregarded 
the statements of the return received, as to the foremen and engineers being 
employed the whole year. It may be proper to explain, that this is uot he- 
cause we discredit the statements contained therein, for the character of 
the gentlemen making them, as well as corroborative information, indicate 
the facts as there stated to be true of Williamsport. But as the operation- 
in this industry are found everywhere throughout the State, and as, where 
the operations are not so concentrated and extensive, the wages are not so 
high, we are compelled to modify the rates according to the census returns, 
and the probabilities as to time worked, in oidur to carry out tho plan we 
have adopted to present an approximation to tbfl actual average earnings. 
of each class of wage-workers within its borders. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



499 



LIQUORS.. , 

In the manufacture of liquors the only return we have is from one of the 
principal breweries in Philadelphia. It is as follows : 

Superintendent '..'..' 1, at 

Clerks. .......,, , ;i..i> 8, 



$8 00 per day. 
4 00 do. 



2 50 
2 50 
2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
.2 00 
2 00 
2 00 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



at 

Coopers 6, at 

Engineers. 2, at 

Draymen , 12. at 

Cellarmen 12, at 

Brewerymen *..... 8, at 

Maltsters 10, at 

Watchmen - . 2, at 

Wash-housemen *. 4, at 

The census gives the figure* in this industry as follows : 
Number of establishments. ..;..... ,, 

Do. . . . hands employed >... 

Do ... . males above 16 

Do ... . females above 15 

Do youth 

Total wages paid ; 

We rate in the following table the superintendent and clerks under our gen- 
eral head of foremen, as they evidently sustain that position in this brewery. 
The coopers and the engineers are the skilled workmen, and of the remainder 
for the purposes we have in hand we make first and second class laborers 
and boys, including the women among the latter, for the reasons already 
given in other trades. - We divide them as 7 percent, foremen, 13 per cent. 
skirled workmen, 50 per cent, laborers, first class, 25 per' cent. laborers, 
second class, and 5 percent, boys. We have somewhat reduced the aver- 
age of foremen's wages, and introduced the second class labor, because we 
have knowledge of its being a closer approximation to the general average. 



246 

1,583 

1 ,569 

2 

12 

$778,267 00 



CLASSIFICATION*, WAGES AND AVERAGE EARNINGS FOR CENSUS TEAR. 



! 



I 



$3 50 

2 60 

200 

1 50 

75 



a 

2 



OfaASS. 



Foremen 

Skilled workmen 

Laborer's, first claw. . . 
Laborer*, second dam. 
Youth, Ac 



110 
206 
792 
806 
79 



Totals of oensns tables ....I 1,868 



$385 00 

515 00 

1,584 00 

594 ©0 

69 25 



194,894 80 
126,936 20 
890,422 94 
146,409 12 
14,603 94 



> 
■ ■ 

•862 68 
616 19 
492 95 
369 72 
184 86 



8,187 25 773,207 00 



600 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 



The table shows a little over 246 days, as the- average time worked in the 
jrear. 

SUGAR REFINED. N 

\Y>- have DOB return from this iuduBtry from Philadelphia, which is a* 
follows : 

"Clerks 2 at $3 00 per day, 52 weeks. 

»Sugar boilers 2 at 5 00 

Engineers 4 at 3 00 

Coopers 12 at 3 00 

BoBsesof gangs 2 at 2 50 

Teameteri 5 at 2 00 

Watchmen 2 at 2 00 

Laborers 30 at 2 00 

The census gives figures in this industry as follows : 
N umber of establishments 

Do hands employed 

Do males above 16 

Do youth 

Total wages paid $663 ,408 00 

Upon these data we make the lullowing exhibit, guided by the same 
general considerations as have controlled our estimates in other industries : 



52 


II 


52 


i ■ 


30 




41 


.. 


3*1 


14 


52 


■ ' 


30 


(i 




16 




1 .241 




1,240 




1 


$663 ,408 00 



CLASSIFICATION', VAOBS ANT> AVERAGE KABNIKOS Fun CKKStTS YEAR. 



M 00 

;; [., 

■1 00 

l fin 

75 



Foremen or clerks 

Sk ilk-d workmen 

laborers, tir-t. ela-ss 

I^il>orers, second class 

Youth. an 



Totals ■ ■ f census returns I 1.241 



1* 



CI 11 00 

664 65 

1,242 00 

465 00 

40 50 






C29.115 Tl 
174,340 M 
325,782 S3 
121,971 70 

12,197 15 



663,408 00 



»:*•> Bi 
SU 26 
SOI B0 

ioa 4-) 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 501 

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING. 

We have received three returns of this industry — one from Philadelphia, 
one from Wilkesbarre and one from Lancaster. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

/ 

Foremen 5, at $4 50 per day. 

Pressmen ,.■ 3, at 3 17. do, , ■■: 

Compositors 14, at % 60 do. 

Engineer 1, at 2 67 do. 

Wareroom men 2,.at % 00 do. : 

Press feeders, boys , 11, at . 1 00 do. . 

Apprentices 14, at 75 do. 

WILKESBARRE. , . 

Clerk 1, at $8 00 per day. 

Foreman 1, at 2 60 do. 

Apprentices 2, at 87 do. 

LANCASTER. 

Foremen 7, at $3 00 per day. 

Compositors, men ; 35, at 2 00 do. 

Do women. . . . ; 5, at . 1 00 do. 

Do apprentice* • 41, .at 42 do. 

Folders, women 80, at 38 do. 

Bookbinders, men 2, at 2 00 do. 

Do apprentices , ., 5, at 33 do. 

Pressmen , 2, at 8 00 do. 

Do women 3, at 38 do. 

Do apprentices 6, at 60 do. 

The first of these returns is of a book and job printer,;, the second a 
newspaper, publisher, printer, bookbinder and stationer ; the third, a print- 
ing and publishing company. As these include all the divisions given in 
the census, we' consider them altogether. The following are the census 
figures : 

Printing and publishing (not specified) establishments. ... 77 

Do. . . .hands employed 3,117 

Do males above 16 2 ,664 

Do females above 15. 307 

Do youth 146 

Do. . . .total wages paid $2 ,054 ,975 00 



■i.j MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIE 

Printing and publishing Book establishments 

Do i Hi 

Do.. . moles a\«n p 16 14 

Do . .females above 15 2 

i>,. total wages paid $6,62. r > 

I'lintm- • :iinl publishing- in twspapei 'establishments 124 

i 1,199 

Do fl l ,01* 

Do . females 'above 15 86 

1).» - .v.. nil, U5 

P.. toUl paid $673,084 00 

Printing ud JOo I'stablislimiMii.* 104 

Do .- hands amplovol 1 " ._ 

Do totta ibo*» 19 T86 

Do female* above 15 

I'- -ifi 130 

Do ...total "•- - 1460.965 00 



i oral divisions arc so intimately connected with each other. 
the differ i them (with the exception of the book business) so 

img, iod in thai the amount so small as not to affect the whole average 
appreciably, we consolidate them and present them as one. 

The total rtuut! .- uN isfaments are 3i«T 

• hands 5 ,364 

Do males above 16 4 432 

IH> females above 1& 4J»l 

391 

Total wage* paid in all f I i 9S .649 00 



A a examination of the return* gives above will show that out of 197 
ssapJorcee. there arc of the whole 7 per cent, foreaaen at $3 50 per day. 31 
per cent, skilled workmen at $2 25 per day, 43 per cent, apprentices at 60 
teats per day. and 20 per cent, females at 4? cents per day. 

■ .-lievv this proportion of apprentices to be too huge, and the cosn- 
peta*tk»c*thefhBale«tobet«»eah%U. In making *ur table, we rt-doc. 
br percentage of apprentice* to 29. and pat that of women to 19 per o 
Thik are estimate their average pay at f 1 09 pec day. Wc also increase 



the rate ofi 



workmen's pay to |2 5* per day, 



as a nearer 



a*- nag 



MANUFACTUIHXi; INDI'STMES. 



bos 



il.ASSIMi:,ninX. H\\<;i:< .WO AVERAGE E.U:\1M:S Mill YKAR. 



If 



ISM 

■J. 7.. 
1 00 



Foremen 332 

Skilled workmen 3,438 

Females alxive 15 53(1 



7."- A |i|>r.'iitiivs mill y< i a ili 1,073 



|I, 127 (HI 1302,434 62 *P39 25 

H.440 75 | 2,533,450 ttl 737 97 

680 HO ' 143,776 98 268 34 

& 7.'. 'J 1. S977 44 'Jill H 



Totals of eenmm retn nw 5,364 11.908 50 ;i. 105,049 00 



At the rates and jlaHsificatioiiH here exhibited tlie average time worked 
was a small fraction over 288 days. 

Below we (five ;t recapitulation table of all tlie manufacturing 1 industries 
of which we have received returns, as shown in the preceding pages. 

i uWiFlCAXiON, wai:«s AKX> BARKINGS in manitalturivi imiistihes fob which 
isettrns nAVE been uecEH'Kn. 



I'l.A-S. 



Foremen 

Skilled wirrk men 

Laborers, tlrst el«w 

Laborers, second class. 

Females aliove 15 

Youth, apprentices, &e. 



«? 



> 



7,830 

22,601 

3»,ses 

10,4711 
17,718 



82 88.4 
9 42.fi 
1 82 
1 50 
1 08 
68 



*22, 602 03 
138,452 58 

41,187 11 
44, 400 90 
17,012 85 
13, 140 20 



t fi 



~z 



* s 



•8,137,461 58 

33,3$2,«21 M 

10, 684, 108 87 

10,833,052 75 

3,638,174 92 

2,809,630 34 



•<tx 



J 



KW5 62 
(83 27 
472 72 
306 (V4 
220 87 
163 28 



151,391 1 1275,893 57 66,466,049 00 



This shows the results reached upon the basis we have adopted, (and 
which is explained by the tables presented in the preceding pages,) for all 
the manufacturing industries of which we have received any returns. 

An examination of the census return will show that the percentage of 
lemalcis of the total hands employed in .such industries in the State is 13 
per cent., while in those included in our returns they arc only 11 per cent. 
We do not, iinw v< r, regard this difference as of sufficient importance to 
affect our approximation materially, and therefore in the following table of 
approximate totals, we preserve the proportions indicated in the last table. 
The grand totals of the census in manufacturing industries are as follows: 
Total number of establishments 37 ,200 



Total number of hands employed .... 319 ,481 



DOMESTIC SERVANTS. 






DOMESTIC SERVANTS- 



The census gives for Pennsylvania, under the head of domestic servants,. 
84,848. These we assume to be mainly, if nut entirely, females. Very few 
men are employed in our State in capacities that would lead to their being- 
returned in the census blanks as domestic servants, inasmuch as those who 
would otherwise be so reported are given as agricultural laborers, hostlers, 
Ac. As to the rates of compensation received by domestic servants — this 
is more difficult to determine. In the large cities, competent and well con- 
ducted servants frequently are paid as much as $4 per week, in addition, 
i.f course. t«> their board, while it is probably very near the mark to say 
$2 00 per week would be the average for adults. ThiB estimate would, 
nevertheless, be tco high to apply to the whole, inasmuch as a very con- 
iderable proportion of them are young girls, who may be regarded as 
learners, and child muses, whose compensation is from 50 cents to $1 00 
per week. The compensation of servants depends also very largely upon 
the circumstances of the employers, their ability to pay and laatidiousnr-s 
as tO the quality of the service required. Nor is it of very great import- 
ance, in the inquiry we are making, whether our estimate is too hi^h or too 
low, because the condition of servant, -ah it is understood in this State, is> 
not to be regarded in any general sense as a permanent one ; being assumed - 
:i!rniist invariably as a temporary expedient, a means of bridging over KD 
exceptional pecuniary difficulty, and sometimes, though not nearly so often 
as it should be, as the means of acquiring a knowledge of practical house- 
keeping, that will fit the person so learning to fill with credit to herself 
and blessing to her family her future relation of wife and mother. Through- 
out the country districts the wages of domestic servants, under the same 
general conditions, may be put at fcl 00 per week, with board. Wo believe 
from our observation and information derived from inquiry, that an esti- 
mate of $1 25 per week for the whole State will not be far from the truth. 
For the reasons given here we do not include this class in our recapitula- 
tions. 



•"TLTfRAL LABORERS. 



AGRICULTURAL LABORERS. 



The RUfiibtt el :.giiriiltniiil laborers is put bj the census at 68,807. To 
a Motidatabli lexleat the remarks applied to the subject of damestio 

' I will also apply to tbcBC. The occupation of farm laborers is DO< 
an appreciable degree adopted an a profession or life's pursuit in this State. 
I ul only as a preparation or intermediary stage to the business of farming: 
or sonic "lli<i gaiulul pursuit. The wages of adult farm I alio re rs vary 
Ji>>in $12 00 to $20 00 per month and found, ailed ; in other won Is, 

frith board ; aud of youth, from $3 00 to $8 00 per month, with board I 
wist. In the busy seasons, as harvest time, &c, the daily wages of OStra 
hands will often reach as much as ib paid to "id i nary skilled workmen; 
but as this is only for a short time, and regular hands of the farm are usually 
-engaged by the month and sometimes by the year, and as these temporal il\ 
■niplnyed hands are also transitory residents, ami often the skilled work- 
men, mechanics, &c., of the neighborhood, they will hardly have been reck- 
-oned in the enumeration of this class of workmen in. the MOMf 
U'e, therefore,, estimate the ;nrn»-i- ■ t : i i I \- HffPP>gE of this class of work- 
men upon the basis for the whole State of, say $16 00 pan PMktfc Ud |oi;.hI. 
la order to determine somewhat nearly tin- proportion their earnings bear 
to those of other laborers, w. • inii^t ...M lo the t 1 1. . i . 1 1 iliy wages the valu 
the additional compensation tfcej ■trffliMa' in tl»e way of I 
and b»m generally, if not always, washing. 

This, again, he predicated upon the cost of the accommodation 

lo it,,- employei , but upon the charges usually made by those who futnnfa 
such accommodations by keeping boarding houses, either %gahuin^k W a* 
incidental to their other pursuit*. 1ft the cities, and large industrial •! 
trictB, such as the miuiiig regions, dec. the usual charge in woiktu 
boarding houses may be put at $i> 00 per week in the census year; il 
somewhat lees now, probably about an IjVMMgfl of $4 50, Away from there 
riM.ir nowili.'d and busy quarters the charges would be lower. We are in- 
clined to put the iiveragr ...ver the State at, Say $3 00 per week. Ti> ■- 
would bring the annual conipensation of this class of labofet 
full time to bfl made up to $348 00 per your. But making deduction for 
the usual deficiency of time made, wo may set them limn) ;, t $$$0 per v. 
and class them among second class laborers. 



BOOK-KEEPERS ACCOUNTANTS, CLERKS IN STORES. 507 



BOOK-KEEPERS. ACCOUNTANTS AND CLERKS IN STORES. &C. 



The- census tables of occupations give the following figures : 

Book-keepers and accountants in stores .' 2 ,240 

Clerks in stores .'...' 20 ,467 

Salesmen and saleswomen '.' 5 ,772 



28 ,479 



In these occupations, we have no data to go upon except common re- 
port. We received one return from Philadelphia, but it is very incomplete, 
simply saying they are not manufacturers, but jobbers in straw and millin- 
ery goods. Their salesmen, of whom they employ five, they pay according 
to what they sell. Their saleswomen, of whom they employ nine, from 
learners to experienced hands, earn from $2 to $8 per week, while they em- 
ploy from four to eight milliners in seasons of from six to nine months in 
the year, who earn from $4 25 to $12 per week. 

Mr. Blodget, in his essay before alluded to, puts the pay of accountants 
in the city of Philadelphia, at from $2 to $3 60 per day. 

There can be no doubt, but that the skilled workmen in mechanical and 
manufacturing occupations, are better paid than the masses of those who 
are called clerks in stores. The fancied greater ease and gentility of the 
life of the merchant over that of the mechanic, is probably the principal 
cause of a competition for such employment, that effectually closes the 
door to adequate compensation, while a small proportion of the whole who, 
through their superior ability and aptness, arc valuable employees, receive 
full and sufficient compensation ; common report and representation are 
very wide of the mark if the great majority are not very poorly paid. In 
our estimate, we put the wages as near the truth as we have the means of 
approximating it. 

We estimate one-third of the book-keepers to be first class, say at an 
average of $4 per day, or $1,200 per year ; two-thirds at $2 50 per day, or 
$760 per year. 

Of clerks in stores we will call 33 per cent, first-class, at an average of 
$2 00 per day ; 50 per cent, seccnd-class, at $1 25 per day.and 17 per cent. 
youth, at say, 50 cents per day. 

Of salesmen and saleswomen we make the proportions of male and female 
the same as in the Philadelphia return, viz : 35.7 per cent., males at $1 50 
per day ; 64.3 per cent., females at 86 cents per day. This, of course, is 



EMPLOYEES OF RAILROADS. M 



608 



EMPLOYEES OF RAILROAD COMPANIES, &C, (NOT CLERKS.) 



The census gives the following figures under the above heading: 

Employees of railroad companies, (not clerks,) 18,081 

I>" street nil road companies, (not* clerks,) 1 ,348 

Do telegraph OompSDteSi (nut clerks,) 1 ,210 

Total number of employees 20 ,630 



Of the employees of railroad companies, We asaiime that there are fn- 
- faded engineers, firemen, conductors, brakem^n and baggage masters, and 
laborers oa repairs. In the absence of ah> inf. .filiation on the subject, 
other than is derived from general observation, we divide these between the 
five classes, as 15 per cent, each, ol the three first, 3.5 per cent, of the Fourth 
and 20 per cent, of the fifth. 

Of employees ol street railway companies, it is to be assumed that th.\ 
represent the conductors, drivers, stablemen and laborers on road repairs. 
These we divide equally between the three classes. 

Of the- telegraph companies' employees, wo assume are Included Chose 
having charge of repairs, their laborers and messengers, wind are youth. 
These we divide as 20 per cent, fbnfthen, or supervisors of divisions 
per cent, laborers, and 30 per cent, messengers, who are mainly youth. 

In the matter of wageB, we have only common report to gaidC us. How 
near, alike in classification and wages wo have been able to come to tin- 
truth, we must leave to those who are better informed to determine. 

RAILROAD EJIPLOVEES. 

Upon the plan we have proposed, the following will be the exhibit in 

these employments, on an estimate ..f 275 days average time worked in 
the year : 

Engineers 2,712, at $3 00 per day average, $825 00 

Firemen 2,112, at 2 00 .. ....do. 550 00 

Conductors 2,712 ut 2 75 do 765 25 

Brakemeu and baggagcmasterB. ,6,328, at 1 75 do 481 25 

Laborers 3,617, at 150 do 412 



oil) KMl'LOVKHS 01 RAILROADS, feC. 

BTB8ET HAILWAYS. 

Conductor*. 449, at $2 2o per "lay average, £618 75 

Drivers 449, at 2 00 do 550 00 

Laborers... L">1>, at 150 do 412 50 

TKI.FM; K \ I'll COMPANIES KUITOY KKS. 

Foremen 242, at f 2 50 per day average., $687 50 

orera 605, at I'M do 412 50 

at* ::63. at 75 do 206 85 



Taese will end -our extracts from tiic sennas tables of occupatntts, not 
because they present even an approach to the total wage-working population 
nt tin State in numbers, but because they BM all ebe classes that are snf- 
Rpientlj defined aB to their character to enable us to use them in illustra- 
tion of the exhibit we deeiwj to make. Of the remainder, the return \e 
made in BUCh manner that, with the means at >>ur disposal, we cannot, find 
the dai.i upon which to base a division of the wage-workers from the whole 
number. There are given as being engaged) i" all occupations in the State 
i.u-",-'H persons ovpj ten yearaofage. win n it is remembered that these 

are included in this number all thfi proprietors <>f evjjry kiud of. business, 
and all persons engaged in the professions, it wiJI be conceded that the mini- 
her wc present is a ft "'>y 'air representation of the vast army of workers, 
Whose sturdy efforts, persistently applied, are rapidly pushing forward tin' 
position of tbe Coinn wealth to the first place, as to wealth and popula- 
tion; and may we not reasonably hope, under the influence of growing 
intelligence, in virtue and wisdom, in the galaxy of States. We now 
present a recapitulation of the whole of our inquiries, giving columns of 
classes, numbers, daily wages, estimated days worked, daily earnings of 
each- class. in each trade, annual earnings of the same, and actual annual 
average earnings of each individual of each class, We give all the figures, 
that those interested may see the method by which we reach our conclusions. 



iHTULATION OK CLA3S3TICAT10N 



Mr 



RECAPITULATION nK i I.ASSIKK ATI' i\\ WAOEB AND EAJINIKG* FOB 

THE STATE. 

FOREMEN, FULL TIME HANI,-. ,\< . 






s $ 



Minfflig 6,210 93 OS 28S.3 

Mano&Ctortng. 15,074 8 88.4 821 

Book-keepers, £«., 1st cbw 2,240 3 00 300 

Engineers, railroad.. . 2.712 S 00 27:. 

Conductor! 2, 7 12 2 7.". 276 



»I9, 126 80 
40, Wi8 01 

'■•, 720 00 
\ 136 00 
7,458 00 



$5,533,3*3 24 
10,161,861 21 

2,016,000 00 
400 00 

■i,\):*>,<x*\ ik.i 



*S91 2i> 
687 *i 

825 0(K 

750 25 



T otals and general nv t .- 2 03 S5J 6 -T, ;„>>> si . 7:177,, 

-KIl.l.KU WollKMCS. 



*109, 104 00 $G1 



Mining 36,368 *3 00 

M.uiul'a.'iunii^.. 116,210 2 42 6 

Book-keepers, Ac, 2d Class 8,754 2 00 

in. railroml. 2,712 2 ml 

Brmkemen, Ac ... 8,328 175 

<'-iiductors, 2d class 440 2 25 

Urivers of cars 440 2 011 

Foremen telegraph 242 2 50 

Totals and general .ivp. 171,512 2 40.7 218.:. 4-*, li*2 50 



286, ii 
13, Si 

.1 ml 

11.1174 00 

I, MO 25 

BOB OQ 

tin:, iki 



,002,520 00 

(33, 3.i 1.0 

4, 1 .52, 400 00 

1,491,600 00 

3,046,360 ihi 

377,618 75 

101,05(1 (Ml 

166,375 00 



*577 50 

t',00 IKI 

48] 23 

07 :.ii 



03, 570, 70S (10 545(11 



LABORERS — FIRST (.'LA-*, 



Mining 16,140 12 14 

Manufacturing 47,824 182 

Rnilr»n.| l;i 

Street railroad laborers. . . 150 1 50 

Tetagntpfi laboran 1 50 

ftaleenim in stores 2,000 ISO 



SS4.5S9 mi 
87,221 68 

5,425 50 
675 00 

007 so 

3,090 00 



16, 704, I8<1 X6 

.'■'.'1 28 

1,4*2,012 50 

185,023 00 

240,."j:l: 50 

! '27. 000 00 



6415 37 
112 60 

4ia 50 

412 50 
450 00 



Totals and general iiv^s. 70,706 186.2,218.: 131, KM 28 2K,fc84,327 64 407 42 

LABORERS — SECOND CLASS. 



Mining.. 

Agricultural laborers. . 

Manufacturing 

Clerks, aecona class.. , . 



12,396 II 77 
68,807 I 1 50 
63,897 ! 1 50 
10,234 1 SB 



TotaflM and general avgs. 156.4* l 50.5 212.2 23S , W«_43 

FEMALES. 



180.7 
200 
221 
300 



821,040 02 

103, 345 50 

05, 845 50 

12,702 50 



83,064,724 24 
80,066,100 00 
21, 161,859 50 

3,837,750 00 



|319 84 

300 00 

381 50 

•17:, 00 



40. 653. 429 74 819 47 





35, 144 SI 03 
3,712 1 86 


221 
300 


836, 198 32 
3, 192 32 

39,300 64 


*7, '.'•I"'. ,S28 72 

957,096 00 
8,957,524 70 


6227 03 

258 0i> 








Totals and general avgs. 


38,856 1 1 01.3 


277.4 


230 53 






APPRENTICES AND OTHER VOITH. 



Mining 9,646 

Man uiaeiuring 38, 338 

Curia 3,479 

Telegraph messengers. Ac. 363 

Total* and general avgs. 51, 826 

fintnd totals f>!8, 262 



00.4 173 

68 2B1 

60 I 300 

75 275 



71 



213.7 



$8,719 98 

26,069 84 

1,739 50 

272 25 



•1,508,556 54 I 1156 30 

5,761,434 64 160 28 

521,850 00 150 00 

74,808 75 206 25. 



36,801 57 



7,886,708 N 



•210,910,684 46 



151 79 



512 



L!K( APITL'LATION OF CLASSIFICATION. 



It is seen by the foregoing- table that, according to our approximation, 
there are 

29 ,848 males, whose average earnings per year are $737 70 

171 ,512 males do do do 545 61 

-Jiiti ,220 males do do do 346 95 

38.856 females . . . .do do do 230 53 

51,826 youth do do do 151 48 



now estimate that, say 3d per cent,, of the females are working for 
their own individual support, as distinct from those whose labor goes to 
aid in the support of families, wbiie we will say 20 per cent, of youth may 
be put in the same category. After these are deducted the earnings of 
the remainder 1 go to swell the earnings of the heads of families among the 
several classes of male workmen. Of these we put none to tlie credit of 
full time hands, &c, because, from the fact that they are better paid, tin 
necessity doee not exist for aid from such sources. We must also make ait 
allowance for the proportion of male workmen who hare families to fchoei 
who are single and work fur themselves alone. We assume the latter to- 
be of skilled workmen 15 per cent., and of laborers 25 per cent. This es- 
timate will give heads of families among; skilled workmen 145,786, ami 
25,726 single men ; among laborers it will give as heads offamilies 169.665, 
and 56,555 single men. This shows an excess of laborers' families over 
the familit'B of skilled workmen of 23,879, or about 14 per cent.; but as 
frwn the more liberal incomes of skilled workmen, the necessities are not 
so great, we estimate that a much smaller number resort to the earnings nf 
v'ives arid children to add to the means of family support, and we there- 
fore increase this difference i >y lij per ofcni , giving to laborers' families 70 
percent, of the earnings of females and youth, (reduced aa before men- 
tioned,) and 30 per cent, to skilled workmen. Our conclusions will thus 
make the following exhibit : 

foremen and full time hands 29 ,843. . .yearly earnings, $737 70 

Skilled workmen with families 135 ,786 do 571 47 

Skilled workmen single 25,726 do 545 61 

Laborers with families 169 ,665 do 398 78 

Laborers single ... 56 ,555 do 346 95 

Females, single 11 ,656 .do 230 58 

Tooth, self-supporting 10,365 ilo 151 7'.) 



In adopting the plan here presented of approximating the actual average 
annual earnings of the different classes of wage workers, we h:n e I u gov- 
erned by the consideration that the Importance- of determining, 
possible, the earnings of the people is greater than a comparieou of quoted 



RECAPITULATION OF CLASSIFICATION. 513 

wages. In the Massachusetts report their statements are generally based 
upon the latter. But the practicability of reaching reliable conclusions, 
through means of the five thousand dollars they had to expend in payment 
for bona fide returns and inquiries, gave them a very great advantage over 
this Bureau with its very small appropriation for such purposes. 

We know that the results reached are peculiarly open to criticism at the 
hands of those who do not understand the subject, or who would prefer that 
the question should not be raised at all ; but we feel equally sure that to 
the thoughtful student of politico-social economy, who is well enough in- 
formed to realize the gravity of the situation, and brave and humanitarian 
enough to wish for and seek a remedy, they will be suggestive and helpful. 
The only suggestion we wish to add is, that if it is conceded that they are 
too speculative, that the classification of the workmen is erroneous, and 
presents too large a proportion of underpaid workmen, still, any alteration 
that can be made within reason or probability, will not increase the general 
average earnings more than forty or fifty dollars per year. 

Now, a few extracts from the Massachusetts Labor Report will serve as . 
criterion by which to test the general correctness of the conclusions we 
have reached. It will be noted that the tables we extract are made up 
from returns actually received from employers, and give their showing of 
the matters contained in them. They are taken from the volume for 1871, 
because that comes nearest to the time for which our approximation is 
made. 

These extracts from the Massachusetts report will also be valuable as il- 
lustrating the usclessness as statistical information, of those comparisons of 
quoted wages, between this and other countries, so much delighted in by 
its 'present management. 

These, wiiich are actual returns, show almost the same results as wo reach 
from the census report ; inadequate compensation. How nonsensical th*> 
boast that higher wages are paid here than in foreign countries. If their 
workmen were roasted, would it be a source of gratulation to us that ours 
were only boiled ? 



33 Statistics. 



RECAPITULATION OF CLASSIFICATION. 



515 



S3 



813888 



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RECAPITULATION OP CLASSIFICATION. 



617 



I b a result of those tables we may note that they report fe£ 18 to be the 

.iverage daily wages paid c-ach person employed;, and reckoned upon the 
nut paid each person for the six months, §l'S- r > IS, wHl shew M 

Of ISO ilayB to have been worked. Tin mtially a close c hto1 

lion of tho correctness of our table*, both as to classification, wages and 
,;il average annual earnings, for included in those return.-; are : * 1 1 tin- 

foremen, wlio, in on* tables, are classed among tho full time hands-, or i 

whose time goes on steadily whether basinett is full at lax, win I 

machinery in running smoothly oris broken, whether agreement exists be- 
DpioyeT and employed, or tin? work is idle in consequence ol 
Suppose, for the sako- of the illustration, we try to present I 
Hitlts in the same form M OUT*, mid &e« wb*1 tlifl result Will be. It will be 
. thai u HM8I oinrns are glad's t h ■- 1-.- an "iily a few of them in which 
foremen, as such, are named, nad their Yet it is no violent 
assumption to say tint the number of foremen, or persons that we bftVe 
classified as such, will be one in twenty, ot 6 pel cent, of the whole 
We will lake of the whole ninnber given 10,716 

for Foremen 5 per cent, of the men, or 

Skilled workmen, TS . .Jo. do T ,550 

Laborers 20 ..... do do 2 ,011 

Young persons, the number returned 649 

We propose tu pay these several classes at the averages of the rati 
wages given as paid to the several classes in the tables. As to uirr classi- 
fication, a reference to the returns to this office, from similar industries in 
this State, will demonstrate how near right or how far wrong we ure in that, 
thus: 



$4 09 Foremen 508 

10 Skilled workmen 7,550 

1 Ko I-aborern 2.0H 

1 00 Youth G49 



i r- 



:- - 



m\ o:,7 V *MS, 7-12 04 *>.-i -7 

17,365 00 i 2 '.268,404 fC. :•■•>•< I.", 

: 10 434,0!Hl -J.7 218 41 

049 00 i 84,778 -7 130 fl I 



Total of Mass, tall- ... 10,716 23.39* 87 3,059,038 63 - 

When it in taken Into consideration tii.it tin- trades enumerated in these 
returns are those in which wages are understood to rule the highest in this 
country, which is made apparent by the wages quoted alike in the returns 
received at this office, and in those in the foregoing Massachusetts table, 
the corroboration tbey furnish of the substantial correctness of oar conclo- 



518 



UK'APITULATION OF CLASSIFICATION. 



Bfons is peculiarly and Strikingly forcible. Our purpose has be< n in all we 
haws presented thus far, to show as nearly In demons! ration as tin- data 
would admit, hot only what tin- average earnings of Pennsylvania WOCkm □ 
are, but what proportion of the whole have adequate means of support, 
and what proportion are inadequately paid. That the results arc disap- 
pointing, and to some extant alarming, is the least thai san be said <>i 
them. It Las been BO long tlio prevailing custom to speak of our peculiar 
social and political structure as developing the most benelieioiit liberality 
of oompehaatioii to the wage-worker } bo long our standing boast that the 
American workman is the beat paid in the world, and the happiest 
most contented; it baa been so Quaternary to regard bis expressions of 
discontent, aa the effect of the mischievous interference of blatant dema- 
gogues, or as the fn.licksome or virions eolt-liko kiekings and insolence 61 
pampered fatness, that tin? prenenlati.ni . . t the hard but unquestionable luri 
that there is in the State of Pennsylvania a horde of laborers, constituting 
an army in numbers greater than that of the Potomac when its ranks wen 
fullest, who live and rear their families, in some way, on an average income 
of less than four hundred dollars per year, must strike upon the conscious- 
iioss of the thoughtful publicist with startling cfl'ect. It would have been a 
far pleasanter task to have reached results the reverse of these. But if Hue 
inquiry is to accomplish any good it must be made with a view tn the de- 
velopment of the truth, however unpalatable it may prove to be. We have 
noticed before, that upon inquiry being made, the wages that are quoted are 
always higher than arc realized as averages ; and this is true, not because 
of any purpose to mislead, but because the demand for work is almost al- 
ways greater than the demand for workmen. 

It is not then our purpose in this report to charge upon any class inten- 
tional misrepresentation, but simply to present the situation as it is. To 
illustrate : The very excellent and suggestive eBsay read before the Phila- 
delphia Social Science association, April 25, 1872, by Mr. Lorin lilodgot, 
one of the most thoughtful and experienced statisticians, and one of clearest 
aud most conscientious politico-social writers of our day, quotes the wages 
paid in that city, as he found them to be upon careful, persistent and indus- 
trious personal inquiry. So impressed was he with the apparent sufficicm-v 
of the wages, and consequent prosperity of the wage-working class, that be 
is convinced "that a greater than temporary success has been gained, and 
something far beyond mere monetary triumphs have been secured." Are! 
yet, the failure of one speculative establishment in that city, and that 
not engaged in productive enterprise, has proved sufficient to spread tin 
terrors of general bankruptcy over the whole country, lock up the circuit- 
ting medium of the people, stop for a time the wheels of industrial progr. 
and throw upon their reserves for support a great proportion of this pros- 



RECAPITULATION OF CLASSIFICATION. 519 

,perou8 wage-working population. With what result ? Within three weeks 
the presence of privation became painfully manifest ; in four, it stalked 
ghastly and obtrusive upon the streets ; within six, the rumblings of a 
gathering storm springing from the want and desolation of thousands of 
unemployed wage-workers, warned the thoughtful and philanthropic to pre- 
pare to combat the consequences of extreme poverty among the working 
thousands. 

These facts that are patent to the consciousness of every observant citizen, 
are additional corroborations of the truthfulness of the lesson our tables of 
approximation teach ; which is simply, that in the greed for material success 
through inexorable competition, that item of cost being the easiest reached , 
and the most readily reduced, the measure of wages is made "the dead 
level of starvation prices." In other words, the worker being present, and 
perhaps too poor to move, just as much is paid, and no more, as will keep 
him at his work. This, it is apprehended, is not the deliberate and intended 
work of any man, or class of men, but the vice of the system. The whole 
force of our social and educational influences being directed to teaching as 
•the one great purpose of life the acquisition of wealth, every personal am- 
bition, every public aspiration has become tinctured and colored with the 
vice, until no private act is regarded, no legislative policy debated, except 
in reference to the bearing it may have upon the promotion of pecuniar)' 
success. 



520 



COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES 



COMPARATIVE RAXES OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR 
MASSACHUSETTS AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



IN 



The worth, size and importance of things arc to be determined largely 
by comparison. Of course, this rule ought not to Supply to co&ddtiooji of 
persons with the same positive application ; for that one man is badly 
abased is no reason for saying another lasj badly treated is treated well ; 
yet, to weigh correctly the condition of a class, it seems to us sound judg- 
! to put the faets concerning one, or a branch of One class, in eompari- 
WO wilh tbosfl connected with another class m- branch of tlio same. W C 
accordingly present, in this fourth pari of niir report, the mailer properly 
coming under the above title. 

The subject of comparative rates of wages in Massachusetts and foreign 
countries, from the nature nt the ease, can be presented but in part \ lull 
so far as it concerns the industries named below, but in part as regards all 
the iuduetries of the State. The principal data from which we have drawn 
the rates paid for foreigu labor were obtained by the personal investigation 
and application (if the Hon. Edward Young, Chiei of the National Bureau 
of Statistics, Washington, and responsible parties resident in the respective 
countries working under his instructions. For the purpose of correction 
or corroboration, wo have referred to similar information by II, M, Queen 
Victoria's consuls, and incorporated by them in reports to their home 

eminent. 

Some of the figures were furnished us in tabular form ; others wore con- 
tained in letters. The wages were given by day, week, month, season DC 
year, and oftentimes in foreign money values. To collate and systemize 
these figures, calculate the weekly wages from them, and present it here ii. 
American gold values a ml also on the basis of the paper dollar ("greenback - " I 
of 1872, has been the work of this Bureau. To obtain the desired figures 
in Massachusetts, for comparison, direct personal investigation was mnile 
by agents of this Bureau, who were received with uniform courtesy by 
employers; and in but few instances was any objection made to supply 
ne with such in formation as we hail deemed needful for our proposes, 
It is worthy of remark, that of many letters sent to employers for similar 
information, but few secured any reply r. After careful collation 

of our foreign materials, forty branches of employment were selected as 
being most complete and most likely to have a similarity in technical sub- 
w'th our own State's corresponding industries. We subjoin a 






COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES. 521 

list of the occupations selected for comparison as regards rates of wages 

and hours of labor : 

Agricultural labor, Dressmaking, 

Blacksmiths, Envelopemaking, 

Breweries, Glassmaking, 

Bookbinding, Hat and cap making, 

Bakers, Iron manufactures, 

Brickmaking, Jute manufactures, 

Boots and shoes, Locomotive engine making, 

Boxmaking, Watchmaking, 

Boilers and agricultural machines, Preserved meats, pickles, etc., 

Brushmaking, Printing, 

Bleaching, dyeing and printing, Papermaking, 

Building trades, Ropemaking, 

Olockmaking, Rubber manufactures, 

Chemical works, • Ship building, 

Cabinetmaking aud upholstery, Safe and lockmaking, 

Coach, carriage and wagoi. building, Soap and candles, 

Clothing manufacture, Type foundries, 

Carpetmaking, Tanners and curriers, 

Corsetmakiug, Tobacco and cigars, 

Cotton manufactures, Woolen manufactures. 

In many cases where part of the branches of a business, admitted of com- 
parisons and part did not, we have given the latter subdivisions under the 
heading, " not admitting of comparison ;" though in a general sense we 
deem such matter has no rightful place in a report of this Bureau, for, in 
our conception of the law constituting it, facts relative to or comparable 
with Massachusetts, are the only ones legislatively called for.' If we had 
not been governed by this strict interpretation of the law in this one divi- 
sion, we could have swelled the report to an inordinate size. Information 
in our possession concerning the iron trade of England ; Krupp's steel 
works in Essen, Prussia ; the lace trade of Nottingham, England ; the cut- 
lory trades of Sheffield, England ; the silk manufacturers of Lyons, France ; 
the glove and velvet factories of Germany ; the linen manufactures of Scot- 
land and Ireland, and tho marble manufactures of Italy, would have made a 
volume in itself; but as these trades have no corresponding status of im- 
portance in our own State, we have deemed them inadmissible, however in- 
teresting or valuable they might be to the general reader or student of sta- 
tistics. Besides the matter jost summarized as extraneous, there are in 
possession of the Bureau (obtained without cost) articles upon " The Drink 
Traffic of Great Britain ;" tables showing the percentage of advance in 
wages and cost of living in 1873, as compared with 1861, in Stuttgard and 



s-2-2 



COMPARATIVE RATES OK WAGES. 



"ihr kingdom of Wnrtemberg ; "Agricultural Labor in England," and a 
translation of a comprehensive article, written by Prof. Georges Bemad, 
upon labor and cost of living in Paris since it- en &ouation by tin.- Germane 
We have adopted the plan, in table I, of giving the highest wage obtained 

Prom our returns, whether home or foreign ; also the loweel wage round in 
tin in, and such inti-i incili:ito wages as vary materially from the highest and 
lowest, grading them according to the amonm paid. As far as obtained w 
deem our rates of wages reliable, and present them in tabular form. We 
.hi well aware that no table; that no bare statistics can give the relative 

•condition of classes in different counties, fur tin- habits, customs, tastes and 
modes of living of one differ from those i if another, to as great if not greater 

"degree than the wages of tin- same elasa; bat with the aid of the depart- 
ment of our work on the purchase-power of money, Working people in this 

•State can easily ascertain what condition they would be in in aoothei 
country, and tin- laborer or artisan of the Old World can. without much 

laboc mi liis part, iletennine his position hero? should he be inclined to tr\ 
his fortunes in the New World. Each must make his calculation as to 

■wages and cost of living on the basis of his own desires. For instance, while 

•in all or nearly all the industries wo have given, the employee receives here 

n much larger income than his fellow in Europe, he will find that his rent, 
clothing and provisions cost him more ; he will find, also, that he receives 
ur consumes more, lives m a better way, has mine ofthe comforts and Inz- 
nriea of life, so that at the end ofthe year, while he has but little more, it 
any, surplus than the European, mid has worked no harder, if as hard, bf 
more of B man and occupies a position some grades higher in the seal.' .1 

•civilization, and has that inestimable blessing denied the foreign laborer, 

.especially the English agricultural workingiuan. tin- right and priviiegi 

.become a laud owner. 

Jf the i o reign laborer -or mechanic should come t<> this country and con- 
tiinie to live in the same general meagre way that be did in the old coun- 
try while he received the wages of^the new, he would soon find himself 

\with a surplus that would enable him to place his family in a Condition 

nhat would be the envy of hie old shopmates, but by this the real benefil 
t" himself and family probably would not be equal to that gained by a 
•change of his mode of life, with the prospect of less surplus. It is the 
Teal moral and physical condition of a man that makes him more or lets of 

ft nan, not hie property ffarptaey however desirable th<- surplus might be. 

W'e trust the time will speedily come when In 1 can have botli element! I 
his happiness — moral character and property surplus. While this subject, 
so far as wages arc concerned, furnisher no material of legislative consjno* 
plat ion, it does furnish matter of great interest, not Only to employees but 
to the employer. As regards the hours of labor the facts given certainly 
form a valuable feature as a basis I'm- action in the regulation of laboi 
oar manufacturing establishments. 



COMPARATIVE KATES OF WAGES. 



523 



TABLE I.-COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES. 



Note. — The following abbreviations are made use of in this table : h. w., 
for highest wage, in. w. for medium wage, and 1. w. for lowest wage. The 
contractions used "of names of countries will be found sufficiently explana- 
tory in themselves. The wages given, in all cases, are those of adult 
males, unless women, youth or children, are particularly designated. The 
terms, first grade, second grade, &c, refer simply to the amount of wage 
received, and have no significance as far as ability or workmanlike quali- 
fications are concerned. The first grade is always the highest wage paid ; 
the last grade given in each case denotes the lowest wage paid. The in- 
termediate grades are, in most cases, the results of careful averaging. 

1 AV'OE WEIKLY 
WAGES. 



OCCUPATIONS AND COUNTHIES. 



go : 


tx 


ill 


S 

3 


a 
a 

I 

■8 


: h 


p. 



Agriculture. 

Laborers*, with board, Massachusetts. 

Laborers, without board, England — 

Surrey highest wage 

Do lowest. . .do 

Do. . (women,).. . .highest, .do 

Do do lowest. . .do 

Do. . (children,) . .highest, .do 

Do do. lowest . . .do 

Kent highest, .do 

Do lowest . . .do 

Do. . (women,) . . .highest, .do 

Do do. . . : . ...lowest. . .do 

Do. . (children,) . .highest, .do 

Do do lowest. . .do 

Sussex highest, .do 

Do lowest. . .do 

Do. . (women,)... .highest, .do 

Do do lowest. . .do 

Do. . (children,) . .highest, .do 

Do do lowest. . .do 

Devonshire highest, .do 

Do lowest... do 

Do . . (women, ) — highest . .do 

Do do lowest. . .do 

Do. . (children,) . .highest, .do 

Do do. lowest., .do 

Cornwall highest, .do 

Do lowest. . .do 

Do. . (women,).. . .highest, .do 

Do do lowest. . .do 

Do. . (children,) . .highest, .do 

Do do lowest. . .do. ,.,.,,..., . 



I 



$800 #5 38 



45 
63 

63 



86 
70 
6 81 
3 53 
244 
163 
2 17 
81 
5 45 
2 99 



64 

08 

17 

22 

08 

38 

41 

06 
2 99 I 
1 22 I 
1 08 I 
1 22 | 

81 



484 

3 14 

1 45 

1 21 

1 21 

62 

605 

3 14 

17 

45 

93 

72 

84 

66 

45 

21 

1 49 

48 

363 

1 93 

1 08 

96 

1 21 

36 

363 

266 

106 

96 

108 

72 



524 



COMPARATIVE RATES <»F WAGES. 



RATES OF WAGES— CotMmmiiI. 



\ y'i .1. WEBS I.'. 
\Y A (IKS. 



l>(.'( VVJk I [OSS AMI <0I NTItJKft, 



: 5Jc 



Laborers, without board, England— 
Norfolk . Mgbeal do 

Do lowest... do 

l'n .(women,)... .highest.. do 

Do.... ■]■' lowest. ., do. ... 

Do. .(children,).. highest.. do. 

Do do lowest 'I" 

Lincoln highest , 'I" 

Do. . . - do 

Do. i women,). ...highest, .do ,,...».• ..i 

] in do ..lowest . . .(in 

l'H. (children,).. high i 

Do do lowest. . .do. 

laborers, without hoard, Wiilcs— 

Mi irthyr Tydfil highest wage I 89 

Do lowest. ..do 8M 

Do., (women,}., .highest.. do I 08 

Do... ...do lowest. ..do ins 

Do., (children,). do 81 

| 'r..w bridge highest, .do ■"• 73 

Do lowest . . .do H B8 

Bo.. (women,). do . 1 (13 

I'o (children,), .highest, .do 

Do do lowest ■ . .do 

I.iuulilsfnrve highest, .do 

Do lowest . do 

Do., (women,). ...highest, .do 

I'o do . ...v. . -; do 1 OS 

Bo.. (children,), .highest. .do i tx* 

Do do lowest .. .do 81 

Oonway..-(women,}hlghest,,do 103 

Do. ....(children) SO 87 

I ji borers, without board, Ireland— 

fcfen highest wage ... I 01 

Ho .mod in m do , I) •!<» 

Do lowest. ..do I IS 

Bo. . ( harvest, ) . . .highest., do BH 

Do do medium do IPS 

I ''i do lowest.... lo 3 38 

Women highest. .do 2 46 

I'n lowest, .do 1 !H> 

Laborers, without board, Scotland — 

si ii '| ill. Tils, Including gains ... 

nils do IK 

Binds, including gains 

Bondages, (women,) tvith I KKirtl. 146 

rood ana a-Mhlng. I ho 

Foresters, without Unird. Scotland— 

overseers. S 72 

Hands ii" 

laborers, with i«>ard, France— 

Men, highest wage 8 0s 

Do, medium.. do., 1 U9 

I'o .lowest do i'.:; 

Women's 00 03 

Laborers, with board, Germany— 

A'omen, highest wage ., ft 

Do . .lowest . <l . . ....... M 



8 SB 

1 02 

a M 

8 on 

■1 IX 

i M 

i M 

4 -X! 

i n 

i .-in 

1 0H 

.1 08 



COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES. 
RATES OF WAGES— Continued. 



525 



AV'OE WEEKLY 


WAGES. 


3E 


X 


2,-gff 


5T 


sat « 


3 


: 2.3 


3. 
3 






.;...?? 


J - 


82 85 


*2 53 


93 


83 




50 



OClTPATION.s ANP COUNTRIES 



I-uborers, witli board, Prussia — 

Moil's wages 

Women, highest wage 

bo lowest. ..do 

Laborers, with board, Denmark — 

Men, highest wage 1 43 

Do. . lowest . . do 1 03 

Lu borers, wilh board, Russia- 
Men, i n summer ■ 5 10 

Do. winter ' 3 12 

laborers, with l>oard, (hired only by the year,) Switzerland- 
Men, highest wage 3 47 

Do., lowest, do 2 80 

Women, highest wage ' 1 29 

Do. .lowest do ■ 108 

Laborers, with board, Italy — 

Men, highest wage ' 3 89 

Do. . lowost . . .do : 2 34 

Women's wages ' I 1 17 

Laborers, with board, Tunis, Continent of Africa— ■ • 

Men, highest wage 2 34 

Do . lowest . . .do 1 95 

Women's wages : 1 29 

Blaektmitha. 

Massachusetts— 

In city 

In country 

Knglnnd— 

Highest wage , 

Do do , 

lowest . .du 

Ireland — 

Highest wage 

High do ; 

Lowest. ..do 

Scotland- 
Highest wage 

Lowest . .do 

Germany— 

Highest wage 

Medium, .do 

Lowest do 

Prussia— 

H ighest wnge 

Medium . .do 

Lowest. . ..do 

Franoe — 

nighest wage 

Medium . .do 

Lowest . . ..do 

Marseilles 

Do ', 



92 

4 61 

2 77 

3 08 

2 31 

1 15 
96 

3 46 

2 08 

1 04 

2 08 
1 73 
1 15 



Italy- 
Highest wage 
Medium.. do.. 
Lowest... .do . 



18 50 
15 00 


16 44 
13 33 


7 00 
81 
5 45 


702 
06 

4 84 


8 98 
8 44 
5 72 


7 90 

7 50 
5 08 


7 62 

81 


6 78 
6 05 


6 75 
4 97 
3 94 


6 00 
4 42 
3 50 


7 29 
5 07 
304 


6 48 
4 50 
3 50 


6 01 
527 
270 
10 80 
8 10 


5 84 
4 68 
2 40 
960 
7 20 


540 
885 
2 70 


4 80 
842 
2 40 



COMPARATIVE RATES OP WAGES. 
RATES OP WAGES— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS AND ("OUNTR1KS. 



Jiookbintlera. 
Finishers 1st grade Massachusetts . . . 

Do 3d . .do do 

Do 3d . .do do 

Do 4th ..do do 

Do 1st. .do England 

Do 2d . .do do 

Forwarders, 1st class 1st grade Massachusetts . . . 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 1st class England 

Do 2d ..do 1st grade Massachusetts..., 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 3d ..do do , 

Do 2d class England 

Stampers . . .1st class 1st grade Massachusetts . . . 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 1st class England 

Do 2d . .do Massachusetts . . . 

Do 2d . .do England 

Folders females 1st grade Massachusetts 

DO do 2d.. do do 

Do do 3d . .do do 

Do do 4th. .do do 

Do do 1st . .do England 

Do do 2d ..do do 

Do do 3d . .do do 

Do do piece-work Massachusetts . . . 

Do do do do 

Do do do England 

Do do do do ] 

Sewers do 1st grade Massachusetts 

Do do 2d . .do do 

Do do 3d . .do do [ 

Do do 4th. .do do I 

Do do 1st . .do England 

Do. do 2d . .do do 

Do do \ 3d . .do do 

Do do piece-work Massachusetts 

Do do do do 

Do do do England 

Do do do do 

Collators do 1st grade Massachusetts.. . . 

Do do 2d ..do do 

Do do 3d ..do do , 

Do do piece-work do 

Do do do do 

Do do do England 

Do do do do 

Not admitting of comparison. 

Binders. 1st grade England 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 1st . .do Germany 5 67 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do .'.' 8d ..do do 

Do 4th. .do do 



52t 



AV'OE WEEKLY" 


WAGES. 


X 


m 


all 


1 

3 

o. 
so 


:%* 


3. 


: ad 


3 


■ Bfae 


a. 


"1 • 




$26 00 


*23 11 


22 00 


19 55- 


20 00 


17 77 


10 00 


16 88 


10 80 


9 68- 


80 


8 71 


24 00 


21 83 


20 Oft 


17 77 


18 00 


16 00- 


8ft 


8 71 


18 00 


16 00 


16 0ft 


14 22. 


15 00 


18 33 


9 80 


7 74 


22 00 


19 65. 


20 00 


17 77 


8 71 


7 74 


16 Oft 


14 22 


8 17 


7 26 


900 


8 00- 


7 00 


22 


600 


5 83 


5 00 


4 44' 


3 81 


3 89 


724 


2 88- 


2 72 


2 42 


10 80 


9 60 


7 20 


6 36 


5 45 


4 84' 


3 26 


2 90 


9 00 


8 CO 


700 


6 22 


6 00 


5 33 


500 


4 44> 


3 81 


3 39' 


324 


2 88 


2 72 


2 42' 


10 80 


9 60 


7 20 


6 36 


4 35 


3 87 


2 72 


242 


9 00 


8 00 


6 00 


5 83- 


500 


4 44 


10 80 


960 


7 20 


6 86 


3 81 


3 89 


2 99 


2 66' 


9 26 


823 


872 


7 75- 


7 35 


6 53 


5 67 


5 04 


5 06 


4 50 


3 85 


342. 


3 24 


2 88-- 



528 



COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES 
RATES OP WAGB9— OoarnftTBD. 



PATIONS IHI> t'OL'51 



Bat 

' iru i kiii^r. i a i' n 1st grade Mamc'tutti 

Do do. 2d. .dn do 

iiu do 3d. .do do 

I'n ii". . tsl .<l" England 

i>i> .do. . 3d.. do do 

Do . do.., .'M .do,. -I" 

H" do 1st.. do Sii.tlund 

Do, . . .do 2d. .dp ill- 

I'll ..(n |d .,ll" '1'- 

Il" 'In ,,. Ist..dl I .itjiiiMiV 

Iiu do. .....2d ..do il.' .. 

Iiu .'in.. 3d.. do ill). 

!><>.. ...'!" Lth..do do 

Do do. .with hoard 1--, .do do 

Do, . - .do do 2d. .da do 

Do ....do 'I" ">ii ...in 4o.. 

i'n... boy* 1st. .do, . MkssjwIuis, 

Do ii" •-:<! ..do do 

Iiu glrla ili> 

!'•> Boya.. l*t. .<lo Scotland.. 

Do. do M ..do do 

i rh-ta packing Scotland.. 

Do do. do . . 

Broadbttklog, men. lot grade . ...MaaeachuMtts.., 

Do . . . do . . .. 2d ..do .!•. 

Do do - . Scotland .... . 

in. do.... 2d.. do do 

Men, (S'i'c'iii''ki.'il'iikiiii;i .... England 

iiu ... . .....( formally 

Not admitting i-"ni. 

dhnklug Massachusetts .. 

CHr» do do 

Do ' hoei, 
Catters, upper Micisnolius.-iiH. . . 

Do... .with dies do 

Do Boteleathor do. 

Do 1st grade . England 

Do . M do do 

Do Bd do do 

Fitters, stock Massachusetts... 

Kirti ■!■-. female* 1-1 •_• riiilo Kniflniid 

|ii> (In Jd. do do 

Do do 3d..dn do 

Hotlomer* Ma saaohueetta . . . 

Finishers... do 

Do 1st grade Knglnnd 

I*i. i .2d, do do 

DO 3d., do So.tlninl 

Machine hands, females Massachusetts . . . 

i '■■ do Scotland • 

Do do 1st grade England 

Do do 'id ..do do 

Do do 3d, do do 

Lastmnkcrs. 1st grade Ma— i til J i iiu 

I'... ... 2d. .do do~ 



kV'OS wkkki.y 


U" \,.i>. 


X 


0B 


KB 8 


S. 
I 


'- -:, 


I 




1 


SIS IHI 






12 41 


13 00 




8 72 


• . a 


7 r,:; 


(i 7-i 


fl M 


S Bl 


8 17 


7 !W 


7 27 




1 '.HI 


1 OH 


b n 




•1 78 


l 20 


l 00 


3 00 


1 -J 1 


2 As 


'2 70 




2 :;i 




i 12 


1 On 


7 SO 








ii oq 






1 4.'. 


Bl 


72 


a 4i 


1! 17 


Bl 


7U 


l.-, mi 




il 50 


12 S8 


s 71 


7 71 


i as 


■j on 



111 llll 


R «l 


7 10 


i; :;; 


is 00 




14 00 


12 +1 


IS mi 


l(J INI 


7 08 


n 2P 


it 51 


:, SI 


4 '.'1 




10 00 


1 1 22 


7 OR 


6 29 


4 91 


4 3-i 


a -.''I 




18 00 


' 


IS 00 


It INI 


in so 


■1 88 


6 72 


:, Ofi 


7 OS 


i: gfl 


10 00 


! 


i n 


■_' 12 


3 91 




3 24 


'J SS 


2 IB 


1 '•! 


Jll INI 


17 7* 


i- go 


10 00 



COMPARATIVE RATES OP WAGES. 
BATES OF WAGES— Continued. 



529 



AV'OE WEEKLY 
WAGES. 



OCCUPAJION8 AND COUNTRIES. 



00 

'I* 
8? 



i Boots and Shoes — Continued. 
Last makers. 1st grade England 

Do 2d . .do do 

Shoemakers 1st. .do Massachusetts... . 

Do ..2d ..do do 

Do Repairing 1st.. do do 

Do do .. .2d . .do do 

Do do 3d.. do do 

Do do 4th. .do do 

Do do 1st. .do England 

Do do 2d . .do do 

Do do 3d.. do do 

Do do 4th. .do do 

Do do 5th. .do do 

Do do 1st.. do Germany 

Do do 2d ..do do 

Do '. do 3d . .do do 

Do do 4th. .do do 

Do do 5th. .do do 

. Do do 1st.. do ...Prussia 

Do do 2d . .do do 

Do f 1st. .do France 

Do ; 2d ..do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 4th ..do do 

Do 1st . .do Italy 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do •. 3d . .do do 

Do women do 

Do men .Sicily 

Do 1st.. do Denmark 

Do , 2d ..do do 

Do Austria 

Do" Switzerland 

• Do' *. Russia 

Do]. Tunis, Africa 

Not admitting of comparison. 

Lasters Massachusetts . . . 

M'Kay machine men do 

Beating-out machines do 

Trimmers do 

Setting edges. do 

Heelers. do 

Lastmaker 3d grade do 

Riveters 1st . .do England 

Do 2d ..do do j 

Do 3d ..do do \ 

Do 4th.. do do ! 

Overlookers 1st . .do do I 

rr^Do 2d . .do do | 

Riveters Scotland ' 

Shoemakers, (with board,) 1st grade Germany 

I)o do 2d ..do do 

Do do 3d ..do do 

Do do 4th.. do do ! 

34 Statistic*. 



18 17 

545 

18 00 

15 00 

15 00 

12 00 

11 00 

9 00 

9 53 

8 57 

6 94 

627 

4 91 

6 75 

6 08 

4 79 

360 

2 43 
4 28 

3 38 
8 10 
6 75 



6 41 
10 13 
6 75 
6 75 
5 06 
10 80 
250 



16 00 
25 00 

19 00 

20 00 
20 00 
20 00 
16 00 

9 53 
8 17 

5 45 
3 36 

10 89 
8 17 

6 81 
2 43 
1 62 
1 22 

92 



I 

a. 



9 



$7 26 

4 84 
16 00 
13 33 
18 33 
10 67 

9 78 
8 00 
8 47 
7 62 
6 17 

5 57 
4 36 

6 00 
640 
426 
3 20 

2 16 
380 

3 00 

7 20 
6 00 



38 
60 
00 
8.3 
34 

1 71 

5 70 
9 00 

6 00 
6 00 
4 50 
9 60 

2 22 



14 22 
22 22. 

16 89 

17 78 
17 78 
17 78 
14 22 

8 47 
7 26 
4 84 
2 90 
968 
7 26 
6 05 
2 16 
1 44 
1 08 





530 COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGE?. 

RATKS OF WAGES— Cimtiiiui ri. 






OOOVPATIOMfl ash Qoxmiaaa. 


AV'OE WKKKI.Y 
WAftES. 


Ell 

ft 


g 

a 

a. 

s. 
i 

z 


m.i u !.] ir^. . {yr\lb board added,).. 1st gfado Mnssaehusett.-.. 


NO 77 

'.I IMI 

!• 00 
B BO 

(I 7i ii 
12 1"' 

9 00 

S 7ii 

1 80 
is 00 

IS ss 

d ;- 

19 23 

12 i"i 

g n 

15 (R) 

b as 

- i.T 
7 OJ 

:n n 

J", INI 

11 30 

ii 80 

10 86 
7 t6 

iu :tt> 
7 Lfl 
S 07 

5 77 

is oo 

IS 00 

12 00 

in s:» 
■i 01 

1 Ml 

6 87 

- Lfi 

7 50 

n ini 


*i« 4<i. 
B 24 
7 »* 

r. js 

s l.,l 

7 :> 
oo 

S <M> 

7 ::• 

I! IKI 

H INt 

7 7'. 

i 32 

E 7,. 

s» oo 

17 00 
in 07 
- 64 

].', 88 
,_. ... 

IS oo 

: i ■' 
7 17 

,; :,. 

;io n 

14 a* 

Ml 111 

HI ill 

e si 

A a.; 

!' 21 
7 17 

It QO 

9 an 

j oo 

4 82 

1 77 




















( :ir|)cnteni iBt. .do . .MnsBjii'liiiKi its.. 








Sol admitting of ooraparteon. 


























Box M"i 

i':iim-\- and pm t boxes. 










M. i — . t. -1 ■ : i '•• ' 


Women ud girls 1st gnult- 





comparative bates of wages. 

RATES OF WAGES— Continued. 



631 



OCCUPATIONS AND COUNTRIES. 



AV'OB WEEKLY 
WAGES. 




Boxmaking — Continued. 

Women and girls 3d grade Massachusetts ... to 00 

Do Germany 3 24 

Rrmhwaliinq. 

Pan hands females 1st grade Massachusetts.. . . 8 00 

Do 2d.. do do 7 00 

Do 3d . .do do fl 00 

Do : England 8 17 

Borers. 1st.. do Massachusetts... . 19 00 

Do 2d . .do do • 18 00 

Do 3d . . do do • 15 00 

Do 4th. .do do 14 00 

Do England 8 Hi 

Combers 1st . .do Massachusetts.. . . 18 00 

Do 2d . .do do 16 00 

Do 3d.. do do ■ IS 00 

Do 1st . .do England ' 9 53 

Do 2d . .do do 6 81 

Paint brush makers Massachusetts.. . . 20 00 

Do do 1st. .do England 12 25 

Do do 2d . .do do ' 10 89 

Finishers : 1st . .do Massachusetts.. . . 20 00 

Do ! 2d . . do do ! 18 00 

Do England ! 7 63 

Boys, Massachusetts ... 5 00 

Do England ■ 1 22 

Not admitting of comparison. 

Drawers females 1st grade Massachusetts....! 7 00 

Do do 2d . .do do 6 00 

Do do 3d ..do do ! 5 00 

Do do 4th. .do do : 4 00 

Nailers 1st . .do do ; 18 00 

Do 2d . .do do 17 00 

Painters do 20 00 

Girls * . .1st. .do England i 1 90 

Do ' 2d.. do do \ 1 09 

Apprentices do ; 2 45 

Women 1st . .do do ; 4 91 

Do 2d.. do do I 2 45 

Bleaching, dyeing and printing. 
Bleaching, singeing, Ac- 
Overseer Massachusetts 

Do 1st grade England 

Do 2d.. do do... 

Laborers Massachusetts 

Do 1st grade England 

Do 2d . .do do 

Boys and girls, (13 to 18,) Massachusetts. 

Do do 1st grade Knglawl 

Do do 2d . .do do 



1 
...i 18 00 


...' 9 53 


...' 8 17 


... ft 00 


...i 5 72 


...! 4 35 


...1 3 72 


...I 2 17 







Color mixing- 
Overseer Massachusetts. . . I 

Do 1st grade England I 

Do!! 2d ..do do I 

Do 3d ..do do j 



21 00 
16 34 
12 25 

10 89 



M 44 

2 88 



7 11 

6 22 

5 33 

7 26 
16 89 
16 00 

13 33 

12 44 

7 26 

16 00 

14 22 

13 33 

8 47 

6 05 

17 78 
10 89 

9 68 
17 78 
16 00 

6 78 
4 44 
1 08 



6 22 

5 33 

4 44 

356 

16 00 
15 11 

17 78 

1 69 
97 

2 18 
4 36 
2 18 



16 00 
8 47 

7 26 

8 00 
5 08 
3 87 
3 31 
1 93 
1 33 



18 67 

14 52 

10 89 

968 



532 



COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES, 

RATES OF WA«ES- Continved. 



OC< L'PATIOriS \Nl> CODirTBXEB. 



iV'OB WKKI [.I 
WAQKS. 



J3UneJnny, djftMlQ QHd printing — Continued. 
Men Massachusetts. 

Do England 

Boys, (13lo IS,) Massachusetts. 

Do 1st grade England 

Do 2.1 ,.d« .do 



5? 



*» oo 
.-. a 

3 80 

a 7-j 



Ma.'liin.' printing — v 

Overseer.. Ma*-ii<-husetts... 3fi oo 

Do... England 14 !»7 

Printers Massachusetts ... 24 00 

D« 1st Kruile England 13 ftl 

Do 7.. 2d. .do do 12 79 

)>■■ 3d ..do do 8 Jii 

!'• "I. -t '.-liters Massachusetts . . . 7 98 

Do England 4 U 

Boys, (13 to 18.) Massachusetts... 8 72 

I 1 " 1st grade England 2 17 

Do 2d. .do, do.... 1 

Dyeing and >t earning— 

Overseer Mav-i.lmsetis... 2100 

Do - . ...England, 8 16 

Do Bd do do 

Men Massachusetts 9 00 

D<» England t U 

Boys and girls, (13 to 18, J . Maaaaohusetta.... 8 73 

Do 1st grade England 

fed .mi. . . .Too a it 

Dyeing, leaping, cleaning— 

Mn-Nnrhiisetta... 21 mi 

grade England ifl 

Do 2d.. .da do 

Dyers Massachusetts... DM 

1st grade , ..England e 7S 

Do ,..8d. ,do .Tdo 

Do 3d .do do ,. Ada 

Do 4th. .do on ! :•.": 

.1-t. do Germany I TJ 

3d ,.db do 4 05 

3d .do to I 4i 

4th. .dd do 

Finishing, Slaking up itnd Pncki.m. 

Overseers .MaaaaohOBOtte 1800 

Man da 15 oo 

l«t grade England 5 72 

Do 2.1. .do do.. 4 8I> 

Women Massachusetts . . 4 *> 

Do 1st grade England 3 53 

Do .2d, do do... 2 81 

Boya and Kirls Massachusetts 3 72 

DO -W grade Em-land ...... 2 44 

I*-- - 1 da do l as 



$8 00 

4 SB 
2 12 



33 'H' 
13 31 

21 33 

11 37 

7 Oft 

3 31 

1 ■.-., 
1 21 



Ovai 



Rfjiaira. 



. Massachusetts . . . 28 50 25 33 



COMPARATIVE RATE OP WAGES. 
. RATE OF WAGES— Continued. 



583 



OCCUPATIONS AND COUNTRIES. 



iAV'QE WEEKLY 
WAGES. 



31 


I 


pi 




" a £ 


a 


: £G 


| 




a. 



Repair s— Continued. 

Overseers England 

Machinists. , Massachusetts . . . 

Do 1st grade England 

Do 2d ..do do 

Carpenters Massachusetts . . . 

Do . . .» 1st grade England 

Do 2d.. do do 

Engine tenders. Massachusetts . . . 

Do do England 

Watchmen Massachusetts . . . 

Do England 

Carters Massachusetts . . . 

Do 1st grade England 

D 2d.. do do 

Clerks (in office ) Massachusetts . . . 

Do do England 

Do do do 

Designers. Massachusetts . . . 

Do 1st grade England 

Do 2d . .do. do 

Engravers Massachusetts . . . 

Do 1st grade England 

Do 2d . .do do 

Not admitting of comparison. 

Woman (above 18) do 

Do do .- do 



I 



Building Trades— Masons. 

Masons. Massachusetts . . . 

Do , 1st grade England 

Do -. 2d ..do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 4th ..do do 

Do 1st . .do Scotland 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do Ireland 

Do stone Germany •>. 

Do.. s 1st grade do 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d . .do do 

Do 4th. .do do 

Do 5th. .do do 

Do 1st. .do. ...... .Prussia 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d . .do do 

Do 1st . . do France 

Do 2d . . do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 1st.. do Italy 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 1st . .do Switzerland 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do Russia 

Do Austria 

Do Denmark 

Do Tunis, Africa 



> ;.: 01 


|12 10 


16 60 


14 67 


8 70 


7 74 


.-! 17 


7 26 


1.-, m 


13 33 


8 70 


7 74 


5 16 


4 59 


i:i -u 


12 00 


6 45 


4 84 


13 50 


12 00 


5 72 


5 OS 


12 00 


10 67 


5 45 


4 84 


4 vi 


4 35 


12 00 


10 67 


10 07 


8 95 


8 17 


7 26 


30 00 


M 67 


16 34 


14 62 


10 89 


9 68 


24 00 


21 33 


13 01 


12 10, 


8 17 


7 26 


2 58 


2 29 


2 44 


. 2 17 


24 00 


21 33 


10 17 


9 04 


9 53 


8 47 


8 85 


7 87 


8 17 


7 26 


9 53 


8 47 


8 58 


7 63 


7 90 


' 7 02 


7 63 


6 78 


13 84 


12 30 


9 42 


887 


8 10 


7 20 


7 02 


6 24 


5 64 


5 01 


4 86 


4 82 


4 50 


4 00 


4 10 


364 


3 69 


328 


7 43 


660 


5 91 


525 


5 13 


466 


3 21 


285 


2 63 


234 


6 75 


600 


5 40 


4 80 


10 80 


9 60 


6 75 


6 00 


5 40 


480 


4 05 


8 60 



5M 



COMPARATIVE RATE OF WAGES. 
RATE OK WAUKN— Continued. 





<■■ | ■1T.1TWVS AM- CiH- NT RIBS. 


AV'CK WHEKr.Y 
WA.UBM. 




Standard U. 8. 
paper dollar 


= 

3. 
-- 


I'-i irkJayors. 
Ihl 


/incA/aj/era. 


do . 


m 0f> 

10 17 
80 

:> as 

H 99 

5 72 

.". iM 
4 11 

3 71 

11 23 

g (m. 
a -.'I 

a i'' 
a 10 

."> 77. 

« 08 

.1 70 

.", -10 

:; :ik 
l.i B0 
.; os 
2 70 
i 05 

24 no 
1(1 17 

m ic 

7 08 

l! 87 

8 10 
7 JI 
61 

6 M 
» 80 

7 00 
64 

'.< :■! 

8 91 

7 80 

b a 

E M 

:i 71 
17 01 
19 16 

11 25 

II in 
li 1!< 
4.". 
B 7. - . 
li 11 

4 I).". 

8 10 
ll 7f. 



*2l 33 
9 04 
8 71 


Do 


3d . do, . 


do 








7 H 


Do 


lHt. .do. . . 


7 9f 




do 


5 08 


"<> 








do... 




JW, 






10 00 








S INI 






,.do 


7 93 


Do 




.. do 


B 4< 


D-. 


Bd . do. 


do 






Switzerland ..... 

do 


7 20 

i: on 


Do 


2d ..do.., 


r, -to 


Do 




tt Oil 


Mo 




4 80 






do 


:! QO 








fti 


• n<> . . . . 


-'■! ..*>,., 




:. -in 


Do 




S M 




riuntr, ,,-.■. 




2] n 








U III 








7 OS 


Do 


4th. .tte... 


..I,. 


« 20 


Do 








Do 


-.1 ..do... 




6 41 




do 


5 81 








a 7; 


])o 




a 7^ 




do 




1'., 






1 1.1 




7 08 






do 


49 
70 

i i- 








I».. 


do 

do 








i.i BO 

III IM 





-1 1 1 1 . . L. ■ . 


do 


.'> :<•> 








"• In 




-'1 . <i<> 


..do 

,i., 


•! DO 






,.do ,,.., 




Do 


. , .Swit/i'iliinii 


6 00 






E M 



COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES. 
RATES OF WAGES— CoKTunmn. 



535 



I AV'OE WEEKLY 
i WAGES. 



OCCUPATIONS AND COUNTRIES. 



GO ' 


CO 


S-gg 


S 


Sp?*' 


3 


iq>i so 


* 


tc *i 


•~i 


: a. 0, : 


a, 


: od 


3 






• £ CO 


a 


• 1 • 





Plasterers — Continued. 

Plasterers 2d grade Italy 

Do .Austria 

Do Denmark ; 

Do Russia 

Do Tunis, Africa ' 

Laborers. 
Laborers 1st grade Massachusetts.. 

Do 2d.. do do 

Do 1st. .do England i 

Do '. 2d.. do do ! 

Do 3d.. do do.. ■ 

Do 4th. .do do 

Do 5th. .do do 

Do 1st. .do Scotland 

Do 2d.. do do 

Do 1st . . do Germany 

Do 2d . .do do 

Hodmen 1st . . do do 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 3d.. do do 

Do Prussia 

Laborers 1st. .do Ireland 

Do 2d.. do do 

Do 3d.. do do 

Do 1st. .do France 

Do 2d.. do do 

Do Prussia 

Do Denmark 

Do Ital v 

Do Tunis, Africa 



*3 85 
6 75 
5 40 

10 80 
3 38 



14 00 
13 50 
667 , 
6 02 
5 42 ! 
4 77 : 

4 08 : 

5 49 I 
4 62 
342 ' 

3 24 . 
8 10 

6 75 . 

4 39 
6 48 
4 91 | 
3 24 
2 45 I 
2 84 . 



Carpenters. 
Carpenters 1st grade Massachusetts.. . . 18 00 



Do 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



.2d ..do do 15 00 

.1st. .do England 10 17 



2d . .do do 9 45 

3d.. do do 8 53 

4th..do do 7 39 

5th.. do do 7 08 

Do. 1st. .do Scotland 7 63 

Do 2d.. do do 6 94 

Do 3d.. do do fi 54 

Do 1st . .do Ireland 8 99 

Do 2d ..do do 7 08 

Do 3d.. do do 4 91 

Do 1st. .do German}' 9 25 

Do 2d ..do do 8 51 

Do 3d . .do do 7 13 

Do 4th..do do 6 08 

Do 5th..do do 5 10 

Do. 0th..do do 4 15 

Do (contract) Prussia 11 25 

Do do do 9 00 

Do 1st grade do 7 29 

Do 2d ..do do 19 

Do 3d ..do do 4 50 



13 42 
600 
4 80 
9 60 
800 



12 44 
12 00 



93 
35 
82 
24 
63 
88 
11 
04 
88 
20 
6 00 

3 90 
5 76 

4 36 
2 88 
2 18 

2 52 
1 20 

3 60 
3 60 

1 80 

2 40 



16 00 
13 33 
9 04 
8 40 
7 58 
6 57 
6 29 
6 78 

6 17 

5 81 

7 99 

6 29 

4 36 

8 22 

7 56 
6 34 

5 40 

4 53 

3 69 
10 00 

8 00 

6 48 

5 50 

4 00 



536 


COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES. 

RATES OF ■\VAi.KS-r..XTiNCKD. 








i 

V 

OCCUPATION'S AND COUNTRIES. 


av'oe wxaKx.i 

WAGES. 


Pi 

a? 
S? 3 


I 

i 

1 

s 

«S R4 

a 38 

12 00 
8 40 
7 'JO 

6 00 
4 56 
:: 80 

7 30 

6 00 

4 60 

8 INI 

9 88 

8 80 

7 -ii 

1 BO 

H 39 

.; 33 

8 71 
7 90 
7 38 
.; 81 
7 38 
.; 78 

-i 88 
18 80 

B 77 
7 -Jn 
fi 00 

If 11 

li 86 

13 i") 

6 71 
B 96 

7 67 
6 78 
.-, B7 
« 67 
li 17 
:■ H 
« 53 
6 05 

III Ml 

t> 42 
s IQ 

i; i»- 




Carpenters— Continued. 


ti in 

3 fi9 
]:; :-i 
9 45 
8 10 

7'. 

.-, u 

1 06 

8 10 

fi r;. 
a 74 
5 40 

li 78 
B BO 

10 80 
8 10 
fi 111 

i 08 

16 00 

7 00 
79 

8 17 

7 44 

8 17 

7 61 

82 

i 98 

is DQ 

8 17 

7 62 

S I.. 

i; 7.'. 

17 00 
16 50 

u so 

9 79 
41 

8 63 
7 OS 

<: 27 
7 M 

a m 

in a 

7 35 

I'. Ml 

U 1". 
10 60 

9 45 
7 29 














IK. 














Do 

Do 

Do 

I'M 

Do 










2d . .d.0 do 




Do 


















Plvmbart, 


DO 












Do 

IX. 

Is. 








'era. 













Do 




Do 

1 1. 


1 (era. 


Do 




Do 




















Do 


















Do 








Do 









CQMP AX. ATI VE KATES OF WAGES. 
RATES OP WAGES— Continued. 



MT 





i -OCCUPATIONS AMD COUNTRIES 


i. 


AV'QE WEEKLY 

WAGES. 


- 


Standard U. 8. 
paper dollar 
of 1872 


I 

g 

I 




I'uinters— Continued. 


16 08 

4 78 
3 71 

11 25 
9 00 
6 19 

5 67 

6 75 
6 08 

5 06 

3 85 

6 75 
395 

2 63 
6 75 

5 40 
10 13 

10 80 

6 40 

5 06 

16 50 

7 44 

6 75 

4 73 
4 05 

27 00 

21 00 

18 00 

6 81 

6 54 

8 10 

4 86 

23 08 
15 38 

11 54 

8 10 

5 54 
4 05 

3 24 

10 50 
15 00 

14 44 

12 25 
10 35 

9 80 
8 99 

7 66 


*5 40 


Do 




4 20 




. do 


3 30 


Do 






10 00 


Do 






8 00 


Do 


1st.. do 


do 

do 


5 50 
5 04 


Do 


1st.. do 

2d. .do 


6 00 


Do.....".. 


do 

do 

do 


5 40 

4 50 






3 42 






do 

do 


00 




2d.. do 


3 51 


Do 


3d.. do 


2 34 


Do 

Do 


2d. .do 


600 
4 80 




.Austria 

.Tunis, Africa 

. Massachusetts . . . 
do 


9 00 






9 60 


Do 




4 80 






4 50 




Glaziers. 


14 66 




• 


6 61 


Do 

Do 


2d ..do 


6 00 

4 20 


Do 




do 


8 60 


Gas fitters.. 


Qas Fitterg. 


.Massachusetts. . . 

do 

do 

.Scotland 

do 


24 00 






18 66 






16 00 






6 05 




2d.. do 


5 81 






7 20 


. Do 


2d. .do 

Paper Hangers. 


4 32 


Paper hang 


. Massachusetts . . . 
do 


20 52 
18 67 


'Do 


do 


10 26 








7 20 


Do 


2d.. do 


4 92 






do 


8 50 


Do 


.. ....4th.. do 


do 


2 88 


Roofers— (Not admitting of coin pen 


ison.) 

.Massachusetts.. 
do 


17 33 


Boilers and Agricultural Maehin 


13 33 


. .Massachusetts . . . 


12 83 






10 89 




2d.. do 


9 20 








8 71 


Do 




do 


7 99 






6 72 



53S COMPARATIVE RATE OF WAC 
RATKS OF WAGES— Continued. 


oamtAxiam im wawm. 


a.voe wkeklv 
wages. 


m 
: 5* 


m 

I 

I 
a. 
a 

3. 

1 
1 


liailer.t ami Ar/rietdiurnl Machine* — t.'imiiuueil. 


a 44 


is H 

7 H0 






5 7S 5 OS 

11 34 1 

8 10 ' 7 30 
IS 00 Hi 00 
14 40 12 80 
U 43 M 1" 

844 

7 IS 

(5 53 . 6 80 

: Qa an 
















Do 4tl>. ri<> do 






5 M 

U ]:, 
84 


a as 

IU 80 

75 








in Ml 30 




5 45 
00 

12« 

10 38 

a h 

7 27 

« 28 

HI 20 

10 50 

10 Ml 
s ;i 
7 U 

6 48 

7 JO 
:: r,n 
4 Mi 

^ u 

31 N 
10 50 
18 00 
U N 

10 80 

7 Sfi 

12 SB 

8 17 

a 7.-, 

4 fl.i 

IU 

13 IS 

a m 

7 29 
ll 48 

4 m 
ii is 

it 01 

8 74 
8 :,7 

10 13 

7 M 


4 84 
7 PS 

11 08 
g 38 

6 40 

B 7.1 
14 40 

14 IH 

9 30 

7 71 

Q 48 

5 7fli 

6 40 

.! 20 

•J 1(. 

15 IV. 

17 as 

la uo 

U 00 

00 

in 851 

7 28 

a oo 

4 lo 

8 80 

10 - . 

7 M 
6 4-i 

s ra 

4 83 

(3 00 

5 34 
B ::j 
2 24 

8 IN) 

4 HO 


Do do 4th. .do dn 






























































4 05 a an 









COMPARATIVE RATB9 OP WAGBS. 

RATES OP WAGES.— Cowtwobd. 



539 



AV'OB WEEKLY 
WAOBS. 



OCCUPATIONS AND C0CKTBIB8. 



CD 


GO 


tanda 
paper 
of 187 


S 

a 
a. 

SO 


i to 3 


■3 

a. 


1 : 2.C 


? 


• 2oo 


a 



Machinists. 1st grade. . ., . .Sicily, Italy i 

Do 2d . .do do ! 

Do Austria j 

Do • ... .Tunis, Africa j 

Do 1st grade Russia | 

.Do 2d . .do do i 

Iron moulders Massachusetts . . . | 

Do 1st grade England 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d . .do do I 

Do 4th. .do do...: ' 

Do (contract,) Germany 

Do i 1st grade do i 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 3d . .do do ! " 

Do Prussia 

Do Austria i 

Painters .». Massachusetts. . . 

Do 1st grade England ; 

Do. 2d . .do do I 

Patternmakers 1st . .do Massachusetts . . . ] 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do 3d . .do. 



.2d ..do do 

.1st.. do England. 

.2d ..do do 



do.. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do 2d ..do. 



.1st.. do Scotland. 

.2d ..do do... 

.1st.. do Prussia.. 



.do 



Not admitting of comparison. 

Agricultural machinery, overseers Massachusetts . . . 

Mining machinery : do 

Chippers do 

Filers do i 

Engine fitters 1st grade England 

Do 2d... do .• do , 

Do 3d... do do I 

Do .* 4th. .do do ! 

Do 5th. .do do 

Do 1st . .do Scotland 

Do 2d ..do do i 

Do 1st . .do Prussia 

Do 2d ..do do i 

Laborers 1st . .do do 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do ., 3d ..do !do ' 

Do .' 1st ..do Scotland 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do Prussia..: 

Planners England 

Hammermen 1st grade do 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do Scotland 

Do Austria ' 

Blveters England 

Do Prussia 

Moulders. England 



$8 10 


17 20 


4 OS 1 


360 


3 12 


277 


5 06 ! 


450 


13 SO | 


12 00 


11 81 ; 


10 50 


14 40 


12 80 


9 79 | 


8 70 


8 71 


7 74 


762 


6 77 


7 08 i 


629 


7 20 i 


640 


6 75 ; 


600 


4 73 1 


4 20 


3 60 i 


8 20 


9 72 1 


864 


1 07 j 


95 


12 00 ! 


10 67 


599 i 


532 


4 89 ! 


4S5 


15 00 | 


13 83 


13 50 ! 


12 00 


10 07 ! 


8 95 


9 53 1 


8 47 


7 62 ! 


6 77 


8 17 i 


7 26 


7 08 


629 


8 10 I 


7 20 


4 86 i 


4 32 


j 
18 00 


16 00 


18 00 


16 00 


9 00 


7 98 


9 00 . 


7 98 


10 89 


968 


9 26 


8 23 


8 71 i 


7 74 


6 81 1 


6 05 


6 53 1 


5 80 


7 35 | 


6 53 


6 53 i 


5 80 


7 29 i 


048 


6 48 : 


5 76 


4 91 : 


4 36 


3 95 ! 


3 51 


3 26 


290 


4 35 


3 87 


4 08 


3 63 


4 86 . 


4 32 


8 17 


726 


4 89 


4 35" 


3 81 . 


8 39 


4 62 


4 11 


1 03 


93 


9 26 , 


8 23 


10 53 . 


936 


9 26 : 


823 



- 

540 COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES. 

RATES OF WAtiKS-OojiTlKCED. 


OCCUPATIONS AND COUNTRIES. 


AV'OK WCEELY 
WAGES. 


00 

Kgf 

51 & 

■ a 


m 

— 
- 


K making. 


«20 00 
10 00 

in as 

8 17 
7 62 

81 

12 00 
7 36 

12 00 
7 08 

ii 00 

1 so 

4 OS 

2100 

7 M 

IS IH) 

'". -1 
12 1)0 

81 
U GO 

12 1MI 

7 OS 
15 00 

rt 06 
24 00 

8 17 


8 89 

9 68 

7 2* 
G 7-7 
05 

10 87 

In 87 

8 20 

9 78 

i w 

21 88 

ii 88 

8 M 

11 11 

in f.7 

ii r.i 
13 88 

S 82 
21 88 

7 2ft 








<:/'■ ,/.*. 














Da 2d... do do 
















Not admitted of comparison. • 


8 71 
7 48 
» 11 
» 24 
7 08 

7 08 

s a 
a 81 

il (17 
5 99 
5 i.i 
81 
5 9fl 

X 01 

1 

19 50 
18 00 
16 00 
i.-, m 

14 (XI 

l.: SB 

a ui 

8 44 

i a 


7 71 

a ra 

288 
6 89 

6 29 

4 65 

8 115 

5 N 

.-> sa 

4 84 
H 

:. %■• 

7 ]:; 

it as 

16 00 

14 23 
19 S3 

15 4+ 

in sa 

8 22 
7 SO 
4 84 




























Cobinetmnkiiig ran! I'/iltuUirry. 



















COMPARATIVE RATE OP WAGES. 
RATKS'OF WAGE*-CoNTlNirED. 



641 



AV'OE WEEKLY 
! WAGES. 



OCCUPATIONS AND COUNTRIES. 



33 

si* 

• 5*00 



Cabinetmaking and Upholstery— Continued. j 

Cabinetmaking 1st. .do Ireland I 

Do 2d ..do do ! 

Do 3d ..do do ] 

Do 1st. .do Germany 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d.. do do I 

Do 4th.. do do ; 

Do 1st.. do Prussia i 

Do 2d.. do do | 

Do 3d ..do do ! 

Do 4th.. do do 

Do 1st . . do Austria 

Do 2d ..do do ! 

Do 1st . .do France 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d ..do do j 

Do 1st. .do Switzerland 

Do 2d. .do do 

Do 3d.. do do j 

Do 1st.. do... .'....Italy | 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 1st.. do Russia 

Do 2d : do do ! 

„Do % Denmark > 

Upholsters 1st . .do Massachusetts 

Do 2d ..do do I 

Do 1st . . do England I 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 1st . .do Germany ........ 

Do 2d . .do do 

French polishers or finishers. 1st . .do Massachusetts . . . 

Do 2d.. do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 4th. .do do 

Do 5th. .do do . 

Do 1st.. do: England 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do : 3d ..do do 

Painters Massachusetts . . . 

Do England ' 

Gilders Massachusetts . . . ! 

Do 1st grade England ' 

Do 2d.. do do ' 

Do 3d.. do do | 

Upholstery sewers, female 1st . .do Massachusetts 

Do do 2d.. do do : 

Do do 3d.. do ..do 

Do do 1st . .do Bngland 

Do do 2d . .do do 

Carvers. 1st . .do Massachusetts . . . 

Do 2d.. do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 1st . . do England 

Do 2d. .do do. . .. 

Decorators ■ Massachusetts... 

Do England 



$8 17 

7 08 
6 54 
5 67 
4 86 

4 05 

3 24 

12 15 
9 72 

5 67 

4 05 

13 50 

6 75 
6 76 

5 40 

2 70 

6 75 
6 74 

5 40 

6 08 

3 38 

8 78 

8 44 
5 74 

18 00 
15 00 

13 61 

9 26 
8 17, 

8 10 

5 40 

14 00 
13 80 

13 00 

12 00 
11 00 

9 26 

8 17 

7 62 ' 

14 50 

9 45 

19 50 
953 

8 71 
8 17 
7 50 ' 

7 00 

6 00 ' 
3 80 ' 
3 26 : 

19 00 
18 00 
17 00 

13 61 

8 17 
25 00 
10 34 



DC 

c* 

to 
3 

a. 

a 

a 

1 



17 26 
6 29 
5 81 



04 
32 
60 
88 



10 80 
864 

5 04 
360 

12 00 

6 00 
6 00 

4 80 

2 40 

6 00 

5 10 

4 80 
540 

3 00 

7 80 

7 50 

5 10 

16 00 

13 33 
12 10 

8 23 
7 26 
7 20 

4 80 
12 44 
Li 27 
1156 
10 67 

9 78 
823 

7 26 

6 77 
12 89 

8 40 

17 33 

8 47 

7 74 
7 26 
6 67 

6 22 

5 33 
338 
390 

16 89 
16 00 
15 11 
12 10 

7 26 
22 22 

9 19 



542 



lOMl'.WJATlYE RATE OF WJjfcBS. 

RATES OS W \i;F>— "'hMIM'KD. 



AV'.iE uKKKLV 
WAUKs. 



Of.'L'l'I'ATIOXS AMi L'OUN'TfilES. 



Cab ■ y—* 'ootiuued. 

Tumors. ...... Maawohnsetta.. 

Isi .irrjide England 

Do 3d . .do >*«> 

m inkers Massachusetts.,. 

. .M grade England 

Do.. M 'I" do 

Sol admitting of *>onspars;.,n. 
Millim-n Massachusetts.. 

• England 

Bodymakera ' >i. aaohuaetts . , 

Do 1st grade England 

Do 3d .40, .. ,, .. .do 

Do Germany . 

i arrlagemakere I Masaaohuaetta . 

Do ■ . . 2d , (to 

Do . , .do 

Do Itt. .do England 

Do 2d . .do Mo 

Do . 8d 'i" do 

1st. do Germs d j 

Do -M . ..l" 'I" .... 

era 1st grade MasMcha§etU ... 

2d do..., do 

i>n 1st., do England 

Do 2d ii" do 

I M Germany 

Blac-ksiniths , . . .Massaohoaetta ... 

Do 2d . do do 

Do :;i1 do do 

Do 1st. .dp..., .England 

Do 2d ■!■• do 

Do.. Germany 

Helpers.. M araachuaetta . . . 

I'd EJngland.. . . 

Tri 11 miers .1st . .do Ma«nachli>, 

Do 2d ..do .In 

Do ! .8d 'i" do 

I ■'• < il.TIII.'lll y 

Wheelwrights 1st., do .Bfaanehiw 

I»o 2d ..do do 

Do. 3d .do ili> 

DO 1st. .do England 

Do 2d ..dip do 

!><■ Mil ..i lii. ilo 

, 1«.. do .Ireland 

Do 2d., do do 

Do 3d.. do do 

DO 4 III. i In ilrn 

Do 1st., do Germany ........ 

IH> 2d..fi0 do 

Do 3d.. do do 

Do 1 st . .do Prussia 

1»|| 2d ..do. do 

Do 1 -t . do Franee 



Kg I 



117 00 

12 25 
B 17 

IS 00 

13 fil 

s 17 



1 1 00 

in ::i 



22 00 

HI S'l 

8 18 

22 (xi 

IS (Ml 

IS l.|l 
!l VII 

8 17 
7 N 
i M 
4 OS 
21 mi 

p M 

7 S3 

I M 

21 00 

is , HI 
15 IK! 

[0 98 

i a 

U (SI 





•JJ <M. 


ao <xi 






■zi 00 


21 IKI 


LS («i 


10 £9 ' 




7 flH 


7 A3 


7 us 


.; .,1 


i Bl 


S ,,i 


s OS 


1 II.-, 


S III 


48 


B ,,i 



IIS II 

III Si, 

7 28 
11 56 

IS 1" 



12 14 



IS 55 

(• 7S 

iii (Ml 

s 71 

7 2ft 

78 

1 82 

is 07 

Hi 00 
- 23 

8 7^ 

4 S3 

is 67 

Hi mi 

08 
7 28 

12 t4 

ID 55 

17 7% 
If. (M. 

18 06 

:• Bfi 
6 78 

h 78 

5 81 
i M 

3 60 

5 70 



COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAGES. 



648 



RATES OF WAGES— CONfllfUKD. 



AV'OB WKEKLV 



WAGES. 



OCCUPATIONS AND COUNTWES, 



"I 

2?E 



Coach, Carriage and Wagon Building— Continued. 

Wheelwrights 2d grade France 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 1st. .do Switzerland . . 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 1st . .do Russia 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do Austria 

Do Denmark 

Do .•;..; Italy 

Do Tunis, Africa. 

Not admitting of comparison. 

Pieccmen 1st grade England 

Do .-... 2d ..do...* do 

Do women 1st.. do do ..'. 

Do do Y.:'.: 2d . .do do 



Clothing. 

Overseers high grade Massachusetts . . . 

Do low . . .do do 

Do England 

Cutters 1st grade Massachusetts. .. 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Do 1st. .do England ' 

Do 2d ..do do I 

Do Scotland 

Do Germany | 

Pressors. .1st grade Massachusetts.. . 

Do 2d ..do do \ 

Do 3d ..do do J 

Do 4th. .do do 

Do 1st. .do England i 

Do 2d ..do do • 

Do 3d ..do do 

Rasters women 1st. .do Massachusetts. . .! 

Do do 2d ..do do ...j 

Do do 3d ..do do 

Do do 4th.. do do I 

Do do 1st . . do England 

Do do 2d ..do do ( 

Do do 3d.. do do 

Machine operatives, do-. . 1st class 1st . .do Massachusetts . . . . 

Do do do 2d ..do do ■ 

Do do — do 3d ..do do j 

Do do. .2d class 1st. .do do I 

Do do do 2d ..do do | 

Do do do 3d ..do do 

Do do 1st.. do England j 

Do do 2d ..do do 

Sewers or finishers, do 1st. .do Massachusetts ...'• 

Do do 2d ..do do j 

Do r.; .do 3d ..do do 

Do England 

Tailors 1st . .do Massachusetts 

Do 2d . .do do ! 



IS 37 
2 70 

6 75 
S 40 

5 06 

7 56 

6 75 
6 75 
5 74 
4 05 
4 05 



7 08 
6 54 
2 72 
2 IS 



40 00 

15 00 

11 44 

25 00 
22 00 
20 00 
10 35 

8 17 

6 41 

12 47 

26 00 
20 00 

16 00 

9 00 
8 17 

7 44 

4 77 
12 00 

00 

8 00 

6 00 
3 26 

2 59 

1 65 

17 00 
15 00 
14 00 
10 00 

9 00 
8 00 

3 84 

3 26 

7 00 

5 00 

4 00 
3 33 

35 00 
30 00 



X 

sr 

3 

o. 

B 

2. 
■8 



$4 95 
240 
6 00 
4 80 

4 50 
6 72 
6 00 
6 00 

5 10 
3 60 
3 60 



6 29 
5 81 
242 
1 94 



35 56 
13 33 

10 17 

22 22 
19 56 
17 78 

9 20 

7 2o 

5 70 

11 08 

23 11 
17 78 
15 33 

800 
726 

6 61 
4 24 

10 67 

8 00 

7 11 

6 S3 
2 90 

2 30 

1 47 
15 11 
13 33 

12 44 

8 89 
8 00 

7 11 

3 41 

2 90 
6 22 

4 44 

3 56 
2 96 

31 11 
26 67 



.•".14 


COMPARATIVE RATES OF WAKES. 
RATES OF WAGES— ContIKCSP. 






i •>< < ri'ATioris aud C0UHTBW8. 


.» ViiK WKEKI.T 
WAOB9. 




= 
— 
■ 

— 
c 




CiotMXjf— Continued* 


EH 00 

i.i 00 
l.i 35 
8 80 
8 17 
7 63 

6 54 

7 us 
li SI 

6 54 

8 91 
8 30 

7 29 
6 22 
B 1:5 

3 51 

t aa 

.", .17 
■1 art 

8 BS 
16 88 
10 13 

8 10 
li 7.". 
41 
:; S.-1 
]■> 18 

a 7.-, 

7.", 

6 40 

i OB 

.V ill 

4 05 

3 85 

10 13 

5 44 

4 05 

15 00 

u 00 

n 00 

H 00 

Uf INI 

18 00 
10 50 

■1 IHI 

8 17 

6 40 
4 '.« 

1 a 

B M 

3 80 

2 72 


817 7 s 
!1 SO 

«i 78 

"■ - 
,i -1 

5 81 

7 38 
.! 48 

1 M 
;i SS 

8 18 

B IB 

5 04 
.'i 7:' 

3 00 
15 0" 

9 00 

7 38 

B 7ii 
:: 42 
00 

8 08 
B 08 

4 80 
| 60 

p 00 

li> .".7 
33 

8 00 

7 88 

188' 

8 88 

242 


Do 




Do 




Do 


































i>< 








Do 










Do 

Do 














































Do 


















Do 


Not admitting «f oompRiiaoB. 






Qbrpetmakinff, 










Do 
















Do. 












Do 







COMPARATIVE BATES OF WAGES. 
RATES OF WAGES— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS AND COUNTRIES. 



545 



AV'OB WEEKLY 


WAGES. 


00 1 


a 


0, 3 S 


a 

a. 


■a 


• 2 00 


a. 



Carpetmaking. — Continued. 
Dyers. 3d grade England 

Do. Germany .... . 

, Beam cm females Massachusetts . . . 

Do male* 1st grade England 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 3d . .do do 

Do 4th. .do do 

Machinists 1st ..do Massachusetts ... 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 3d ..do do 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do, 



4th. .do do 

5th. .do do 

6th. .do do 

1st . .do England 

, .. . .2d . .do do 

•. 3d ..do do 

4th. .do do 

Patternmakers 1st. .do Massachusetts'. . . 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 8d ..do do 

Do 4th. .do do 

Do 5th.. do do 

Do England 

Do boys do 

Designers highest grade. .Massachusetts . . . 

Do lowest do do 

Do England 

Finishing 1st grade Massachusetts . . . 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 3d.. do do 

Do 4th. .do do 

Do 5th. .do do 

Do 6th. .do do 

Do females do 



Do men England 

Do women do 

Do girls do 

Do boys 1st grade do 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do 3d ..do do 

Card cleaners. Massachusetts. . . . 

Do men England 

Do woman do 

Do boys. do 

Do .girls. do 

Winders and reelers, females Massachusetts . . . 

Do/. do. 1st grade England 

Do do 2d ..do do 

Do. do 3d . .do do 

Do do 4th. .do do 

Do girls do 

Power-loom weavers, females Massachusetts . . . 

Do men 1st grade England 

Do do 2d . .do do 

Do do 3d ..do do 

Do do 1st. .do Germany 

Do do 2d . .do do 

35 Statistics. 



«1 63 


$1 45 


2 16 


1 92 


7 50 


6 67 


6 81 


605 


5 99 


5 32 


5 51 


4 90 


4 89 


4 35 


30 00 


26 67 


13 33 


11 85 


12 00 


10 67 


11 00 


977 


10 00 


8 88 


9 18 


8 16 


8 71 


7 74 


8 17 


7 26 


7 08 


6 29 


4 91 


4 36 


24 00 


21 33 


21 00 


18 67 


13 36 


U 87 


11 00 


977 


8 68 


7 72 


7 63 


6 78 


2 72 


2 42 


76 92 


68 40 


12 00 


10 67 


6 81 


6 05 


18 00 


16 00 


15 00 


13 33 


11 76 


10 45 


10 98 


9 76 


9 00 


800 


7 50 


667 


6 60 


5 86 


599 


632 


2 64 


2 35 


1 90 


1 69 


2 99 


2 66 


2 69 


2 30 


163 


1 45 


900 


800 


6 16 


4 59 


244 


a 17 


1 90 


1 69 


1 22 


1 08 


6 30 


560 


299 


266 


2 59 


230 


2 13 


189 


1 72 


1 53 


1 36 


1 21 


840 


7 46 


7 08 


629 


6 26 


5 56 


4 26 


3 79 


2 03 


1 80 


1 62 


144 



546 



COMPARATIVE HATES OP WAGES. 
RATES OF WA'"iKs- foNTiM-ED, 



OCCUPATIONS AM' rOUMTRIES. 



AV'UE WEEKLY 
WAflES. 



■8 



Carpet making— C'onti nued. 

Carding female* .Maawejhaaatta.... 

Do do 1st gmde England 

Do do 2d ..do do 

Spinning, do Mn^meliusottB.. .1 

Do do 1st, do England 

I»o do 2d ..do do 

Do do. M . .do do 

Carding and spinning, men Int. .do ,do 

Bo... do 2d ..do do 

Do do 3d. do do 

DO bora 1st. .do do 

Do do 2d ..do... do 

Ho do 3d ..do do 

Do -do... ..-Mi.. do do 

Do. , . , women , do, 

Do children do , 

Not admitting; of comparison, 

11: i n< i-t. .'.>n i weaver* 1st gmde England 

]Vi 2d ..do do 

Do 3d . .do do 

Do 4th. .do do 

Do 1st.. do Germany 

Do 'id ..do do ; 

Power-loom weavers, apprentices England 

Do sorters ,,do i 

Do washers 1st grade do 

Do do 2d . .do do 

overlookers 1st.. do do 

Do. 2d . .dt. do 

Engineers England I 

Turkish carpet'makers, 8ile*in, (Germany : 
Males 1st grade Germsiiv, 

Do 2d ..do do 

Females 1st. ,do do 

Do 2d . .do do 

Ctmefmaking. 
Forewoman MaHaaoliiiaeUs . 

Ihi England. . 

Hookers females Mnssachusett* . 

Do do England . . . 

Nil die handy do. MamaohnaetU . 

Do do. England . . . 

Do do 1st grade «iennan v . . . 

Do do 2d il<> do 

Embroiderers do MawwohuseUB . 

Do do , England . . . 

Boners do.'. Mtiswu-hiw.-its. 

Do do England . . 

BveletCTB do Massachusetts. 

Do boys and girls England 

Mil lime hands females Maaaaohusetts. 

Do do« .England . 

^CTS , M:c— " -IlllSftls, 

men England . .. 

flitters do Massachusetts , 



U ihi 

8 iS 

8 00 

1 90 
8 00 

2 18 

2 n:i 

i as 

8 00 

2 W> 

8 00 

a u 

8 00 

a ik 

!1 (M) 

:; M 

10 M 

in H 

18 00 






2 88 
1 00 
•J U 
1 OK 



COMPARATIVE HATES OF WAGES. 



647 



RATES OF WAGES— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS AND COUNTRIES. 



Coractma king— Con tinned. 

Cutters. men. England . . 

Do female*. 1st grade Germany . 

Do , do 2d . .do do 



Not admitting of comparison. 

Boxers. girls .'. England. 

Fitters females do . . . 



Cotton Manufactures— Carding. 
Overseer highest Massachusetts.. 

Do lowest do 

Do 1st. grade England 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do 3d . .do do 

Do 4th. .do do 

Do v 5th. .do do 

Do 6th. .do. do 

Do Germany 

Openers and pickers, men. 1st. .do Massachusetts.. 

Do do 2d . .do .do 

Do do 3d ...do do 

Boys 1st. .do. do 

Do J2d . .do do 

Pickers females England 

Strippers 1st. .do Massachusetts . 

Do 2d.. do do 

Do 3d . .do do 

Do 4th..do do 

Do. 1st.. do England 

Do 2d ..do do 

Do .3d ..do do 

Grinders 1st . . do .Massachusetts., 

Do 2d.. do .do 

Do..... .3d ..do do 

Do. . . .', 4 th „do do 

Do ..1st., do England 

Do. . . . '. 2d . .do do 

Do. 1st.. do. .......Germany 

Do. 2d ..do do 

Framen,lnclud'gstubbeT,intermediatean4flyer: 
Women. i, 1st grade Massachusetts. . 

Do 2d.. do do 

Do , 3d.. do do 

Do 4 th. .do do 

Boys and girls. 1st. .do do 

Do do 2d. .do do 

Do do ,3d . . do do 

Women. 1st. .do England 

Do. 2d.. do do 

Do 8d . .do do 

Do 4th. .do do 

Girls... do 



Spinning. 

Overseers 1st grade Massachusetts.. . . 

Do 2d . .do do 

Do : 1st.. do England 16 34 

Do 2d. .do do 



AV'QB weekly 


WAGES. 


X 


GO 


=."££ 


s 


38 p 
3i i 


2 


f'J. 


a 


'■ S.C 


3 




>— 


■ * X 


a 


_j n r 




tlO 80 


$9 68 


2 03 


1 80 


1 62 


1 44 


1 90 


1 69 


4 0* 


3 03 


30 00 


26 67 


18 00 


16 00 


13 61 


12 10 


12 25 


10 89 


9 53 


8 47 


8 17 


7 26 


7 62 


^6 77 


7 08 


6 29 


4 32 


3 84 


00 


8 00